Human noroviruses (NoVs) are the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, and they exact a considerable human and economic burden worldwide. In fact, the many challenging aspects of human NoV have caused some to call it the nearly perfect foodborne pathogen. In this review, a brief overview of NoVs and their genetic structure is provided. Additionally, the challenges and recent developments related to human NoVs regarding viral evolution, transmission, epidemiology, outbreak identification, cultivation, animal and human models, and detection are presented.


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