The application of electrostatics in both powder and liquid coating can improve the quality of food, such as its appearance, aroma, taste, and shelf life. Coatings can be found most commonly in the snack food industry, as well as in confectionery, bakery, meat and cheese processing. In electrostatic powder coating, the most important factors influencing coating quality are powder particle size, density, flowability, charge, and resistivity, as well as the surface properties and characteristics of the target. The most important factors during electrostatic liquid coating, also known as electrohydrodynamic coating, include applied voltage and electrical resistivity and viscosity of the liquid. A good understanding of these factors is needed for the design of optimal coating systems for food processing.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abu-Ali J, Barringer SA. 2005. Method for electrostatic atomization of emulsions in an EHD system. J. Electrostat. 63:5361–69 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abu-Ali J, Barringer SA. 2008. Optimization of liquid electrostatic coating. J. Electrostat. 66:3–4184–89 [Google Scholar]
  3. Adamczewski I. 1969. Ionization, Conductivity and Breakdown in Dielectric Liquids London: Taylor & Francis
  4. Ahlberg P. 2001. Electrostatic Coating May Offer Listeria Protection for Meat Products Horsham: Vertical Net LLC
  5. Ali FS, Base TE, Inculet II. 2000. Mathematical modeling of powder paint particle trajectories in electrostatic painting. IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 36:4992–97 [Google Scholar]
  6. Amefia AE, Abu-Ali JM, Barringer SA. 2006. Improved functionality of food additives with electrostatic coating. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 7:3176–81 [Google Scholar]
  7. Aykas DP, Barringer S. 2014. The effect of temperature, lecithin content and voltage on droplets/cm2 during electrostatic spraying of oil. J. Food Process. Preserv. 38:1484–92 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bailey AG. 1974. Electrostatic atomization of liquids. Sci. Prog. 61:1555–81 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bailey AG. 1998. The science and technology of electrostatic powder spraying transport and coating. J. Electrostat. 45:285–120 [Google Scholar]
  10. Barringer SA, Abu-Ali J, Chung H. 2005. Electrostatic powder coating of sodium erythorbate and GDL to improve color and decrease microbial counts on meats. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 6:2189–93 [Google Scholar]
  11. Biehl HL, Barringer SA. 2003. Physical properties important to electrostatic and nonelectrostatic powder transfer efficiency in a tumble drum. J. Food Sci. 68:82512–15 [Google Scholar]
  12. Biehl HL, Barringer SA. 2004. Comparison of the effect of powder properties on coating transfer efficiency and dustiness in two non-electrostatic and electrostatic systems. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 5:22512–15 [Google Scholar]
  13. Buck VE, Barringer SA. 2007. Factors dominating adhesion of NaCl onto potato chips. J. Food Sci. 72:8435–41 [Google Scholar]
  14. Castle GSP. 2001. Industrial applications of electrostatics: the past, present and future. J. Electrostat. 51–52:1–7 [Google Scholar]
  15. Clark G. 1995. Processing: electrostatic coating technology for savoury snacks. Food Technol. Eur. 2:390–96 [Google Scholar]
  16. Clarke W. 1968. Electrostatic phenomena in candy and chocolate manufacture. Manuf. Confect. 8:337–44 [Google Scholar]
  17. Dhanalakshmi K, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya S. 2011. Agglomeration of food powder and applications. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 51:5432–41 [Google Scholar]
  18. Downer RA, Hall FR, Escallon EC, Chapple AC. 1993. The effect of diluent oils on the electrostatic atomization of some insecticides. Pesticide Formations and Application Systems 13 P Berger, B Devisetty, F Hall 203–14 Philadelphia: ASTM Publ. [Google Scholar]
  19. Elayedath S, Barringer S. 2002. Electrostatic powder coating of shredded cheese with antimycotic and anticaking agents. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 3:4385–90 [Google Scholar]
  20. Franz E, Reichard DL, Carpenter TG, Brazee RD. 1987. Deposition and effectiveness of charged sprays for pest control Work. Pap. 86-1005, Am. Soc. Agric. Biol. Eng.
  21. Ganesh V, Hettiarachchy NS, Griffis CL, Martin EM, Ricke SC. 2012. Electrostatic spraying of food-grade organic and inorganic acids and plant extracts to decontaminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on spinach and iceberg lettuce. J. Food Sci. 77:7M391–96 [Google Scholar]
  22. Gorty AV, Barringer SA. 2010. Electrohydrodynamic spraying of chocolate. J. Food Process. Preserv. 35:4542–49 [Google Scholar]
  23. Halim F, Barringer SA. 2007. Electrostatic adhesion in food. J. Electrostat. 65:3168–73 [Google Scholar]
  24. Hanify DE. 2001. Snack seasoning application. See Lusas & Rooney 2001 517–27
  25. Hughes JF. 1997. Electrostatic Particle Charging: Industrial and Healthcare Applications Somerset, UK: Res. Stud.170
  26. Law SE. 1984. Physical properties determining chargeability of pesticide sprays. ACS Symposium Series 254 Advances in Pesticide Formulation Technology HB Scher 219–30 Washington, DC: Am. Chem. Soc.
  27. Liu H. 2000. Science and Engineering of Droplets: Fundamentals and Applications Norwich, NY: Noyes/William Andrew
  28. Luo Y, Zhu J, Maa Y, Zhang H. 2008. Dry coating, a novel coating technology for solid pharmaceutical dosage forms. Int. J. Pharm. 358:1–216–22 [Google Scholar]
  29. Lusas EW, Rooney RW. 2001. Snack Foods Processing. Lancaster, CA: Tech. Publ. Co. Inc.
  30. Madl L. 2000. Making it stick—getting coatings to stay on chips requires careful balancing of several formulation and operational factors. Food Process 61:168–69 [Google Scholar]
  31. Marchant JA, Green R. 1982. An electrostatic charging system for hydraulic spray nozzle. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 27:4309–19 [Google Scholar]
  32. Marthina K, Barringer SA. 2012. Confectionery coating with an electrohydrodynamic (EHD) system. J. Food Sci. 77:1E26–31 [Google Scholar]
  33. Massey LM, Hettiarachchy NS, Martin EM, Ricke SC. 2013. Electrostatic spray of food-grade organic acids and plant extract to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh-cut cantaloupe cubes. J. Food Safety 33:171–78 [Google Scholar]
  34. Masui N, Murata Y. 1982. Method for measuring the powder charge in the electrostatic powder-coating process. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 53:4532–33 [Google Scholar]
  35. Matz SA. 1984. Miscellaneous equipment. Snack Food Technology361–72 Westport, CT: AVI Publ. Co. Inc. [Google Scholar]
  36. Mayr MB, Barringer SA. 2006. Corona compared with triboelectric charging for electrostatic powder coating. J. Food Sci. 71:4171–77 [Google Scholar]
  37. Mazumder MK, Wankum DL, Sims RA, Mountain JR, Chen H. et al. 1997. Influence of powder properties on the performance of electrostatic coating process. J. Electrostat. 40–41:369–74 [Google Scholar]
  38. Miller M, Barringer S. 2002. Effect of sodium chloride particle size and shape on nonelectrostatic and electrostatic coating of popcorn. J. Food Sci. 67:1198–201 [Google Scholar]
  39. Podczeck F. 1998. Particle-Particle Adhesion in Pharmaceutical Powder Handling London: Imp. Coll. Press243
  40. Poverenov E, Danino S, Horev B, Granit R, Vinokur Y, Rodov V. 2014. Layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition of edible coating on fresh cut melon model: anticipated and unexpected effects of alginate–chitosan combination. Food Bioprocess Technol 7:51424–32 [Google Scholar]
  41. Rao SN, Barringer SA. 2006. Calcification of diced tomatoes by liquid dipping versus electrostatic powder coating. J. Food Process. Preserv. 30:171–78 [Google Scholar]
  42. Ratanatriwong P, Barringer SA. 2007. Particle size, cohesiveness and charging effects on electrostatic and nonelectrostatic powder coating. J. Electrostat. 65:10–11704–8 [Google Scholar]
  43. Ratanatriwong P, Barringer SA, Delwiche J. 2003. Sensory preference, coating evenness, dustiness, and transfer efficiency of electrostatically coated potato chips. J. Food Sci. 68:41542–47 [Google Scholar]
  44. Ratanatriwong P, Suwansri S, Barringer SA, Tanasukarn P. 2009. Effect of electrostatic coating on consumer acceptance and process efficiency of seasoned coated snacks. Asian J. Food Agro-Ind. 2:151–64 [Google Scholar]
  45. Seighman J. 2001. Snack food seasoning. See Lusas & Rooney 2001 495–527
  46. Sims RA, Mazumder MK, Biris AS, Sharma R, Kumar D. 2000. Effect of electric resistivity on the adhesion and thickness of electrostatically deposited powder layers. IEEE Ind. Appl. Conf. 2:82–83 [Google Scholar]
  47. Singh S, O'Neil BC, Bright AW. 1978. A parametric study of electrostatic powder coating. J. Electrostat. 4:4325–34 [Google Scholar]
  48. Somboonvechakarn C, Barringer SA. 2009. Effects of particle size on mixtures during nonelectrostatic and electrostatic powder coating. J. Food Process Eng. 34:1086–100 [Google Scholar]
  49. Somboonvechakarn C, Barringer SA. 2011. Effect of particle density and composition on mixtures during nonelectrostatic and electrostatic powder coating. J. Food Process Eng. 35:236–49 [Google Scholar]
  50. Sumonsiri N, Barringer SA. 2010. Effect of powder and target properties on wrap around effect during coating. J. Food Sci. 75:8E537–43 [Google Scholar]
  51. Sumonsiri N, Barringer SA. 2011. Effect of sodium chloride and food target properties on nonelectrostatic and electrostatic coating. J. Electrostat. 69:6578–86 [Google Scholar]
  52. Wang F, Martinuzzi R, Zhu J. 2005. Experimental study of particle trajectory in electrostatics powder coating process. Powder Technol. 150:1220–29 [Google Scholar]
  53. Watanabe H, Matsuyama T, Yamamoto H. 2003. Experimental study on the electrostatic atomization of highly viscous liquids. J. Electrostat. 57:2183–97 [Google Scholar]
  54. Wilkerson JB, Gaultney LD. 1989. Electrostatic atomization of vegetable oil for pesticide spraying Work Pap. 891524, Am. Soc. Agric. Biol. Eng.
  55. Xu Y, Barringer SA. 2008. Effect of relative humidity on coating efficiency in nonelectrostatic and electrostatic coating. J. Food Sci. 73:6297–303 [Google Scholar]
  56. Ye Q, Domnick J. 2003. On the simulation of space charge in electrostatic powder coating with a corona spray gun. Powder Technol. 135–136:10250–60 [Google Scholar]
  57. Yousuf S, Barringer SA. 2007. Modeling nonelectrostatic and electrostatic powder coating. J. Food Eng. 83:4550–61 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error