1932

Abstract

Bioactive peptides are encrypted within the primary structure of food proteins where they remain inactive until released by enzymatic hydrolysis. Once released from the parent protein, certain peptides have the ability to modulate the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) because they decrease activities of renin or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the two main enzymes that regulate mammalian blood pressure. These antihypertensive peptides can also enhance the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) pathway to increase nitric oxide (NO) levels within vascular walls and promote vasodilation. The peptides can block the interactions between angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor) and angiotensin receptors, which can contribute to reduced blood pressure. This review focuses on the methods that are involved in antihypertensive peptide production from food sources, including fractionation protocols that are used to enrich bioactive peptide content and enhance peptide activity. It also discusses mechanisms that are believed to be involved in the antihypertensive activity of these peptides.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-022814-015520
2015-04-10
2024-04-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/food/6/1/annurev-food-022814-015520.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-022814-015520&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abassi Z, Winaver J, Feuerstein GZ. 2009. The biochemical pharmacology of renin inhibitors: implications for translational medicine in hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and heart failure: expectations and reality. Biochem. Pharmacol. 78:933–40 [Google Scholar]
  2. Acharya KR, Sturrock ED, Riordan JF, Ehlers MRW. 2003. ACE revisited: a new target for structure-based drug design. Nat. Rev. 2:891–902 [Google Scholar]
  3. Ahn CB, Jeon Y-J, Kim Y-T, Je J-Y. 2012. Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from salmon byproduct protein hydrolysate by alcalase hydrolysis. Process Biochem. 47:2240–45 [Google Scholar]
  4. Ahn JE, Park SY, Atwal A, Gibbs BF, Lee BH. 2009. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from whey fermented by Lactobacillus species. J. Food Biochem. 33:587–602 [Google Scholar]
  5. Ajibola CF,, Fashakin JB, Fagbemi TN, Aluko RE. 2013. Renin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition with antioxidant properties of African yam bean protein hydrolysate and reverse-phase HPLC-separated peptide fractions. Food Res. Int. 52:437–44 [Google Scholar]
  6. Alashi AM, Blanchard CL, Mailer RJ, Agboola SO, Mawson AJ. et al. 2014. Blood pressure lowering effects of Australian canola protein hydrolysates in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Res. Int. 55:281–87 [Google Scholar]
  7. Aleman A, Gomez-Guillen MC, Montero P. 2013. Identification of ace-inhibitory peptides from squid collagen after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Food Res. Int. 54:790–95 [Google Scholar]
  8. Aluko RE, Wu J, Aukema HM. 2014. Yellow field pea seed protein-derived peptides US Patent No. 8,815,806
  9. Antonios TFT, MacGregor GA. 1995. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in hypertension: potential problems. J. Hypertens. 13:Suppl. 3S11–16 [Google Scholar]
  10. Balti R, Bougatef A, Guillochon D, Dhulster P, Nasri M, Nedjar-Arroume N. 2012. Changes in arterial blood pressure after single oral administration of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) muscle derived peptides in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Funct. Foods 4:611–17 [Google Scholar]
  11. Balti R, Nedjar-Arroume N, Bougatef A, Guillochon D, Nasri M. 2010. Three novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using digestive proteases. Food Res. Int. 43:1136–43 [Google Scholar]
  12. Banerjee P, Shanthi C. 2012. Isolation of novel bioactive regions from bovine Achilles tendon collagen having angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory properties. Process Biochem. 47:2335–46 [Google Scholar]
  13. Boschin G, Scigliuolo GM, Resta D, Arnoldi A. 2014. Optimization of the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin (Lupinus) proteins for producing ACE-inhibitory peptides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:1846–51 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bremmer AD. 2003. Antihypertensive medication and quality of life—silent treatment of a silent killer?. Cardiovasc. Drugs Ther. 16:353–64 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chen J, Liu S, Ye R, Cai G, Ji B, Wu Y. 2013a. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory tripeptides from rice protein hydrolysate: purification and characterization. J. Funct. Foods 5:1684–92 [Google Scholar]
  16. Chen J, Wang Y, Ye R, Wua Y, Xia W. 2013b. Comparison of analytical methods to assay inhibitors of angiotensin I-converting enzyme. Food Chem. 141:3329–34 [Google Scholar]
  17. Chou C-L, Pang C-Y, Lee TJF, Fang T-C. 2013. Direct renin inhibitor prevents and ameliorates insulin resistance, aortic endothelial dysfunction and vascular remodeling in fructose-fed hypertensive rats. Hypertens. Res. 36:123–28 [Google Scholar]
  18. Conradi RA, Wilkinson KF, Rush BD, Hilgers AR, Ruwart MJ, Burton PS. 1993. In-vitro/in-vivo models for peptide oral absorption: comparison of Caco-2 cell permeability with rat intestinal absorption of renin inhibitory peptides. Pharm. Res. 10:1790–92 [Google Scholar]
  19. Curtis KK, Li P, Jackson EK. 1995. Blood pressure after captopril withdrawal from spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 25:82–87 [Google Scholar]
  20. Cushman DW, Cheung HS. 1971. Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochem. Pharmacol. 20:1637–48 [Google Scholar]
  21. de Gobba C, Tompa G, Otte J. 2014. Bioactive peptides from caseins released by cold active proteolytic enzymes from Arsukibacterium ikkense. Food Chem. 165:205–15 [Google Scholar]
  22. del Castillo MD, Ferrigno A, Acampa I, Borrelli RC, Olano A. et al. 2007. In vitro release of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, peroxyl-radical scavengers and antibacterial compounds by enzymatic hydrolysis of glycated gluten. J. Cereal Sci. 45:327–34 [Google Scholar]
  23. Du L, Fang M, Wu H, Xie J, Wu Y. et al. 2013. A novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from Phascolosoma esculenta water-soluble protein hydrolysate. J. Funct. Foods 5:475–83 [Google Scholar]
  24. Escudero E, Aristoy MC, Hitoshi N, Arihara K, Toldra F. 2012a. Antihypertensive effect and antioxidant activity of peptide fractions extracted from Spanish dry-cure ham. Meat Sci. 91:306–11 [Google Scholar]
  25. Escudero E, Mora L, Fraser PD, Aristoy MC, Arihara K, Toldra F. 2013. Purification and identification of antihypertensive peptides in Spanish dry-cure ham. J. Proteomics 78:499–507 [Google Scholar]
  26. Escudero E, Mora L, Toldra F. 2014. Stability of ACE inhibitory ham peptides against heat treatment and in vitro digestion. Food Chem. 161:305–11 [Google Scholar]
  27. Escudero E, Toldra F, Sentandreu MA, Nishimura H, Arihara K. 2012b. Antihypertensive activity of peptides identified in the in vitro gastrointestinal digest of pork meat. Meat Sci. 91:382–84 [Google Scholar]
  28. Ewart HS, Dennis D, Potvin M, Tiller C, Fang L-H. et al. 2009. Development of a salmon protein hydrolysate that lowers blood pressure. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 229:561–69 [Google Scholar]
  29. Feld LG, Van Liew B, Brentjens JR, Boylan JW. 1981. Renal lesions and proteinuria in the spontaneously hypertensive rats made normotensive by treatment. Kidney Int. 20:606–14 [Google Scholar]
  30. Fernandez-Musoles R, Manzanares P, Burguete MC, Alborch E, Salom JB. 2013. In vivo angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibition by long-term intake of antihypertensive lactoferrin hydrolysate in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Res. Int. 54:627–32 [Google Scholar]
  31. Fitzgerald C, Aluko RE, Hossain M, Rai DK, Hayes M. 2014. The potential of a renin inhibitory peptide from the red seaweed Palmaria palmata as functional food ingredient following confirmation and characterization of a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). J. Agric. Food Chem 62:8352–56 [Google Scholar]
  32. Fitzgerald C, Mora-Soler L, Gallagher E, O'Connor P, Prieto J. et al. 2012. Isolation and characterization of bioactive pro-peptides with in vitro renin inhibitory activities from the macroalga Palmaria palmata. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60:7421–27 [Google Scholar]
  33. Flack JM, Novikov SV, Ferrario CM. 1997. Benefits of adherence to anti-hypertensive therapy. Blood Press. 1:Suppl.47–51 [Google Scholar]
  34. Fujita H, Yamagami T, Ohshima K. 2001. Effects of an ace-inhibitory agent, katsuobushi oligopeptide, in the spontaneously hypertensive rat and in borderline and mildly hypertensive subjects. Nutr. Res. 21:1149–58 [Google Scholar]
  35. Fujita H, Yokoyama K, Yoshikawa M. 2000. Classification and antihypertensive activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from food proteins. J. Food Sci. 65:564–69 [Google Scholar]
  36. Garcia-Mora P, Penas E, Frias J, Martinez-Villaluenga C. 2014. Savinase, the most suitable enzyme for releasing peptides from lentil (Lens culinaris var. Castellana) protein concentrates with multifunctional properties. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:4166–74 [Google Scholar]
  37. García-Tejedor A, Padilla B, Salom JB, Belloch C, Manzanares P. 2013. Dairy yeasts produce milk protein-derived antihypertensive hydrolysates. Food Res. Int. 53:203–8 [Google Scholar]
  38. García-Tejedor A, Sánchez-Rivera L, Castelló-Ruiz M, Recio I, Salom JB, Manzanares P. 2014. Novel antihypertensive lactoferrin-derived peptides produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus: gastrointestinal stability profile and in vivo angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:1609–16 [Google Scholar]
  39. Ghassem M, Babji AS, Said M, Mahmoodani F, Arihara K. 2014. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from snakehead fish sarcoplasmic protein hydrolysate. J. Food Biochem. 38:140–49 [Google Scholar]
  40. Girgih AT, Alashi AM, He R, Malomo SA, Aluko RE. 2014a. Preventive and treatment effects of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) meal protein hydrolysate against high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur. J. Nutr. 53:1237–46 [Google Scholar]
  41. Girgih AT, He R, Aluko RE. 2014b. Kinetics and molecular docking studies of the inhibitions of angiotensin converting enzyme and renin activities by hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) peptides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:4135–44 [Google Scholar]
  42. Girgih AT, He R, Malomo SA, Offengenden M, Wu J, Aluko RE. 2014c. Structural and functional characterization of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein-derived antioxidant and antihypertensive peptides. J. Funct. Foods 6:384–94 [Google Scholar]
  43. Girgih AT, Udenigwe CC, Aluko RE. 2011a. In vitro antioxidant properties of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysate fractions. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88:381–89 [Google Scholar]
  44. Girgih AT, Udenigwe CC, Li H, Adebiyi AP, Aluko RE. 2011b. Kinetics of enzyme inhibition and antihypertensive effects of hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) protein hydrolysates. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 88:1767–74 [Google Scholar]
  45. Gu Y, Wu J. 2013. LC-MS/MS coupled with QSAR modeling in characterizing of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from soybean proteins. Food Chem. 141:2682–90 [Google Scholar]
  46. Gunkel AR, Thurner KH, Kanonier G, Sprinzl GM, Thumfart WF. 1996. Angioneurotic edema as a reaction to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Am. J. Otolaryngol. 17:87–91 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hayes M, Stanton C, Slattery H, O'Sullivan O, Hill C. et al. 2007. Casein fermentate of Lactobacillus animalis DPC6134 contains a range of novel propeptide angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:4658–67 [Google Scholar]
  48. He R, Alashi A, Malomo SA, Girgih AT, Chao D. et al. 2013a. Antihypertensive and free radical scavenging properties of enzymatic rapeseed protein hydrolysates. Food Chem. 141:153–59 [Google Scholar]
  49. He R, Aluko RE, Ju X. 2014. Evaluating molecular mechanism of hypotensive peptides interactions with renin and angiotensin converting enzyme. PLoS ONE 9:3e91051 [Google Scholar]
  50. He R, Malomo SA, Alashi A, Girgih AT, Ju X,, Aluko RE. 2013b. Purification and hypotensive activity of rapeseed protein-derived renin and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides. J. Funct. Foods 5:781–89 [Google Scholar]
  51. He R, Malomo SA, Girgih AT, Ju X,, Aluko RE. 2013c. Glycinyl-histidinyl-serine (GHS), a novel rapeseed protein-derived peptide has blood pressure-lowering effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:8396–402 [Google Scholar]
  52. Hernandez-Ledesma B, Miralles B, Amigo L, Ramos M, Recio I. 2005. Identification of antioxidant and ACE-inhibitory peptides in fermented milk. J. Sci. Food Agric. 85:1041–48 [Google Scholar]
  53. Herregods G, van Camp J, Morel N, Ghesquière B, Gevaert K. et al. 2011. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of gelatin hydrolysates and identification of bioactive peptides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:552–58 [Google Scholar]
  54. Hirota T, Nonaka A, Matsushita A, Uchida N, Ohki K. et al. 2011. Milk casein-derived tripeptides, VPP and IPP induced NO production in cultured endothelial cells and endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated aortic rings. Heart Vessels 26:549–56 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hiwatashi K, Shirakawa H, Hori K, Yoshiki Y, Suzuki N. et al. 2010. Reduction of blood pressure by soybean saponins, renin inhibitors from soybean, in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 74:2310–12 [Google Scholar]
  56. Holmquist B, Bunning P, Riordan JF. 1979. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for angiotensin converting enzyme. Anal. Biochem. 95:540–48 [Google Scholar]
  57. Huang W-H, Sun J, He H, Dong H-W, Li J-T. 2011. Antihypertensive effect of corn peptides, produced by a continuous production in enzymatic membrane reactor, in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chem. 128:968–73 [Google Scholar]
  58. Imai T, Miyazaki H, Hirose S, Hori H, Hayashi T. et al. 1983. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for human renin precursor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80:7405–9 [Google Scholar]
  59. Inoue K, Gotou T, Kitajima H, Mizuno S, Nakazawa T, Yamamoto N. 2009. Release of antihypertensive peptides in miso paste during its fermentation, by the addition of casein. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 108:111–15 [Google Scholar]
  60. Intarasirisawat R, Benjakul S, Wu J, Visessanguan W. 2013. Isolation of antioxidative and ACE inhibitory peptides from protein hydrolysate of skipjack (Katsuwana pelamis) roe. J. Funct. Foods 5:1854–62 [Google Scholar]
  61. Ishida Y, Shibata Y, Fukuhara I, Yano Y, Takehara I, Kaneko K. 2011. Effect of an excess intake of casein hydrolysate containing Val-Pro-Pro and Ile-Pro-Pro in subjects with normal blood pressure, high-normal blood pressure, or mild hypertension. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 75:427–33 [Google Scholar]
  62. Jakubczyk A, Karas M, Baraniak B, Pietrzak M. 2013. The impact of fermentation and in vitro digestion on formation angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from pea proteins. Food Chem. 141:3774–80 [Google Scholar]
  63. Jang A, Lee M. 2005. Purification and identification of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from beef hydrolysates. Meat Sci. 69:653–61 [Google Scholar]
  64. Jang J-H, Jeong S-C, Kim J-H, Lee Y-H, Ju Y-C, Lee J-S. 2011. Characterisation of a new antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from Pleurotus cornucopiae. Food Chem. 127:412–18 [Google Scholar]
  65. Jimsheena VK, Gowda LR. 2010. Arachin derived peptides as selective angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: Structure-activity relationship. Peptides 31:1165–76 [Google Scholar]
  66. Jung W-K, Mendis E, Je J-Y, Park P-J, Son BW. et al. 2006. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera) frame protein and its antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive hypertensive rats. Food Chem. 94:26–32 [Google Scholar]
  67. Katayama K, Mori T, Kawahara S, Miake K, Kodama Y. et al. 2007. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from porcine skeletal muscle myosin and its antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Food Sci. 72:S702–6 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kazuki N, Yoshie-Stark Y, Ogushi M. 2009. Comparison of ACE-inhibitory and DPPH radical scavenging activities of fish muscle hydrolysates. Food Chem. 114:844–51 [Google Scholar]
  69. Ko S-C, Kang N, Kim E-A, Kang MC, Lee S-H. et al. 2012a. A novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from a marine Chlorella ellipsoidea and its antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Process Biochem. 47:2005–11 [Google Scholar]
  70. Ko S-C, Kim DG, Han C-H, Lee YJ, Lee J-K. et al. 2012b. Nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation effects of anti-angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) peptide from Styela clava flesh tissue and its anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chem. 134:1141–45 [Google Scholar]
  71. Kodera T, Nio N. 2006. Identification of an angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from protein hydrolysates by a soybean protease and the antihypertensive effects of hydrolysates in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Food Sci. 71:C164–73 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kontani N, Omae R, Kagebayashi T, Kaneko K, Yamada Y. et al. 2014. Characterization of Ile-His-Arg-Phe, a novel rice-derived vasorelaxing peptide with hypotensive and anorexigenic activities. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 58:359–364 [Google Scholar]
  73. Koyama M, Naramoto K, Nakajima T, Aoyama T, Watanabe M, Nakamura K. 2013. Purification and identification of antihypertensive peptides from fermented buckwheat sprouts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:3013–21 [Google Scholar]
  74. Ktari N, Nasri R, Mnafgui K, Hamden K, Belguith O. et al. 2014. Antioxidative and ACE inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates from zebra blenny (Salaria basilisca) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Process Biochem. 49:890–97 [Google Scholar]
  75. Kvam F, Ofstad J, Iversen BM. 1998. Effects of antihypertensive drugs on autoregulation of RBF and glomerular capillary pressure in SHR. Am. J. Physiol. 275:F576–94 [Google Scholar]
  76. Lahogue V, Rehel K, Taupin L, Haras D, Allaume P. 2010. A HPLC-UV method for the determination of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Food Chem. 118:870–75 [Google Scholar]
  77. Lee DH, Kim JH, Park JS, Choi YJ, Lee JS. 2004. Isolation and characterization of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from the edible mushroom Tricholoma giganteum. Peptides 25:621–27 [Google Scholar]
  78. Lee HJ. 2002. Protein drug oral delivery: the recent progress. Arch. Pharm. Res. 25:572–84 [Google Scholar]
  79. Lee J-E, Bae IY, Lee HG, Yang C-B. 2006. Tyr-Pro-Lys, an angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica). Food Chem. 99:143–48 [Google Scholar]
  80. Lee S-H, Qian Z-J, Kim S-K. 2010. A novel angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from tuna frame protein hydrolysate and its antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chem. 118:96–102 [Google Scholar]
  81. Lee S-J, Kim Y-S, Kim S-E, Kim E-K, Hwang J-W. et al. 2012. Purification and characterization of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide derived from an enzymatic hydrolysate of duck skin byproducts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 60:10035–40 [Google Scholar]
  82. Li G-H, Shi Y-H, Liu H, Le G-W. 2006. Antihypertensive effect of alcalase generated mung bean protein hydrolysates in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 222:733–36 [Google Scholar]
  83. Li H, Aluko RE. 2010. Identification and inhibitory properties of multifunctional peptides from pea protein hydrolysate. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:11471–76 [Google Scholar]
  84. Li H, Prairie N, Udenigwe CC, Adebiyi AP, Tappia P. et al. 2011. Blood pressure lowering effect of a pea protein hydrolysate in hypertensive rats and humans. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:9854–60 [Google Scholar]
  85. Li P, Jia J, Fang M, Zhang L, Guo M. et al. 2014. In vitro and in vivo ACE inhibitory of pistachio hydrolysates and in silico mechanism of identified peptide binding with ACE. Process Biochem. 49:898–904 [Google Scholar]
  86. Lin L, Lv S, Li B. 2012. Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory and antihypertensive properties of squid skin gelatin hydrolysates. Food Chem. 131:225–30 [Google Scholar]
  87. Liu L, Liu L, Lu B, Chen M, Zhang Y. 2013. Evaluation of bamboo shoot peptide preparation with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant abilities from byproducts of canned bamboo shoots. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:5526–33 [Google Scholar]
  88. Liu X, Zhang M, Zhang C, Liu C. 2012. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory, antihypertensive and antihyperlipidaemic activities of protein hydrolysates from Rhopilema esculentum. Food Chem. 134:2134–40 [Google Scholar]
  89. Lu J, Sawano Y, Miyakawa T, Xue Y-L, Cai M-Y. et al. 2011. One-week antihypertensive effect of Ile-Gln-Pro in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:559–63 [Google Scholar]
  90. Majumder K, Chakrabarti S, Morton JS, Panahi S, Kaufman S. et al. 2013. Egg-derived tri-peptide IRW exerts antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. PLoS ONE 8:e82829 [Google Scholar]
  91. Majumder K, Wu J. 2009. Angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of cooked eggs. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:471–77 [Google Scholar]
  92. Makinen S, Johannson T, Gerd EV, Pihlava JM, Pihlanto A. 2012. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant properties of rapeseed hydrolysates. J. Funct. Foods 4:575–83 [Google Scholar]
  93. Marczak ED, Usui H, Fujita H, Yang Y, Yokoo M. et al. 2003. New antihypertensive peptides isolated from rapeseed. Peptides 24:791–98 [Google Scholar]
  94. Marrufo-Estrada DM, Segura-Campos MR, Chel-Guerrero LA, Betancur-Ancona DA. 2013. Defatted Jatropha curcus flour and protein isolate as materials for protein hydrolysates with biological activity. Food Chem. 138:77–83 [Google Scholar]
  95. Masuda O, Nakamura Y, Takano T. 1996. Antihypertensive peptides are present in aorta after oral administration of sour milk containing these peptides to spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Nutr. 126:3063–68 [Google Scholar]
  96. Matsui T, Imamura M, Oka H, Osajima K, Kimoto K-I. et al. 2004. Tissue distribution of antihypertensive dipeptide, Val-Tyr, after its single oral administration to spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Pept. Sci. 10:535–45 [Google Scholar]
  97. Memarpoor-Yazdi M, Asoodeh A, Chamani JK. 2012. Structure and ACE-inhibitory activity of peptides derived from hen egg white lysozyme. Int. J. Pept. Res. Ther. 18:353–60 [Google Scholar]
  98. Miguel M, Gomez-Ruiz JA, Recio I, Aleixandre A. 2010. Changes in arterial blood pressure after single oral administration of milk-casein-derived peptides in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 54:1422–27 [Google Scholar]
  99. Morais HA, Silvestre MPC, Amorin LL, Silva VDM, Silva MR. et al. 2014. Use of different proteases to obtain whey protein concentrate hydrolysates with inhibitory activity toward angiotensin-converting enzyme. J. Food Biochem. 38:102–9 [Google Scholar]
  100. Muguruma M, Ahhmed AM, Katayama K, Kawahara S, Maruyama M, Nakamura T. 2009. Identification of pro-drug type ACE inhibitory peptide sourced from porcine myosin B: evaluation of its antihypertensive effects in vivo. Food Chem. 114:516–22 [Google Scholar]
  101. Mundi S, Aluko RE. 2014. Inhibitory properties of kidney bean protein hydrolysate and its membrane fractions against renin, angiotensin converting enzyme, and free radicals. Austin J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2:111 [Google Scholar]
  102. Murakami M, Tonouchi H, Takahashi R, Kitazawa H, Kawai Y. et al. 2004. Structural analysis of a new anti-hypertensive peptide (β-lactosin B) isolated from a commercial whey product. J. Dairy Sci. 87:1967–74 [Google Scholar]
  103. Nakamura Y, Yamamoto N, Sakai K, Takano T. 1995. Antihypertensive effect of sour milk and peptides isolated from it that are inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme. J. Dairy Sci. 78:1253–57 [Google Scholar]
  104. Nakano D, Ogura K, Miyakoshi M, Ishii F, Kawanishi H. et al. 2006. Antihypertensive effect of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from a sesame protein hydrolysate in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 70:1118–26 [Google Scholar]
  105. Nasri R, Younes I, Jridi M, Trigui M, Bougatef A. et al. 2013. ACE inhibitory and antioxidative activities of Goby (Zosterissessor ophiocephalus) fish protein hydrolysates: effect on meat lipid oxidation. Food Res. Int. 54:552–61 [Google Scholar]
  106. Noach A, Hurni MA, De Boer AG, Breimer DD. 1994. The paracellular approach: drug transport and its enhancement via the paracellular pathways. Drug Absorption Enhancement. Concept, Possibilities, Limitations and Trends 3 AG De Boer 291–324 Chur, Switz: Harwood Acad. Publ. [Google Scholar]
  107. Norris R, Poyarkov A, O'Keeffe MB, FitzGerald RJ. 2014. Characterisation of the hydrolytic specificity of Aspergillus niger derived prolyl endoprotease on bovine β-casein and determination of ACE inhibitory activity. Food Chem. 156:29–36 [Google Scholar]
  108. Nwachukwu ID, Girgih AT, Malomo SA, Onuh J, Aluko RE. 2014. Thermoase-derived flaxseed protein hydrolysates and membrane ultrafiltration peptide fractions have systolic blood pressure-lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 1518131–47
  109. Onuh JO, Girgih AT, Aluko RE, Aliani M. 2013. Inhibitions of renin and angiotensin converting enzyme activities by enzymatic chicken skin protein hydrolysates. Food Res. Int. 53:260–67 [Google Scholar]
  110. Pappenheimer JR, Michel CC. 2003. Role of villus microcirculation in intestinal absorption of glucose: coupling of epithelial with endothelial transport. J. Physiol. 553:561–74 [Google Scholar]
  111. Perez-Vega JA, Olivera-Castillo L, Gomez-Ruiz JA, Hernandez-Ledesma B. 2013. Release of multifunctional peptides by gastrointestinal digestion of sea cucumber (Isostichopus badionotus). J. Funct. Foods 5:869–77 [Google Scholar]
  112. Picot L, Ravallec-Plé R, Fouchereau-Peron M, Vandanjon L, Jaouen P. et al. 2010. Impact of ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of an industrial fish protein hydrolysate on its bioactive properties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90:1819–26 [Google Scholar]
  113. Pihlanto A, Akkanen S, Korhonen HJ. 2008. ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant properties of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Food Chem. 109:104–12 [Google Scholar]
  114. Puchalska P, Garcia MC, Marina ML. 2014. Identification of native angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in commercial soybean based infant formulas using HPLC-Q-ToF-MS. Food Chem. 157:62–69 [Google Scholar]
  115. Qian Z-J, Je J-Y, Kim S-K. 2007. Antihypertensive effect of angiotensin I converting enzyme-inhibitory peptide from hydrolysates of bigeye tuna dark muscle, Thunnus obesus. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55:8398–403 [Google Scholar]
  116. Rao S, Sun J, Liu Y, Zeng H, Su Y, Yang Y. 2012a. ACE inhibitory peptides and antioxidant peptides derived from in vitro digestion hydrolysate of hen egg white lysozyme. Food Chem. 135:1245–52 [Google Scholar]
  117. Rao S-Q, Ju T, Sun J, Su Y-J, Xu R-R, Yang Y-J. 2012b. Purification and characterization of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from enzymatic hydrolysate of hen egg white lysozyme. Food Res. Int. 46:127–34 [Google Scholar]
  118. Ruiz-Ruiz J, Davila-Ortiz G, Chel-Guerrero L, Betancur-Ancona D. 2013. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant peptide fractions from hard-to-cook bean enzymatic hydrolysates. J. Food Biochem. 37:26–35 [Google Scholar]
  119. Sagardia I, Roa-Ureta RH, Bald C. 2013. A new QSAR model, for angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory oligopeptides. Food Chem. 136:1370–76 [Google Scholar]
  120. Sanchez D, Quinones M, Moulay L, Muguerza B, Miguel M, Aleixandre A. 2010. Changes in arterial blood pressure of a soluble cocoa fiber product in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:1493–501 [Google Scholar]
  121. Satake M, Enjoh M, Nakamura Y, Takano T, Kawamura Y. et al. 2002. Transepithelial transport of the bioactive peptides, Val-Pro-Pro, in human intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66:378–84 [Google Scholar]
  122. Sato M, Hosokawa T, Yamaguchi T, Nakano T, Muramoto K. et al. 2002. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and their antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50:6245–52 [Google Scholar]
  123. Seguro Campos MR, Chel Guerrero LA, Betancor Ancona DA. 2010. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of peptide fractions extracted by ultrafiltration of cowpea Vigna unguiculata hydrolysates. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90:2512–18 [Google Scholar]
  124. Semple PF. 1995. Putative mechanisms of cough after treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. J. Hypertens. 13:Suppl. 3S17–21 [Google Scholar]
  125. Shalaby SM, Zakora M, Otte J. 2006. Performance of two commonly used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition assays using FA-PGG and HHL as substrates. J. Dairy Res. 73:178–86 [Google Scholar]
  126. Sheih I-C, Fang TJ, Wu T-K. 2009. Isolation and characterisation of a novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from the algae protein waste. Food Chem. 115:279–84 [Google Scholar]
  127. Sipola M, Finckenberg P, Santisteban J, Korpela R, Vapataalo H, Nurminen M-L. 2001. Long-term intake of milk peptides attenuates development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 52:745–54 [Google Scholar]
  128. Stevenson BR, Keon BH. 1998. The tight junction: morphology to molecules. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 14:89–109 [Google Scholar]
  129. Suetsuna K, Maekawa K, Chen J-R. 2004. Antihypertensive effects of Undaria pinnatifida (wakame) peptide on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Nutr. Biochem. 15:267–72 [Google Scholar]
  130. Takahashi S, Hori K, Shinbo M, Hiwatahi K, Gotoh T, Yamada S. 2008. Isolation of human renin inhibitor from soybean: soyasaponin I is the novel human renin inhibitor in soybean. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 72:3232–36 [Google Scholar]
  131. Tanzadehpanah H, Asoodeh A, Saberi MR, Chamani J. 2013. Identification of a novel angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from ostrich egg white and studying its interaction with the enzyme. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 18:212–19 [Google Scholar]
  132. Tavares T, Sevilla M-A, Montero M-J, Carron R, Malcata FX. 2012. Acute effect of whey peptides upon blood pressure of hypertensive rats, and relationship with their angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 56:316–24 [Google Scholar]
  133. Tenenbaum A, Grossman E, Shemesh J, Fisman EZ, Nosrati I, Motro M. 2000. Intermediate but not low doses of aspirin can suppress angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced cough. Am. J. Hypertens. 13:776–82 [Google Scholar]
  134. Thayer AM. 2011. Improving peptides. Chem. Eng. News 8913–20
  135. Tomatsu M, Shimakage A, Shinbo M, Yamada S, Takahashi S. 2013. Novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides derived from soya milk. Food Chem. 136:612–16 [Google Scholar]
  136. Tschudi MR, Criscione L, Novosel D, Pfeiffer K, Luscher TF. 1994. Antihypertensive therapy augments endothelium-dependent relaxations in coronary arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Circulation 89:2212–18 [Google Scholar]
  137. Udenigwe CC, Adebiyi AP, Doyen A, Li H, Bazinet L, Aluko RE. 2012a. Low molecular weight flaxseed protein-derived arginine-containing peptides reduced blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats faster than amino acid form of arginine and native flaxseed protein. Food Chem. 132:468–75 [Google Scholar]
  138. Udenigwe CC, Li H, Aluko RE. 2012b. Quantitative structure–activity relationship modeling of renin-inhibiting dipeptides. Amino Acids 42:1379–86 [Google Scholar]
  139. Udenigwe CC, Lin Y-S, Hou W-C, Aluko RE. 2009. Kinetics of the inhibition of renin and angiotensin I-converting enzyme by flaxseed protein hydrolysate fractions. J. Funct. Foods 1:199–207 [Google Scholar]
  140. van Elswijk DA, Diefenbach O, van der Berg S, Irth H, Tjaden UR, van der Greef J. 2003. Rapid detection and identification of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors by on-line liquid chromatography-biochemical detection, coupled to electrospray mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A 1020:45–58 [Google Scholar]
  141. Vastag Z, Popovic L, Popovic S, Krimer V, Pericin D. 2011. Production of enzymatic hydrolysates with antioxidant and angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity from pumpkin oil cake protein isolate. Food Chem. 124:1316–21 [Google Scholar]
  142. Vercruysse L, van Camp J, Morel N, Rouge P, Herregods G, Smagghe G. 2010. Ala-Val-Phe and Val-Phe: ACE inhibitory peptides derived from insect protein with antihypertensive activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Peptides 31:482–88 [Google Scholar]
  143. Vermeirssen V, van Camp J, Verstraete W. 2004. Bioavailability of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory properties. Br. J. Nutr. 92:357–66 [Google Scholar]
  144. Wang C, Tian J, Wang Q. 2011. ACE inhibitory and antihypertensive properties of apricot almond meal hydrolysate. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 232:549–56 [Google Scholar]
  145. Wang GT, Chung CC, Holzman TF, Krafft GA. 1993. A continuous fluorescence assay of renin activity. Anal. Biochem. 210:351–59 [Google Scholar]
  146. Wang J, Hu J, Cui J, Bai X, Du Y. et al. 2008. Purification and identification of a ACE inhibitory peptide from oyster proteins hydrolysate and the antihypertensive effect of hydrolysate in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chem. 111:302–8 [Google Scholar]
  147. Wang X, Wang L, Cheng X, Zhou J, Tang X, Mao X-Y. 2012. Hypertension-attenuating effect of whey protein hydrolysate on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chem. 134:122–26 [Google Scholar]
  148. Wood JM, Schnell CR, Cumin F, Menard J, Webb RL. 2005. Aliskiren, a novel, orally effective renin inhibitor, lowers blood pressure in marmosets and spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Hypertens. 23:417–26 [Google Scholar]
  149. Wu J, Aluko RE, Muir AD. 2002. Improved method for direct high-performance liquid chromatography assay of angiotensin-converting enzyme-catalyzed reactions. J. Chromatogr. A 950:125–30 [Google Scholar]
  150. Wu J, Aluko RE, Nakai S. 2006a. Structural requirements of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides: quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling of peptides containing 4–10 amino acids. QSAR Comb. Sci. 25:873–80 [Google Scholar]
  151. Wu J, Aluko RE, Nakai S. 2006b. Structural requirements of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides: quantitative structure-and-activity relationship study of di- and tri-peptides. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54:732–38 [Google Scholar]
  152. Yamada A, Sakurai T, Ochi D, Mitsuyama E, Yamauchi K, Abe F. 2013. Novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from bovine casein. Food Chem. 141:3781–89 [Google Scholar]
  153. Yang CY, Dantzig AH, Pidgeon C. 1999. Intestinal peptide transport systems and oral drug availability. Pharm. Res. 16:1331–43 [Google Scholar]
  154. Yang H-Y, Yang S-C, Chen J-R, Tzeng Y-H, Han B-C. 2004. Soyabean protein hydrolysate prevents the development of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Br. J. Nutr. 92:507–12 [Google Scholar]
  155. Yang Y, Marczak ED, Yokoo M, Usui H, Yoshikawa M. 2003. Isolation and antihypertensive effect of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide from spinach Rubisco. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51:4897–902 [Google Scholar]
  156. You S-J, Wu J. 2011. Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities of egg protein hydrolysates produced with gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal enzymes. J. Food Sci. 76:C801–7 [Google Scholar]
  157. Yu Z, Yin Y, Zhao W, Chen F, Liu J. 2014. Antihypertensive effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide RVPSL on spontaneously hypertensive rats by regulating gene expression of the renin-angiotensin system. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:912–17 [Google Scholar]
  158. Yuan W, Wang J, Zhou F. 2012. In vivo hypotensive and physiological effects of a silk fibroin hydrolysate on spontaneously hypertensive rats. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 76:1987–89 [Google Scholar]
  159. Zhang C, Cao W, Hong P, Ji H, Qin X, He J. 2009. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of Acetes chinensis peptic hydrolysate and its antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44:2042–48 [Google Scholar]
  160. Zhang J-H, Tatsumi E, Ding C-H, Li L-T. 2006. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides in douche, a Chinese traditional fermented soybean product. Food Chem. 98:551–57 [Google Scholar]
  161. Zhang Y, Olsen K, Grossi A, Otte J. 2013. Effect of pretreatment on enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine collagen and formation of ACE-inhibitory peptides. Food Chem. 141:2343–54 [Google Scholar]
  162. Zheng T, Ichiyu S, Li NW, Mitsumine F, Yasuhiko T. 1997. Effects of antihypertensive drugs or glycemic control on antioxidant enzyme activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats with diabetes. Nephron 76:323–30 [Google Scholar]
  163. Zhou F, Xue Z, Wang J. 2010. Antihypertensive effects of silk fibroin hydrolysate by alcalase and purification of an ACE inhibitory dipeptide. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:6735–40 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-022814-015520
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-022814-015520
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error