1932

Abstract

The larval stages of click beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) species, several of which are serious agricultural pests, are called wireworms. Their cryptic subterranean habitat, resilience, among-species differences in ecology and biology, and broad host range, as well as the lack of objective economic injury thresholds, have rendered wireworms a challenging pest complex to control. Significant progress has been made in recent years, introducing a new effective class of insecticides and improving species identification and our understanding of species-specific phenology, chemical ecology (i.e., adult sex pheromones and larval olfactory cues), and abiotic and biotic factors influencing the efficacy of biological control agents. These new developments have created opportunities for further research into improving our risk assessment, monitoring, and integrated pest management capabilities.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-120220-123249
2024-01-25
2024-06-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ento/69/1/annurev-ento-120220-123249.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-120220-123249&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. 1.
    Acevedo JPM, Samuels RI, Machado IR, Dolinski C. 2007. Interactions between isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora JPM4 during infection of the sugar cane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). J. Invertebr. Pathol. 96:2187–92
    [Google Scholar]
  2. 2.
    Adhikari A, Reddy GV. 2017. Evaluation of trap crops for the management of wireworms in spring wheat in Montana. Arthropod-Plant Interact. 11:6755–66
    [Google Scholar]
  3. 3.
    Andrews KR, Gerritsen A, Rashed A, Crowder DW, Rondon SI et al. 2020. Wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) genomic analysis reveals putative cryptic species, population structure, and adaptation to pest control. Commun. Biol. 3:489
    [Google Scholar]
  4. 4.
    Andrews N, Ambrosino MD, Fisher GC, Rondon SI. 2008. Wireworm: biology and nonchemical management in potatoes in the Pacific Northwest PNW 607 OSU Ext., Or. State Univ. Corvallis:
    [Google Scholar]
  5. 5.
    Ansari MA, Evans M, Butt TM. 2009. Identification of pathogenic strains of entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi for wireworm control. Crop Prot. 28:3269–72
    [Google Scholar]
  6. 6.
    Ansari MA, Shah FA, Tirry L, Moens M. 2006. Field trials against Hoplia philanthus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) with a combination of an entomopathogenic nematode and the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae CLO 53. Biol. Control 39:3453–59
    [Google Scholar]
  7. 7.
    Antwi FB, Shrestha G, Reddy GV, Jaronski ST. 2018. Entomopathogens in conjunction with imidacloprid could be used to manage wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat. Can. Entomol. 150:1124–39
    [Google Scholar]
  8. 8.
    Arrington AE, Kennedy GG, Abney MR. 2016. Applying insecticides through drip irrigation to reduce wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) feeding damage in sweet potato. Pest Manag. Sci. 72:61133–40
    [Google Scholar]
  9. 9.
    Barberchek ME, Kaya HK. 1990. Interactions between Beauveria bassiana and the entomogenous nematodes, Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis heliothidis. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 55:2225–34
    [Google Scholar]
  10. 10.
    Barsics F, Delory BM, Delaplace P, Francis F, Fauconnier M-L et al. 2017. Foraging wireworms are attracted to root-produced volatile aldehydes. J. Pest Sci. 90:169–76
    [Google Scholar]
  11. 11.
    Benefer CM, van Herk WG, Ellis JS, Blackshaw RP, Vernon RS, Knight ME. 2013. The molecular identification and genetic diversity of economically important wireworm species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in Canada. J. Pest Sci. 86:119–27
    [Google Scholar]
  12. 12.
    Blackshaw RP, Vernon RS, Thiebaud F. 2018. Large scale Agriotes spp. click beetle (Coleoptera: Elateridae) invasion of crop land from field margin reservoirs. Agric. For. Entomol. 20:151–61
    [Google Scholar]
  13. 13.
    Booth S, Kurtz B, de Heer MI, Mooney SJ, Sturrock CJ. 2020. Tracking wireworm burrowing behaviour in soil over time using 3D X-ray computed tomography. Pest Manag. Sci. 76:82653–62
    [Google Scholar]
  14. 14.
    Botelho ABRZ, Alves-Pereira A, Colonhez Prado R, Zucchi MI, Delalibera Júnior I 2019. Metarhizium species in soil from Brazilian biomes: a study of diversity, distribution, and association with natural and agricultural environments. Fungal Ecol. 41:289–300
    [Google Scholar]
  15. 15.
    Brandl MA, Schumann M, Przyklenk M, Patel A, Vidal S. 2017. Wireworm damage reduction in potatoes with an attract-and-kill strategy using Metarhizium brunneum. J. Pest Sci. 90:479–93
    [Google Scholar]
  16. 16.
    Campos-Herrera R, Gutiérrez C. 2009. Screening Spanish isolates of steinernematid nematodes for use as biological control agents through laboratory and greenhouse microcosm studies. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 100:2100–5
    [Google Scholar]
  17. 17.
    Catton H, van Herk W, Saguez J, Svendsen E. 2021. Guide to pest wireworms in Canadian Prairie field crop production Rep., Agric. Agri-Food Can. Lethbridge, Alta:.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. 18.
    Chalfant RB, Seal DR 2019. Biology and management of wireworms on sweet potato. Sweet Potato Pest Management: A Global Perspective RK Jansson, KV Raman 303–26. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press
    [Google Scholar]
  19. 19.
    Cherry R, Stansly P. 2008. Abundance and spatial distribution of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in Florida sugarcane fields on muck versus sandy soils. Fla. Entomol. 91:3383–87
    [Google Scholar]
  20. 20.
    Cherry R, Taylor J, Sherrod D, Karounos M. 2017. Corn seed treatments for control of the corn wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Entomol. Sci. 52:2161–68
    [Google Scholar]
  21. 21.
    Cooper AM, Silver K, Zhang J, Park Y, Zhu KY. 2019. Molecular mechanisms influencing efficiency of RNA interference in insects. Pest Manag. Sci. 75:118–28
    [Google Scholar]
  22. 22.
    Danismazoglu M, Demir İ, Sevim A, Demirbag Z, Nalcacioglu R. 2012. An investigation on the bacterial flora of Agriotes lineatus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and pathogenicity of the flora members. Crop Prot. 40:1–7
    [Google Scholar]
  23. 23.
    Doane JF. 1961. Movement on the soil surface, of adult Ctenicera aeripennis destructor (Brown) and Hypolithus bicolor Esch. (Coleoptera: Elateridae), as indicated by funnel pitfall traps, with notes on captures of other arthropods. Can. Entomol. 93:8636–44
    [Google Scholar]
  24. 24.
    Doane JF. 1963. Dispersion on the soil surface of marked adult Ctenicera destructor and Hypolithus bicolor (Coleoptera: Elateridae), with notes on flight. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 56:3340–45
    [Google Scholar]
  25. 25.
    Drahun I, Wiebe KF, Gohl P, Koloski CW, Koiter AJ et al. 2022. Three years of surveillance associates agro-environmental factors with wireworm infestations in Manitoba, Canada. Pest Manag. Sci. 78:1369–78
    [Google Scholar]
  26. 26.
    Drahun I, Wiebe KF, Koloski CW, van Herk WG, Cassone BJ. 2021. Genetic structure and population demographics of Hypnoidus bicolor (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in the Canadian Prairies. Pest Manag. Sci. 77:52282–91
    [Google Scholar]
  27. 27.
    Eidt DC. 1953. European wireworms in Canada with particular reference to Nova Scotian infestations. Can. Entomol. 85:11408–14
    [Google Scholar]
  28. 28.
    Eidt DC, Thurston GS. 1995. Physical deterrents to infection by entomopathogenic nematodes in wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and other soil insects. Can. Entomol. 127:3423–29
    [Google Scholar]
  29. 29.
    Ensafi P, Crowder DW, Esser AD, Zhao Z, Marshall JM, Rashed A. 2018. Soil type mediates the effectiveness of biological control against Limonius californicus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 111:52053–58
    [Google Scholar]
  30. 30.
    Ericsson JD, Kabaluk JT, Goettel MS, Myers JH. 2007. Spinosad interacts synergistically with the insect pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae against the exotic wireworms Agriotes lineatus and Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 100:131–38
    [Google Scholar]
  31. 31.
    Esser AD, Milosavljević I, Crowder DW. 2015. Effects of neonicotinoids and crop rotation for managing wireworms in wheat crops. J. Econ. Entomol. 108:41786–94
    [Google Scholar]
  32. 32.
    Etzler FE. 2013. Identification of economic wireworms using traditional and molecular methods. PhD Thesis Coll. Agric., Mont. State Univ. Bozeman:
    [Google Scholar]
  33. 33.
    Etzler FE, Seibert CE. 2022. Checklist of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) of Montana, USA, with taxonomic notes. Coleopt. Bull. 76:3449–77
    [Google Scholar]
  34. 34.
    Etzler FE, Wanner KW, Morales-Rodriguez A, Ivie MA. 2014. DNA barcoding to improve the species-level management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 107:41476–85
    [Google Scholar]
  35. 35.
    Furlan L. 2014. IPM thresholds for Agriotes wireworm species in maize in Southern Europe. J. Pest Sci. 87:4609–17
    [Google Scholar]
  36. 36.
    Furlan L, Benvegnù I, Chiarini F, Loddo D, Morari F. 2020. Meadow-ploughing timing as an integrated pest management tactic to prevent soil-pest damage to maize. Eur. J. Agron. 112:125950
    [Google Scholar]
  37. 37.
    Furlan L, Bonetto C, Costa B, Finotto A, Lazzeri L. 2009. Observations on natural mortality factors in wireworm populations and evaluation of management options. IOBC-WPRS Bull. 45:436–39
    [Google Scholar]
  38. 38.
    Furlan L, Contiero B, Chiarini F, Benvegnù I, Tóth M. 2020. The use of click beetle pheromone traps to optimize the risk assessment of wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) maize damage. Sci. Rep. 10:8780
    [Google Scholar]
  39. 39.
    Gfeller A, Laloux M, Barsics F, Kati DE, Haubruge E et al. 2013. Characterization of volatile organic compounds emitted by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots and their attractiveness to wireworms. J. Chem. Ecol. 39:81129–39
    [Google Scholar]
  40. 40.
    Gries R, Alamsetti SK, van Herk WG, Catton HA, Meers S et al. 2021. Limoniic acid—major component of the sex pheromones of the click beetles Limonius canus and L. californicus. J. Chem. Ecol. 47:2123–33
    [Google Scholar]
  41. 41.
    Gries R, van Herk W, Alamsetti SK, Catton H, Meers S et al. 2022. (Z,E)-α-Farnesene—sex pheromone component of female click beetle Selatosomus aeripennis destructor with intra- and inter-sexual communication function. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 170:4344–51
    [Google Scholar]
  42. 42.
    Griffiths DC. 1974. Susceptibility of plants to attack by wireworms (Agriotes spp.). Ann. Appl. Biol. 78:17–13
    [Google Scholar]
  43. 43.
    Hansen JC, Schillinger WF, Sullivan TS, Paulitz TC. 2019. Soil microbial biomass and fungi reduced with canola introduced into long-term monoculture wheat rotations. Front. Microbiol. 10:1488
    [Google Scholar]
  44. 44.
    Henderson DR, Riga E, Ramirez RA, Wilson J, Snyder WE. 2009. Mustard biofumigation disrupts biological control by Steinernema spp. nematodes in the soil. Biol. Control 48:3316–22
    [Google Scholar]
  45. 45.
    Herbert DA Jr., Brandenburg RL, Day ER. 1992. Survey of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in Virginia and North Carolina peanut fields. Peanut Sci 19:298–100
    [Google Scholar]
  46. 46.
    Hermann A, Brunner N, Hann P, Wrbka T, Kromp B. 2013. Correlations between wireworm damages in potato fields and landscape structure at different scales. J. Pest Sci. 86:141–51
    [Google Scholar]
  47. 47.
    Higginbotham RW, Froese PS, Carter AH. 2014. Tolerance of wheat (Poales: Poaceae) seedlings to wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 107:2833–37
    [Google Scholar]
  48. 48.
    Humbert P, Vemmer M, Mävers F, Schumann M, Vidal S, Patel AV. 2018. Development of an attract-and-kill co-formulation containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and neem extract attractive towards wireworms. Pest Manag. Sci. 74:71575–85
    [Google Scholar]
  49. 49.
    Jabbour R, Crowder DW, Aultman EA, Snyder WE. 2011. Entomopathogen biodiversity increases host mortality. Biol. Control 59:2277–83
    [Google Scholar]
  50. 50.
    Jansson RK, Seal DR 1994. Biology and management of wireworm on potato. Advances in Potato Pest Biology and Management GW Zehnder, ML Powelson, RK Jansson, KV Raman 31–53. St. Paul, MN: Am. Phytopathol. Soc. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  51. 51.
    Johnson SN, Anderson EA, Dawson G, Griffiths DW. 2008. Varietal susceptibility of potatoes to wireworm herbivory. Agric. For. Entomol. 10:2167–74
    [Google Scholar]
  52. 52.
    Kabaluk JT, Lafontaine JP, Borden JH. 2015. An attract and kill tactic for click beetles based on Metarhizium brunneum and a new formulation of sex pheromone. J. Pest Sci. 88:4707–16
    [Google Scholar]
  53. 53.
    Kabaluk T. 2014. Targeting the click beetle Agriotes obscurus with entomopathogens as a concept for wireworm biocontrol. BioControl 59:5607–16
    [Google Scholar]
  54. 54.
    Kabaluk T, Ericsson J. 2007. Metarhizium anisopliae seed treatment increases yield of field corn when applied for wireworm control. Agron. J. 99:51377–81
    [Google Scholar]
  55. 55.
    Kabaluk T, Li-Leger E, Nam S 2017. Metarhizium brunneum—an enzootic wireworm disease and evidence for its suppression by bacterial symbionts. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 150:82–87
    [Google Scholar]
  56. 56.
    Kabaluk T, Vernon R, Goettel MS. 2007. Mortality and infection of wireworm, Agriotes obscurus [Coleoptera: Elateridae], with inundative field applications of Metarhizium anisopliae. Phytoprotection 88:251–56
    [Google Scholar]
  57. 57.
    Kung S, Gaugler R, Kaya HK. 1991. Effects of soil temperature, moisture, and relative humidity on entomopathogenic nematode persistence. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 57:2242–49
    [Google Scholar]
  58. 58.
    La Forgia D, Jaffuel G, Campos-Herrera R, Verheggen F, Turlings TC 2020. Efficiency of an attract-and-kill system with entomopathogenic nematodes against wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae). IOBC-WPRS Bull. 150:91–93
    [Google Scholar]
  59. 59.
    La Forgia D, Thibord J-B, Larroudé P, Francis F, Lognay G, Verheggen F 2020. Linking variety-dependent root volatile organic compounds in maize with differential infestation by wireworms. J. Pest Sci. 93:2605–14
    [Google Scholar]
  60. 60.
    Labrie G, Gagnon A-È, Vanasse A, Latraverse A, Tremblay G. 2020. Impacts of neonicotinoid seed treatments on soil-dwelling pest populations and agronomic parameters in corn and soybean in Quebec (Canada). PLOS ONE 15:2e0229136
    [Google Scholar]
  61. 61.
    Lacey LA, Unruh TR, Simkins H, Thomsen-Archer K. 2007. Gut bacteria associated with the Pacific Coast wireworm, Limonius canus, inferred from 16s rDNA sequences and their implications for control. Phytoparasitica 35:5479–89
    [Google Scholar]
  62. 62.
    Ladurner E, Quentin U, Franceschini S, Benuzzi M, Ehlers R. 2009. Efficacy evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana strain ATCC 74040 against wireworms (Agriotes spp.) on potato. IOBC-WPRS Bull. 45:445–48
    [Google Scholar]
  63. 63.
    Lafrance J. 1963. Emergence and flight of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in organic soils of southwestern Quebec. Can. Entomol. 95:8873–78
    [Google Scholar]
  64. 64.
    Landl M, Glauninger J. 2013. Preliminary investigations into the use of trap crops to control Agriotes spp. (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in potato crops. J. Pest Sci. 86:185–90
    [Google Scholar]
  65. 65.
    Langdon KW, Abney MR. 2017. Relative susceptibility of selected potato cultivars to feeding by two wireworm species at two soil moisture levels. Crop Prot. 101:24–28
    [Google Scholar]
  66. 66.
    Langdon KW, Colee J, Abney MR. 2018. Observing the effect of soil-applied insecticides on wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) behavior and mortality using radiographic imaging. J. Econ. Entomol. 111:41724–31
    [Google Scholar]
  67. 67.
    Lefko SA, Pedigo LP, Batchelor WD, Rice ME. 1998. Spatial modeling of preferred wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) habitat. Environ. Entomol. 27:2184–90
    [Google Scholar]
  68. 68.
    Lehmhus J. 2020. Wireworm biology in Middle Europe—what are we facing? Microbial and nematode control of invertebrate pests. IOBC-WPRS Bull. 150:96–99
    [Google Scholar]
  69. 69.
    Lemke E, van Herk WG, Singleton K, Gries G. 2022. Seasonal and diel communication periods of sympatric pest Limonius click beetle species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in western Canada. Environ. Entomol. 51:5980–88
    [Google Scholar]
  70. 70.
    Leung JP, Janmaat AF, Kabaluk JT, Cory JS. 2021. The effect of synthetic female sex pheromone on the transmission of the fungus Metarhizium brunneum by male Agriotes obscurus click beetles. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 179:107534
    [Google Scholar]
  71. 71.
    Lindroth E, Clark TL. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis of an economically important species complex of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in the Midwest. J. Econ. Entomol. 102:2743–49
    [Google Scholar]
  72. 72.
    Mathison BA. 2021. Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) of the southeastern United States Occas. Pap. 13 Fla. State Dept. Agric. Consum. Serv. Tallahassee:
    [Google Scholar]
  73. 73.
    Milosavljević I, Esser AD, Crowder DW. 2016. Effects of environmental and agronomic factors on soil-dwelling pest communities in cereal crops. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 225:192–98
    [Google Scholar]
  74. 74.
    Milosavljević I, Esser AD, Crowder DW. 2017. Seasonal population dynamics of wireworms in wheat crops in the Pacific Northwestern United States. J. Pest Sci. 90:177–86
    [Google Scholar]
  75. 75.
    Milosavljević I, Esser AD, Murphy KM, Crowder DW. 2019. Effects of imidacloprid seed treatments on crop yields and economic returns of cereal crops. Crop Prot. 119:166–71
    [Google Scholar]
  76. 76.
    Morales-Rodriguez A, O'Neill RP, Wanner KW 2014. A survey of wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) species infesting cereal crops in Montana. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 90:3116–25
    [Google Scholar]
  77. 77.
    Morales-Rodriguez A, Wanner KW. 2015. Efficacy of thiamethoxam and fipronil, applied alone and in combination, to control Limonius californicus and Hypnoidus bicolor (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Pest Manag. Sci. 71:4584–91
    [Google Scholar]
  78. 78.
    Nikoukar A, Ensafi P, Lewis EE, Crowder DW, Rashed A. 2021. Efficacy of naturally occurring and commercial entomopathogenic nematodes against sugar beet wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 114:52241–44
    [Google Scholar]
  79. 79.
    Nikoukar A, Rashed A. 2022. Integrated pest management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and the rhizosphere in agroecosystems. Insects 13:9769
    [Google Scholar]
  80. 80.
    Onsager JA. 1976. Influence of weather on capture of adult southern potato wireworm in blacklight traps. Tech. Bull. 1527 Agric. Res. Serv., U.S. Dept. Agric. Washington, DC:
    [Google Scholar]
  81. 81.
    Pantoja A, Hagerty AM, Emmert SY. 2010. A seasonal survey of click beetles in two potato production areas of interior Alaska. Am. J. Potato Res. 87:6531–36
    [Google Scholar]
  82. 82.
    Parker WE, Seeney FM. 1997. An investigation into the use of multiple site characteristics to predict the presence and infestation level of wireworms (Agriotes spp., Coleoptera: Elateridae) in individual grass fields. Ann. Appl. Biol. 130:3409–25
    [Google Scholar]
  83. 83.
    Pasquier A, Andrieux T, Martinez-Rodiguez P, Vercken E, Ferrero M. 2021. Predation capacity of soil-dwelling predatory mites on two major maize pests. Acarologia 61:3577–80
    [Google Scholar]
  84. 84.
    Pellegrino AM, Dorman SJ, Williams L, Millar JG, Huseth AS. 2021. Evaluation of 13-tetradecenyl acetate pheromone for Melanotus communis (Coleoptera: Elateridae) detection in North Carolina row crop agroecosystems. Environ. Entomol. 50:51248–54
    [Google Scholar]
  85. 85.
    Poggi S, Le Cointe R, Lehmhus J, Plantegenest M, Furlan L 2021. Alternative strategies for controlling wireworms in field crops: a review. Agriculture 11:5436
    [Google Scholar]
  86. 86.
    Poggi S, Le Cointe R, Riou J-B, Larroudé P, Thibord J-B, Plantegenest M 2018. Relative influence of climate and agroenvironmental factors on wireworm damage risk in maize crops. J. Pest Sci. 91:2585–99
    [Google Scholar]
  87. 87.
    Quesada-Moraga E, Navas-Cortés JA, Maranhao EAA, Ortiz-Urquiza A, Santiago-Álvarez C. 2007. Factors affecting the occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic fungi in natural and cultivated soils. Mycol. Res. 111:8947–66
    [Google Scholar]
  88. 88.
    Rashed A, Etzler F, Rogers CW, Marshall JM. 2015. Wireworms in Idaho cereals: monitoring and identification Bull. 898 Univ. Ida. Ext. Moscow:
    [Google Scholar]
  89. 89.
    Rashed A, Rogers CW, Rashidi M, Marshall JM. 2017. Sugar beet wireworm Limonius californicus damage to wheat and barley: evaluations of plant damage with respect to soil media, seeding depth, and diatomaceous earth application. Arthropod-Plant Interact 11:2147–54
    [Google Scholar]
  90. 90.
    Rashed A, Wenninger EJ 2023. Advances in managing wireworms in cereal crops, challenges and future directions. Advances in Understanding Insect Pests Affecting Wheat and Other Cereals SD Eigenbrode, A Rashed, pp. 311–48. Cambridge, UK: Burleigh Dodds Sci. Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  91. 91.
    Reddy GV, Tangtrakulwanich K, Wu S, Miller JH, Ophus VL et al. 2014. Evaluation of the effectiveness of entomopathogens for the management of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) on spring wheat. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 120:43–49
    [Google Scholar]
  92. 92.
    Rohde C, Moino A Jr., da Silva MA, Carvalho FD, Ferreira CS. 2010. Influence of soil temperature and moisture on the infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae, Steinernematidae) against larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Neotrop. Entomol. 39:608–11
    [Google Scholar]
  93. 93.
    Saguez J, Latraverse A, De Almeida J, van Herk WG, Vernon RS et al. 2017. Wireworm in Quebec field crops: specific community composition in North America. Environ. Entomol. 46:4814–25
    [Google Scholar]
  94. 94.
    Sandhi RK, Shapiro-Ilan D, Reddy GV. 2020. Montana native entomopathogenic nematode species against Limonius californicus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 113:52104–11
    [Google Scholar]
  95. 95.
    Sandhi RK, Shapiro-Ilan D, Sharma A, Reddy GV. 2020. Efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes against the sugarbeet wireworm, Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Biol. Control 143:104190
    [Google Scholar]
  96. 96.
    Schallhart N, Tusch MJ, Staudacher K, Wallinger C, Traugott M. 2011. Stable isotope analysis reveals whether soil-living elaterid larvae move between agricultural crops. Soil Biol. Biochem. 43:71612–14
    [Google Scholar]
  97. 97.
    Schuster C, Kleespies RG, Ritter C, Feiertag S, Leclerque A. 2013. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of “Rickettsiella agriotidis”, an intracellular bacterial pathogen of Agriotes wireworms. Curr. Microbiol. 66:1–9
    [Google Scholar]
  98. 98.
    Seal DR, Baniya AB, Dyrdahl-Young R, Hochmuth RC, Leppla NC et al. 2020. Wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) species composition and management in sweet potato grown in north Florida using chemical insecticides and entomopathogenic nematodes. Environ. Entomol. 49:61415–26
    [Google Scholar]
  99. 99.
    Seal DR, Chalfant RB, Hall MR. 1992. Effects of cultural practices and rotational crops on abundance of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) affecting sweetpotato in Georgia. Environ. Entomol. 21:5969–74
    [Google Scholar]
  100. 100.
    Serrano JM, Collignon RM, Zou Y, Millar JG. 2018. Identification of sex pheromones and sex pheromone mimics for two North American click beetle species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in the genus Cardiophorus Esch. J. Chem. Ecol. 44:4327–38
    [Google Scholar]
  101. 101.
    Serrano JM, Zou Y, Millar JG. 2020. Identification of a hyperactive pheromone analog in field tests of pheromone mimics for two click beetle species in the genus Cardiophorus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Chemoecology 30:297–304
    [Google Scholar]
  102. 102.
    Shah S, Ash GJ, Wilson BA. 2022. Resporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae granules on soil and mortality of Tenebrio molitor: implications for wireworm management in sweetpotato. Ann. Appl. Biol. 182:65–76
    [Google Scholar]
  103. 103.
    Shapiro-Ilan D, Jackson M, Reilly CC, Hotchkiss MW 2004. Effects of combining an entomopathogenic fungi or bacterium with entomopathogenic nematodes on mortality of Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Biol. Control 30:1119–26
    [Google Scholar]
  104. 104.
    Sharma A, Sandhi RK, Briar SS, Miller JH, Reddy GVP. 2019. Assessing the performance of pea and lentil at different seeding densities as trap crops for the management of wireworms in spring wheat. J. Appl. Entomol. 143:4460–69
    [Google Scholar]
  105. 105.
    Shirck FH. 1946. Growth of the sugar-beet wireworm on different food plants. J. Econ. Entomol. 39:5648–51
    [Google Scholar]
  106. 106.
    Singleton K, Gries R, van Herk WG, Alamsetti SK, Lemke E et al. 2022. Identification of the major sex pheromone component of the click beetle Agriotes ferrugineipennis. . J. Chem. Ecol. 48:5–6491–501
    [Google Scholar]
  107. 107.
    Singleton K, van Herk WG, Saguez J, Douglas HB, Gries G. 2022. First record of the invasive wireworm Agriotes sputator Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in Quebec, Canada, and implications of its arrival. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 98:3184–87
    [Google Scholar]
  108. 108.
    Singleton K, van Herk W, Saguez J, Scott I, Gries R, Gries G. 2023. Sex pheromone of Nearctic Agriotes mancus and its similarity to that of three Palearctic Agriotes invasive in North America. Agric. For. Entomol. 25:3468–76
    [Google Scholar]
  109. 109.
    Smith JL, Baute TS, Schaafsma AW. 2020. Quantifying early-season pest injury and yield protection of insecticide seed treatments in corn and soybean production in Ontario, Canada. J. Econ. Entomol. 113:52197–212
    [Google Scholar]
  110. 110.
    Sufyan M, Abbasi A, Gogi MD, Arshad M, Nawaz A, Neuhoff D. 2017. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the management of economically important wireworm species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in organic farming. Gesunde Pflanz 69:4197–202
    [Google Scholar]
  111. 110a.
    Sufyan M, Neuhoff D, Furlan L 2014. Larval development of Agriotes obscurus under laboratory and semi-natural conditions. Bull. Insectol. 67:227–35
    [Google Scholar]
  112. 111.
    Susurluk A. 2006. Effectiveness of the entomopathogenic nematodes Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema feltiae against Tenebrio molitor (yellow mealworm) larvae in different soil types at different temperatures. Turk. J. Biol. 30:4199–205
    [Google Scholar]
  113. 112.
    Tinline RD, Zacharuk RY. 1960. Pathogenicity of Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metch.) Sor. and Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. to two species of Elateridae. Nature 187:794–95
    [Google Scholar]
  114. 113.
    Tóth M. 2013. Pheromones and attractants of click beetles: an overview. J. Pest Sci. 86:3–17
    [Google Scholar]
  115. 114.
    Tóth M, Furlan L, Szarukán I, Nagy A, Vuts J et al. 2019. The addition of a pheromone to a floral lure increases catches of females of the click beetle Agriotes ustulatus (Schaller) (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Chem. Ecol. 45:8667–72
    [Google Scholar]
  116. 115.
    Tóth M, Furlan L, Szarukán I, Vuts J. 2011. Development of a female-targeted attractant for the click beetle, Agriotes ustulatus Schwarz. Acta Phytopathol. Entomol. Hung. 46:2235–45
    [Google Scholar]
  117. 116.
    Tóth M, Furlan L, Vuts J, Szarukán I, Ujváry I et al. 2015. Geranyl hexanoate, the female-produced pheromone of Agriotes sordidus Illiger (Coleoptera: Elateridae) and its activity on both sexes. Chemoecology 25:1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  118. 117.
    Traugott M, Benefer CM, Blackshaw RP, van Herk WG, Vernon RS. 2015. Biology, ecology, and control of elaterid beetles in agricultural land. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 60:313–34
    [Google Scholar]
  119. 118.
    Traugott M, Schallhart N, Kaufmann R, Juen A. 2008. The feeding ecology of elaterid larvae in central European arable land: new perspectives based on naturally occurring stable isotopes. Soil Biol. Biochem. 40:2342–49
    [Google Scholar]
  120. 119.
    Ulrich J, Dao VA, Majumdar U, Schmitt-Engel C, Schwirz J et al. 2015. Large scale RNAi screen in Tribolium reveals novel target genes for pest control and the proteasome as prime target. BMC Genom. 16:1674
    [Google Scholar]
  121. 120.
    van Herk WG, Kabaluk JT, Vernon RS, Richard R, Benz P. 2023. Disorientation of male Agriotes click beetles in the presence of granulate pheromones—a case for mating disruption. Arthropod-Plant Interact 17:485–506
    [Google Scholar]
  122. 121.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS. 2023. Capture of wild and marked Agriotes obscurus in pheromone traps according to distance, wind direction and date of trapping. Arthropod-Plant Interact 17:529–42
    [Google Scholar]
  123. 122.
    van Herk W, Vernon B, Bourassa-Tait G, Tóth M, Kovacs E. 2022. Field evaluation of selected plant volatiles and conspecific pheromones as attractants for Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Insects 13:2173
    [Google Scholar]
  124. 123.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS, Vojtko B, Snow S, Fortier J, Fortin C. 2015. Contact behaviour and mortality of wireworms exposed to six classes of insecticide applied to wheat seed. J. Pest Sci. 88:4717–39
    [Google Scholar]
  125. 124.
    van Herk WG, Labun TJ, Vernon RS. 2018. Efficacy of diamide, neonicotinoid, pyrethroid, and phenyl pyrazole insecticide seed treatments for controlling the sugar beet wireworm, Limonius californicus (Coleoptera: Elateridae), in spring wheat. J. Entomol. Soc. Br. Columbia 115:86–100
    [Google Scholar]
  126. 125.
    van Herk WG, Lemke E, Gries G, Gries R, Serrano JM et al. 2021. Limoniic acid and its analog as trap lures for pest Limonius species (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in North America. J. Econ. Entomol. 114:52108–20
    [Google Scholar]
  127. 126.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS 2014. Click beetles and wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. Arthropods of Canadian Grasslands, Vol. 4: Part 2, ed. DJ Giberson, HA Cárcamo 87–117. Ottawa: Biol. Surv. Can.
    [Google Scholar]
  128. 127.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS. 2020. Local depletion of click beetle populations by pheromone traps is weather and species dependent. Environ. Entomol. 49:2449–60
    [Google Scholar]
  129. 128.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS, Acheampong S, Otani JK, Uloth K. 2021. Distribution of two European elaterids, Agriotes obscurus and A. lineatus in British Columbia: new records, and potential implications of their dispersal. J. Asia-Pac. Entomol. 24:3688–94
    [Google Scholar]
  130. 129.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS, Borden JH, Ryan K, Mercer G. 2022. Comparative evaluation of pitfall traps for click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 115:582–91
    [Google Scholar]
  131. 130.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS, Goudis L, Mitchell T. 2021. Broflanilide, a meta-diamide insecticide seed treatment for protection of wheat and mortality of wireworms (Agriotes obscurus) in the field. J. Econ. Entomol. 114:1161–73
    [Google Scholar]
  132. 131.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS, Goudis L, Mitchell T. 2022. Protection of potatoes and mortality of wireworms (Agriotes obscurus) with various application methods of broflanilide, a novel meta-diamide insecticide. J. Econ. Entomol. 115:1930–46
    [Google Scholar]
  133. 132.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS, Labun TJ, Sevcik MH, Schwinghamer TD. 2021. Distribution of pest wireworm (Coleoptera: Elateridae) species in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (Canada). Environ. Entomol. 50:3663–72
    [Google Scholar]
  134. 133.
    van Herk WG, Vernon RS, Richardson J, Richardson M, Beaton A. 2021. Evaluation of pheromone traps and lures for trapping male Agriotes sputator (Coleoptera: Elateridae) beetles in eastern Canada. Fla. Entomol. 104:142–50
    [Google Scholar]
  135. 134.
    Vernon B, van Herk W 2022. Wireworms as pests of potato. Insect Pests of Potato A Alyokhin, S Rondon, Y Gao 103–48. Amsterdam: Elsevier. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  136. 135.
    Vernon R, van Herk W. 2017. Wireworm and flea beetle IPM in potatoes in Canada: implications for managing emergent problems in Europe. Potato Res 60:3269–85
    [Google Scholar]
  137. 136.
    Vernon RS. 2005. Aggregation and mortality of Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) at insecticide-treated trap crops of wheat. J. Econ. Entomol. 98:61999–2005
    [Google Scholar]
  138. 137.
    Vernon RS, Blackshaw RP, van Herk WG, Clodius M. 2014. Mass trapping wild Agriotes obscurus and Agriotes lineatus males with pheromone traps in a permanent grassland population reservoir. Agric. For. Entomol. 16:3227–39
    [Google Scholar]
  139. 138.
    Vernon RS, Kabaluk T, Behringer A. 2000. Movement of Agriotes obscurus (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in strawberry (Rosaceae) plantings with wheat (Gramineae) as a trap crop. Can. Entomol. 132:2231–41
    [Google Scholar]
  140. 139.
    Vernon RS, van Herk WG, Blackshaw RP, Shimizu Y, Clodius M. 2014. Mark-recapture of Agriotes obscurus and Agriotes lineatus with dense arrays of pheromone traps in an undisturbed grassland population reservoir. Agric. For. Entomol. 16:3217–26
    [Google Scholar]
  141. 140.
    Vernon RS, van Herk WG, Clodius M, Harding C. 2009. Wireworm management I: stand protection versus wireworm mortality with wheat seed treatments. J. Econ. Entomol. 102:62126–36
    [Google Scholar]
  142. 141.
    Vernon RS, van Herk WG, Clodius M, Harding C. 2013. Crop protection and mortality of Agriotes obscurus wireworms with blended insecticidal wheat seed treatments. J. Pest Sci. 86:1137–50
    [Google Scholar]
  143. 142.
    Vernon RS, van Herk WG, Clodius M, Harding C. 2013. Further studies on wireworm management in Canada: damage protection versus wireworm mortality in potatoes. J. Econ. Entomol. 106:2786–99
    [Google Scholar]
  144. 143.
    Vernon RS, van Herk WG, Clodius M, Tolman J. 2016. Companion planting attract-and-kill method for wireworm management in potatoes. J. Pest Sci. 89:2375–89
    [Google Scholar]
  145. 144.
    Vernon RS, van Herk W, Tolman J, Ortiz Saavedra H, Clodius M, Gage B 2008. Transitional sublethal and lethal effects of insecticides after dermal exposures to five economic species of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Econ. Entomol. 101:2365–74
    [Google Scholar]
  146. 145.
    Vuts J, Furlan L, Csonka ÉB, Woodcock CM, Caulfield JC et al. 2014. Development of a female attractant for the click beetle pest Agriotes brevis. Pest Manag. Sci. 70:4610–14
    [Google Scholar]
  147. 146.
    Vuts J, Furlan L, Tóth M. 2018. Female responses to synthetic pheromone and plant compounds in Agriotes brevis Candeze (Coleoptera: Elateridae). J. Insect Behav. 31:106–17
    [Google Scholar]
  148. 147.
    Wakil W, Yasin M, Shapiro-Ilan D. 2017. Effects of single and combined applications of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier). Sci. Rep. 7:5971
    [Google Scholar]
  149. 148.
    Williams L, Morra MJ, Brown PD, McCaffrey JP. 1993. Toxicity of allyl isothiocyanate-amended soil to Limonius californicus (Mann.) (Coleoptera: Elateridae) wireworms. J. Chem. Ecol. 19:61033–46
    [Google Scholar]
  150. 149.
    Williams L, Serrano JM, Johnson PJ, Millar JG. 2019. 13-Tetradecenyl acetate, a female-produced sex pheromone component of the economically important click beetle Melanotus communis (Gyllenhal) (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Sci. Rep. 9:16197
    [Google Scholar]
  151. 150.
    Willis R, Abney MR, Kennedy GG. 2010. Survey of wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) in North Carolina sweetpotato fields and seasonal abundance of Conoderus vespertinus. J. Econ. Entomol. 103:41268–76
    [Google Scholar]
  152. 151.
    Zhang W, Teng Y, Huang X, Li Z, Zhang Y et al. 2022. Larval behavioural responses of Melanotus cribricollis (Coleoptera: Elateridae) to the volatiles emitted from bamboo shoot and carbon dioxide. J. For. Res. 35:644–51
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-120220-123249
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ento-120220-123249
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error