1932

Abstract

Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) provide sweetness to foods and beverages without adding calories. They have thus been found useful in minimizing the dietary sugar content of diabetics and the dietary energy content of individuals attempting to lose or maintain body weight. Their usefulness in weight reduction has recently been questioned, however, based on the notion that they can actually increase hunger and food intake and thereby promote weight gain. The evidence offered in support of this idea comes principally from the fields of taste physiology, metabolic endocrinology, human behavior, and epidemiology. This review evaluates this evidence and does not find it compelling. Indeed, the most straightforward findings to the contrary derive from several intervention studies in both children and adults showing that the chronic, covert replacement of dietary sugar with NNSs does not increase, and can in fact reduce, energy intake and body weight.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-022814-015635
2015-04-10
2024-05-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/food/6/1/annurev-food-022814-015635.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-022814-015635&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Archer E, Hand GA, Blair SN. 2013. Validity of U.S. nutritional surveillance: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey caloric energy intake data, 1971–2010. PLOS ONE 8:10e76632 [Google Scholar]
  2. Assadi-Porter FM, Maillet EL, Radek JT, Quijada J, Markley JL, Max M. 2010. Key amino acid residues involved in multi-point binding interactions between brazzein, a sweet protein, and the T1R2–T1R3 human sweet receptor. J. Mol. Biol. 398:584–99 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bachmanov AA, Li X, Reed DR, Ohmen JD, Li S. et al. 2001. Positional cloning of the mouse saccharin preference (sac) locus. Chem. Senses 26:925–33 [Google Scholar]
  4. Berkey CS, Rockett HRH, Field AE, Gillman MW, Colditz GA. 2004. Sugar-added beverages and adolescent weight change. Obes. Res. 12:778–88 [Google Scholar]
  5. Blackburn GL, Kanders BS, Lavin PT, Keller SD, Whatley J. 1997. The effect of aspartame as part of a multidisciplinary weight-control program on short- and long-term control of body weight. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65:409–18 [Google Scholar]
  6. Blum JW, Jacobsen DJ, Donnelly JE. 2005. Beverage consumption patterns in elementary school aged children across a two-year period. J. Am. Coll. Nutr. 24:93–98 [Google Scholar]
  7. Blundell JE, Hill AJ. 1986. Paradoxical effects of an intense sweetener (aspartame) on appetite. Lancet 1:1092–93 [Google Scholar]
  8. Borzelleca JF, Verhagen H. 2000. Sucralose safety assessment. Food Chem. Toxicol. 38Suppl. 2 Oxford, UK: Elsevier Sci. [Google Scholar]
  9. Brosnan JT, Drewnowski A, Friedman MI. 2014. Is there a relationship between dietary MSG and obesity in animals or humans? . Amino Acids 46:2075–87 [Google Scholar]
  10. Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI. 2010. Artificial sweeteners: a systematic review of metabolic effects in youth. Int. J. Pediatr. Obes. 5:305–12 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brown RJ, Rother KI. 2012. Non-nutritive sweeteners and their role in the gastrointestinal tract. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 97:2597–605 [Google Scholar]
  12. Brown RJ, Walter M, Rother KI. 2009. Ingestion of diet soda before a glucose load augments glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. Diabetes Care 32:2184–86 [Google Scholar]
  13. Butchko HH, Stargel WW, Comer CP, Mayhew DA, Benninger C. et al. 2002. Aspartame: review of safety. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 35:S1–93 [Google Scholar]
  14. Chandrashekar J, Hoon MA, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS. 2006. The receptors and cells for mammalian taste. Nature 444:288–94 [Google Scholar]
  15. Colditz GA, Willett WC, Stampfer MJ, London SJ, Segal MR, Speizer FE. 1990. Patterns of weight change and their relation to diet in a cohort of healthy women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 51:1100–5 [Google Scholar]
  16. Daly K, Al-Rammahi M, Arora DK, Moran AW, Proudman CJ. et al. 2012. Expression of sweet receptor components in equine small intestine: relevance to intestinal glucose transport. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 303:R199–208 [Google Scholar]
  17. Danilova V, Hellekant G, Tinti JM, Nofre C. 1998. Gustatory responses of the hamster Mesocricetus auratus to various compounds considered sweet by humans. J. Neurophysiol. 80:2102–12 [Google Scholar]
  18. de Koning L, Malik VS, Kellogg MD, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. 2012. Sweetened beverage consumption, incident coronary heart disease, and biomarkers of risk in men. Circulation 125:1735–41 [Google Scholar]
  19. de Koning L, Malik VS, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. 2011. Sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 93:1321–27 [Google Scholar]
  20. de Ruyter JC, Katan MB, Kuijper LDJ, Liem DG, Olthof MR. 2013. The effect of sugar-free versus sugar-sweetened beverages on satiety, liking and wanting: an 18 month randomized double-blind trial in children. PLOS ONE 8:e78039 [Google Scholar]
  21. de Ruyter JC, Olthof MR, Kuijper LDJ, Katan MB. 2012a. Effect of sugar-sweetened beverages on body weight in children: design and baseline characteristics of the Double-blind, Randomized INtervention study in Kids. Contemp. Clin. Trials 33:247–57 [Google Scholar]
  22. de Ruyter JC, Olthof MR, Seidell JC, Katan MB. 2012b. A trial of sugar-free or sugar-sweetened beverages and body weight in children. N. Engl. J. Med. 367:1397–406 [Google Scholar]
  23. Dhingra R, Sullivan L, Jacques PF, Wang TJ, Fox CS. et al. 2007. Soft drink consumption and risk of developing cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged adults in the community. Circulation 116:480–88 [Google Scholar]
  24. Dyer J, Salmon KSH, Zibrik L, Shirazi-Beechey SP. 2005. Expression of sweet taste receptors of the T1R family in the intestinal tract and enteroendocrine cells. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 33:302–5 [Google Scholar]
  25. EFSA Panel Food Additives and Nutrient Sources Added to Food 2010. Scientific opinion on the safety of steviol glycosides for the proposed uses as a food additive. EFSA J. 8:41537 [Google Scholar]
  26. Egan JM, Margolskee RF. 2008. Taste cells of the gut and gastrointestinal chemosensation. Mol. Interv. 8:78–81 [Google Scholar]
  27. Forshee RA, Storey ML. 2003. Total beverage consumption and beverage choices among children and adolescents. Int. J. Food. Sci. Nutr. 54:297–307 [Google Scholar]
  28. Fowler SP, Williams K, Resendez RG, Hunt KJ, Hazuda HP, Stern MP. 2008. Fueling the obesity epidemic? Artificially sweetened beverage use and long-term weight gain. Obesity 16:1894–900 [Google Scholar]
  29. Fujita Y, Wideman RD, Speck M, Asadi A, King DS. et al. 2009. Incretin release from gut is acutely enhanced by sugar but not by sweeteners in vivo. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 296:E473–79 [Google Scholar]
  30. Geraedts MCP, Takahashi T, Vigues S, Markwardt ML, Nkobena A. et al. 2012. Transformation of postingestive glucose responses after deletion of sweet taste receptor subunits or gastric bypass surgery. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 303:E464–74 [Google Scholar]
  31. Giammattei J, Blix G, Marshak HH, Wollitzer AO, Pettitt DJ. 2003. Television watching and soft drink consumption: associations with obesity in 11- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 157:882–86 [Google Scholar]
  32. Grotz VL, Munro IC. 2009. An overview of the safety of sucralose. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 55:1–5 [Google Scholar]
  33. Henquin JC. 2012. Do pancreatic β cells “taste” nutrients to secrete insulin?. Sci. Signal. 5:pe36 [Google Scholar]
  34. Hoon MA, Adler E, Lindemeier J, Battey JF, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS. 1999. Putative mammalian taste receptors: a class of taste-specific GPCRs with distinct topographic selectivity. Cell 96:541–51 [Google Scholar]
  35. Jang HJ, Kokrashvili Z, Theodorakis MJ, Carlson OD, Kim BJ. et al. 2007. Gut-expressed gustducin and taste receptors regulate secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1. PNAS 104:15069–74 [Google Scholar]
  36. Janssen P, Rotondo A, Mulé F, Tack J. 2013. Review article: a comparison of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 37:18–36 [Google Scholar]
  37. Jiang P, Cui M, Zhao B, Liu Z, Snyder LA. et al. 2005. Lactisole interacts with the transmembrane domains of human T1R3 to inhibit sweet taste. J. Biol. Chem. 280:15238–46 [Google Scholar]
  38. Jiang P, Ji Q, Liu Z, Snyder LA, Benard LMJ. et al. 2004. The cysteine-rich region of T1R3 determines responses to intensely sweet proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 279:45068–75 [Google Scholar]
  39. Johnson L, Mander AP, Jones LR, Emmett PM, Jebb SA. 2007. Is sugar-sweetened beverage consumption associated with increased fatness in children?. Nutrition 23:557–63 [Google Scholar]
  40. Joint FAO WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives 2004. Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants: neotame. WHO Food Additives Series 52. http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v52je08.htm
  41. Kitagawa M, Kusakabe Y, Miura H, Ninomiya Y, Hino A. 2001. Molecular genetic identification of a candidate receptor gene for sweet taste. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 283:236–42 [Google Scholar]
  42. Kroger M, Meister K, Kava R. 2006. Low-calorie sweeteners and other sugar substitutes: a review of the safety issues. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 5:35–47 [Google Scholar]
  43. Kyriazis GA, Soundarapandian MM, Tyrberg B. 2012. Sweet taste receptor signaling in beta cells mediates fructose-induced potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. PNAS 109:E524–32 [Google Scholar]
  44. Lafontan M. 2008. Advances in adipose tissue metabolism. Int. J. Obes. 32:Suppl. 7SS39–51 [Google Scholar]
  45. Li X, Staszewski L, Xu H, Durick K, Zoller M, Adler E. 2002. Human receptors for sweet and umami taste. PNAS 99:4692–96 [Google Scholar]
  46. Lindemann B. 1996. Taste reception. Physiol. Rev. 76:719–66 [Google Scholar]
  47. Lindemann B. 2001. Receptors and transduction in taste. Nature 413:219–25 [Google Scholar]
  48. Liu B, Ha M, Meng XY, Kaur T, Khaleduzzaman M. et al. 2011. Molecular mechanism of species-dependent sweet taste toward artificial sweeteners. J. Neurosci. 31:11070–76 [Google Scholar]
  49. Ludwig DS, Peterson KE, Gortmaker SL. 2001. Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. Lancet 357:505–8 [Google Scholar]
  50. Lutsey PL, Steffen LM, Stevens J. 2008. Dietary intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Circulation 117:754–61 [Google Scholar]
  51. Ma J, Bellon M, Wishart JM, Young R, Blackshaw LA. et al. 2009. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on gastric emptying and incretin hormone release in healthy subjects. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 296:G735–39 [Google Scholar]
  52. Ma J, Chang J, Checklin HL, Young RL, Jones KL. et al. 2010. Effect of the artificial sweetener, sucralose, on small intestinal glucose absorption in healthy human subjects. Br. J. Nutr. 104:803–6 [Google Scholar]
  53. Maersk M, Belza A, Stødkilde-Jørgensen H, Ringgaard S, Chabanova E. et al. 2012. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot: a 6-mo randomized intervention study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 95:283–89 [Google Scholar]
  54. Magnuson BA, Burdock GA, Doull J, Kroes RM, Marsh GM. et al. 2007. Aspartame: a safety evaluation based on current use levels, regulations, and toxicological and epidemiological studies. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 37:629–727 [Google Scholar]
  55. Margolskee RF, Dyer J, Kokrashvili Z, Salmon KSH, Ilegems E. et al. 2007. T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1. PNAS 104:15075–80 [Google Scholar]
  56. Mattes RD, Popkin BM. 2009. Nonnutritive sweetener consumption in humans: effects on appetite and food intake and their putative mechanisms. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89:11–14 [Google Scholar]
  57. Max M, Shanker YG, Huang L, Rong M, Liu Z. et al. 2001. Tas1r3, encoding a new candidate taste receptor, is allelic to the sweet responsiveness locus Sac. Nat. Genet. 28:58–63 [Google Scholar]
  58. Mayer DG, Kemper FH. 1991. Acesulfame-K New York: Marcel Dekker
  59. McBurney DH, Gent JF. 1979. On the nature of taste qualities. Psychol. Bull. 86:151–67 [Google Scholar]
  60. Miller SA, Frattali VP. 1989. Saccharin. Diabetes Care 12:75–80 [Google Scholar]
  61. Miyazaki J, Araki K, Yamato E, Ikegami H, Asano T. et al. 1990. Establishment of a pancreatic β cell line that retains glucose-inducible insulin secretion: special reference to expression of glucose transporter isoforms. Endocrinology 127:126–32 [Google Scholar]
  62. Montmayeur JP, Liberles SD, Matsunami H, Buck LB. 2001. A candidate taste receptor gene near a sweet taste locus. Nat. Neurosci. 4:492–98 [Google Scholar]
  63. Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. 2011. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N. Engl. J. Med. 364:2392–404 [Google Scholar]
  64. Nakagawa Y, Nagasawa M, Yamada S, Hara A, Mogami H. et al. 2009. Sweet taste receptor expressed in pancreatic β-cells activates the calcium and cyclic amp signaling systems and stimulates insulin secretion. PLOS ONE 4:e5106 [Google Scholar]
  65. Nelson G, Chandrashekar J, Hoon MA, Feng L, Zhao G. et al. 2002. An amino-acid taste receptor. Nature 416:199–202 [Google Scholar]
  66. Nelson G, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, Zhang Y, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS. 2001. Mammalian sweet taste receptors. Cell 106:381–90 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-022814-015635
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-food-022814-015635
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error