This article reviews progress in the field of food colloids with particular emphasis on advances in novel functional ingredients and nanoscale structuring. Specific aspects of ingredient development described here are the stabilization of bubbles and foams by the protein hydrophobin, the emulsifying characteristics of Maillard-type protein–polysaccharide conjugates, the structural and functional properties of protein fibrils, and the Pickering stabilization of dispersed droplets by food-grade nanoparticles and microparticles. Building on advances in the nanoscience of biological materials, the application of structural design principles to the fabrication of edible colloids is leading to progress in the fabrication of functional dispersed systems—multilayer interfaces, multiple emulsions, and gel-like emulsions. The associated physicochemical insight is contributing to our mechanistic understanding of oral processing and textural perception of food systems and to the development of colloid-based strategies to control delivery of nutrients during food digestion within the human gastrointestinal tract.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Abhyankar AR, Mulvihill DM, Auty MAE. 2011. Combined microscopic and dynamic rheological methods for studying the structural breakdown properties of whey protein gels and emulsion filled gels. Food Hydrocoll. 25:275–82 [Google Scholar]
  2. Adamcik J, Jung J-M, Flakowski J, De Los Rios P, Dietler G, Mezzenga R. 2010. Understanding amyloid aggregation by statistical analysis of atomic force microscopy images. Nat. Nanotech. 5:423–28 [Google Scholar]
  3. Adamcik J, Mezzenga R. 2012. Protein fibrils from a polymer physics perspective. Macromolecules 45:1137–50 [Google Scholar]
  4. Akhtar M, Dickinson E. 2001. Water-in-oil-in-water multiple emulsions stabilized by polymeric and natural emulsifiers. Food Colloids: Fundamentals of Formulation E Dickinson, R Miller 133–43 Cambridge, UK: R. Soc. Chem. [Google Scholar]
  5. Akhtar M, Murray BS, Afeisume EI, Khew SH. 2014. Encapsulation of flavonoid in multiple emulsion using spinning disc reactor technology. Food Hydrocoll. 34:62–67 [Google Scholar]
  6. Alexandrov NA, Marinova KG, Gurkov TD, Danov KD, Kralchevsky PA. et al. 2012. Interfacial layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin: dynamic surface tension, dilatational elasticity and relaxation times. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 376:296–306 [Google Scholar]
  7. Al-Hakkak J, Al-Hakkak F. 2010. Functional egg white–pectin conjugates prepared by controlled Maillard reaction. J. Food Eng. 100:152–59 [Google Scholar]
  8. An Y, Cui B, Wang Y, Jin W, Geng X. et al. 2014. Functional properties of ovalbumin glycosylated with carboxymethyl cellulose of different substitution degree. Food Hydrocoll. 40:1–8 [Google Scholar]
  9. Aumaitre E, Knoche S, Cicuta P, Vella D. 2013. Wrinkling in the deflation of elastic bubbles. Eur. Phys. J. E 36:22 [Google Scholar]
  10. Aumaitre E, Wongsuwarn S, Rossetti D, Hedges ND, Cox AR. et al. 2012. A viscoelastic regime in dilute hydrophobin monolayers. Soft Matter 8:1175–83 [Google Scholar]
  11. Basheva ES, Kralchevsky PA, Christov NC, Danov KD, Stoyanov SD. et al. 2011. Unique properties of bubbles and foam films stabilized by HFBII hydrophobin. Langmuir 27:2382–92 [Google Scholar]
  12. Blijdenstein TBJ, de Groot PWN, Stoyanov SD. 2010. On the link between foam coarsening and surface rheology: why hydrophobins are so different. Soft Matter 6:1799–808 [Google Scholar]
  13. Blijdenstein TBJ, Ganzevles RA, de Groot PWN, Stoyanov SD. 2013. On the link between surface rheology and foam disproportionation in mixed hydrophobin HFBII and whey protein systems. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 438:13–20 [Google Scholar]
  14. Bouquerand P-E, Dardelle G, Erni P. 2012. An industry perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of different flavour delivery systems. Encapsulation Technologies and Delivery Systems for Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals N Garti, DJ McClements 211–51 Cambridge, UK: Woodhead [Google Scholar]
  15. Burke J, Cox A, Petkov J, Murray BS. 2014. Interfacial rheology and stability of air bubbles stabilized by mixtures of hydrophobin and β-casein. Food Hydrocoll. 34:119–27 [Google Scholar]
  16. Camino NA, Carrera Sanchez C, Rodríguez Patino JM, Pilosof AMR. 2012. Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose–β-lactoglobulin mixtures at the oil–water interface. Bulk, interfacial and emulsification behaviour as affected by pH. Food Hydrocoll. 27:464–74 [Google Scholar]
  17. Chen J, Stokes JR. 2012. Rheology and tribology: two distinctive regimes of food texture sensation. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 25:4–12 [Google Scholar]
  18. Cheung DL. 2012. Molecular simulation of hydrophobin adsorption at an oil−water interface. Langmuir 27:8730–36 [Google Scholar]
  19. Chun JY, Choi MJ, Min SG, Weiss J. 2013. Formation and stability of multiple-layered liposomes by layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition of biopolymers. Food Hydrocoll. 30:249–57 [Google Scholar]
  20. Cofrades S, Antoniou I, Solas MT, Herrero AM, Jiménez-Colmenero F. 2013. Preparation and impact of multiple (water-in-oil-in-water) emulsions in meat systems. Food Chem. 141:338–46 [Google Scholar]
  21. Cooper A, Kennedy MW. 2010. Biofoams and natural protein surfactants. Biophys. Chem. 151:96–104 [Google Scholar]
  22. Crater JS, Carrier RL. 2010. Barrier properties of gastrointestinal mucus to nanoparticle transport. Macromol. Biosci. 10:1473–83 [Google Scholar]
  23. Dan A, Gochev G, Krägel J, Aksenenko EV, Fainerman VB, Miller R. 2013. Interfacial rheology of mixed layers of food proteins and surfactants. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:302–10 [Google Scholar]
  24. Dan A, Kotsmar C, Ferri JK, Javadi A, Karbaschi M. et al. 2012. Mixed protein–surfactant adsorption layers formed in a sequential and simultaneous way at W/A and W/O interfaces. Soft Matter 8:6057–65 [Google Scholar]
  25. Danov KD, Radulova GM, Kralchevsky PA, Golemanov K, Stoyanov SD. 2012. Surface shear rheology of hydrophobin adsorption layers: laws of viscoelastic behaviour with applications to long-term foam stability. Faraday Discuss. 158:195–221 [Google Scholar]
  26. Davies GA, Wantling E, Stokes JR. 2009. The influence of beverages on the stimulation and viscoelasticity of saliva: relationship to mouthfeel?. Food Hydrocoll. 23:2261–69 [Google Scholar]
  27. Day L, Zhai J, Xu M, Jones NC, Hoffmann SV, Wooster TJ. 2014. Conformational changes of globular proteins adsorbed at oil-in-water emulsion interfaces examined by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism. Food Hydrocoll. 34:78–87 [Google Scholar]
  28. de Folter JWJ, van Ruijven MWM, Velikov KP. 2012. Oil-in-water Pickering emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles from the water-insoluble protein zein. Soft Matter 8:6807–15 [Google Scholar]
  29. de Oliveira FC, dos Reis Coimbra JS, de Oliveira EB, Zuñiga ADG, Garcia Rojas EE. 2015. Food protein–polysaccharide conjugates obtained via the Maillard reaction: a review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. In press. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2012.755669 [Google Scholar]
  30. Delahaije RJBM, Gruppen H, van Nieuwenhuijzen NH, Giuseppin MLF, Wierenga PA. 2013. Effect of glycation on the flocculation behaviour of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Langmuir 29:15201–8 [Google Scholar]
  31. Delample M, Da Silva F, Leal-Calderon F. 2014. Osmotically driven gelation in double emulsions. Food Hydrocoll. 38:11–19 [Google Scholar]
  32. Destribats M, Eyharts M, Lapeyre V, Sellier E, Varga I. et al. 2014a. Impact of pNIPAM microgel size on its ability to stabilize Pickering emulsions. Langmuir 30:1768–77 [Google Scholar]
  33. Destribats M, Lapeyre V, Wolfs M, Sellier E, Leal-Calderon F. et al. 2011. Soft microgels as Pickering emulsion stabilizers: role of particle deformability. Soft Matter 7:7689–98 [Google Scholar]
  34. Destribats M, Rouvet M, Gehin-Delval C, Schmitt C, Binks BP. 2014b. Emulsions stabilized by whey protein microgel particles: towards food-grade Pickering emulsions. Soft Matter 10:6941–54 [Google Scholar]
  35. Dhar P, Cao Y, Fischer TM, Zasadzinski JA. 2010. Active interfacial shear microrheology of aging protein films. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104:016001 [Google Scholar]
  36. Dickinson E. 2006a. Interfacial particles in food emulsions and foams. Colloidal Particles at Liquid Interfaces BP Binks, TS Horozov 298–327 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  37. Dickinson E. 2006b. Structure formation in casein-based gels, foams and emulsions. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 288:3–11 [Google Scholar]
  38. Dickinson E. 2008. Interfacial structure and stability of food emulsions as affected by protein–polysaccharide interactions. Soft Matter 4:932–42 [Google Scholar]
  39. Dickinson E. 2009. Hydrocolloids as emulsifiers and emulsion stabilizers. Food Hydrocoll. 23:1473–82 [Google Scholar]
  40. Dickinson E. 2010a. Flocculation of protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 81:130–40 [Google Scholar]
  41. Dickinson E. 2010b. Food emulsions and foams: stabilization by particles. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 15:40–49 [Google Scholar]
  42. Dickinson E. 2011a. Double emulsions stabilized by food biopolymers. Food Biophys. 6:1–11 [Google Scholar]
  43. Dickinson E. 2011b. Food colloids research: historical perspective and outlook. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 165:7–13 [Google Scholar]
  44. Dickinson E. 2011c. Mixed biopolymers at interfaces: competitive adsorption and multilayer structures. Food Hydrocoll. 25:1966–83 [Google Scholar]
  45. Dickinson E. 2012a. Emulsion gels: the structuring of soft solids with protein-stabilized oil droplets. Food Hydrocoll. 28:224–41 [Google Scholar]
  46. Dickinson E. 2012b. Use of nanoparticles and microparticles in the formation and stabilization of food emulsions. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 24:4–12 [Google Scholar]
  47. Dickinson E. 2013. Stabilizing emulsion-based colloidal structures with mixed food ingredients. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93:710–21 [Google Scholar]
  48. Dickinson E, Chen J. 1999. Heat-set whey protein emulsion gels: role of active and inactive filler particles. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 20:197–213 [Google Scholar]
  49. Douaire M, Norton IT. 2013. Designer colloids in structured food for the future. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93:3147–54 [Google Scholar]
  50. Erni P, Jerri HA, Wong K, Parker A. 2012. Interfacial viscoelasticity controls buckling, wrinkling and arrest in emulsion drops undergoing mass transfer. Soft Matter 8:6958–67 [Google Scholar]
  51. Ettelaie R, Akinshina A, Dickinson E. 2008. Mixed protein–polysaccharide interfacial layers: a self-consistent field calculation study. Faraday Discuss. 139:161–78 [Google Scholar]
  52. Evans M, Ratcliffe I, Williams PA. 2013. Emulsion stabilization using polysaccharide–protein complexes. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:272–82 [Google Scholar]
  53. Frank K, Walz E, Gräf V, Greiner R, Köhler K, Schuchmann HP. 2012. Stability of anthocyanin-rich W/O/W emulsions designed for intestinal release in gastrointestinal environment. J. Food Sci. 77:N50–57 [Google Scholar]
  54. Frasch-Melnik S, Norton IT, Spyropoulos F. 2010. Fat crystal stabilized w/o emulsions for controlled salt release. J. Food Eng. 98:437–42 [Google Scholar]
  55. Garrec DA, Frasch-Melnik S, Henry JVL, Spyropoulos F, Norton IT. 2012. Designing colloidal structures for micro and macro nutrient content and release in foods. Faraday Discuss. 158:37–49 [Google Scholar]
  56. Geisel K, Isa L, Richtering W. 2014. The compressibility of pH-sensitive microgels at the oil–water interface: Higher charge leads to less repulsion. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 53:1–6 [Google Scholar]
  57. Ghosh S, Rousseau D. 2011. Fat crystals and water-in-oil emulsion stability. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 16:421–31 [Google Scholar]
  58. Giroux HJ, Constantineau S, Fustier P, Champagne CP, St-Gelais D. et al. 2013. Cheese fortification using water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions as carrier for water-soluble nutrients. Int. Dairy J. 29:107–14 [Google Scholar]
  59. Green AJ, Littlejohn KA, Hooley P, Cox PW. 2013. Formation and stability of food foams and aerated emulsions: hydrophobins as novel functional ingredients. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:292–301 [Google Scholar]
  60. Grigorovich NV, Moiseenko DV, Antipova AS, Anokhina MS, Belyakova LE. et al. 2012. Structural and thermodynamic features of covalent conjugates of sodium caseinate with maltodextrins underlying their functionality. Food Funct. 3:283–89 [Google Scholar]
  61. Guo Q, Ye A, Lad M, Dalgleish D, Singh H. 2013. The breakdown properties of heat-set whey protein emulsion gels in the human mouth. Food Hydrocoll. 33:215–24 [Google Scholar]
  62. Guo Q, Ye A, Lad M, Dalgleish D, Singh H. 2014a. Behaviour of whey protein emulsion gel during oral and gastric digestion: effect of droplet size. Soft Matter 10:4173–83 [Google Scholar]
  63. Guo Q, Ye A, Lad M, Dalgleish D, Singh H. 2014b. Effect of gel structure on the gastric digestion of whey protein emulsion gels. Soft Matter 10:1214–23 [Google Scholar]
  64. Gupta R, Rousseau D. 2012. Surface-active solid lipid nanoparticles as Pickering stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. Food Funct. 3:302–11 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hashemi MM, Aminlari M, Moosavinasab M. 2014. Preparation of and studies on the functional properties and bactericidal activity of the lysozyme–xanthan gum conjugate. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 57:594–602 [Google Scholar]
  66. Hemar Y, Cheng LJ, Oliver CM, Sanguansri L, Augustin MA. 2010. Encapsulation of resveratrol using water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions. Food Biophys. 5:120–27 [Google Scholar]
  67. Hiller B, Lorenzen PC. 2010. Functional properties of milk proteins as affected by Maillard reaction induced oligomerization. Food Res. Int. 43:1155–66 [Google Scholar]
  68. Hou Z, Gao Y, Yuan F, Liu Y, Li C, Xu D. 2010. Investigation into the physicochemical stability and rheological properties of β-carotene emulsion stabilized by soybean soluble polysaccharides and chitosan. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:8604–11 [Google Scholar]
  69. Humblet-Hua KNP, Scheltens G, van der Linden E, Sagis LMC. 2011. Encapsulation systems based on ovalbumin fibrils and high methoxyl pectin. Food Hydrocoll. 25:307–14 [Google Scholar]
  70. Isa L, Jung J-M, Mezzenga R. 2011. Unravelling adsorption and alignment of amyloid fibrils at interfaces by probe particle tracking. Soft Matter 7:8127–34 [Google Scholar]
  71. Jiménez-Colmenero F. 2013. Potential applications of multiple emulsions in the development of healthy and functional foods. Food Res. Int. 52:64–74 [Google Scholar]
  72. Jin H, Zhou W, Cao J, Stoyanov SD, Blijdenstein TBJ. et al. 2012. Super stable foams stabilized by colloidal ethyl cellulose particles. Soft Matter 8:2194–205 [Google Scholar]
  73. Jones OG, Mezzenga R. 2012. Inhibiting, promoting, and preserving stability of functional protein fibrils. Soft Matter 8:876–95 [Google Scholar]
  74. Jung J-M, Gunez DZ, Mezzenga R. 2010. Interfacial activity and interfacial shear rheology of native β-lactoglobulin monomers and their heat-induced fibers. Langmuir 26:15366–75 [Google Scholar]
  75. Kalashnikova I, Bizot H, Cathala B, Capron I. 2011. New Pickering emulsions stabilized by bacterial cellulose nanocrystals. Langmuir 27:7471–79 [Google Scholar]
  76. Kargar M, Fayazmanesh K, Alavi M, Spyropoulos F, Norton IT. 2012. Investigation into the potential ability of Pickering emulsions (food-grade particles) to enhance the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 366:209–15 [Google Scholar]
  77. Kargar M, Spyropoulos F, Norton IT. 2011. The effect of interfacial microstructure on the lipid oxidation stability of oil-in-water emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 357:527–33 [Google Scholar]
  78. Kasran M, Cui SW, Goff HD. 2013. Covalent attachment of fenugreek gum to soy whey protein isolate through natural Maillard reaction for improved emulsion stability. Food Hydrocoll. 30:552–58 [Google Scholar]
  79. Khalid N, Kobayashi I, Neves MA, Uemura K, Nakajima M, Nabetani H. 2014. Monodisperse W/O/W emulsions encapsulating l-ascorbic acid: insights on their formulation using microchannel emulsification and stability studies. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 458:69–77 [Google Scholar]
  80. Kisko K, Szilvay GR, Vuorimaa E, Lemmetyinen H, Linder MB. et al. 2009. Self-assembled films of hydrophobin proteins HFBI and HFBII studied in situ at the air/water interface. Langmuir 25:1612–19 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kotsmár C, Grigoriev DO, Makievski AV, Ferri JK, Krägel J. et al. 2008. Drop profile analysis tensiometry with drop bulk exchange to study the sequential and simultaneous adsorption of a mixed β-casein/C12DMPO system. Colloid Polym. Sci. 286:1071–77 [Google Scholar]
  82. Kroes-Nijboer A, Venema P, van der Linden E. 2012. Fibrillar structures in food. Food Funct. 3:221–27 [Google Scholar]
  83. Leal-Calderon F, Homer S, Goh A, Lundin L. 2012. W/O/W emulsions with high internal droplet volume fraction. Food Hydrocoll. 27:30–41 [Google Scholar]
  84. Lee KY, Blaker JJ, Murakami R, Heng JYY, Bismarck A. 2014. Phase behaviour of medium and high internal phase water-in-oil emulsions stabilized solely by hydrophobized bacterial cellulose nanofibrils. Langmuir 30:452–60 [Google Scholar]
  85. Lee MH, Reich DH, Stebe KJ, Leheny RL. 2010. Combined passive and active microrheology study of protein-layer formation at an air–water interface. Langmuir 26:2650–58 [Google Scholar]
  86. Lesmes U, McClements DJ. 2012. Controlling lipid digestibility: response of lipid droplets coated by β-lactoglobulin–dextran Maillard conjugates to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Food Hydrocoll. 26:221–30 [Google Scholar]
  87. Li C, Li Y, Sun PD, Yang C. 2013a. Pickering emulsions stabilized by native starch granules. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 431:142–49 [Google Scholar]
  88. Li C, Li Y, Sun PD, Yang C. 2014a. Starch nanocrystals as particle stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 94:1802–7 [Google Scholar]
  89. Li C, Sun PD, Yang C. 2012a. Emulsions stabilized by starch nanocrystals. Starch - Stärke 64:497–502 [Google Scholar]
  90. Li C, Xue H, Chen Z, Ding Q, Wang X. 2014b. Comparative studies on the physicochemical properties of peanut protein isolate–polysaccharide conjugates prepared by ultrasonic treatment or classical heating. Food Res. Int. 57:1–7 [Google Scholar]
  91. Li JL, Cheng YQ, Wang P, Zhao WT, Yin LJ, Saito M. 2012b. A novel improvement in whey protein isolate emulsion stability: generation of an enzymatically cross-linked beet pectin layer using horseradish peroxidase. Food Hydrocoll. 26:448–55 [Google Scholar]
  92. Li Y, McClements DJ. 2011. Controlling lipid digestion by encapsulation of protein-stabilized lipid droplets within alginate–chitosan complex coacervates. Food Hydrocoll. 25:1025–33 [Google Scholar]
  93. Li Y, Zhong F, Ji W, Yokoyama W, Shoemaker CF. et al. 2013b. Functional properties of Maillard reaction products of rice protein hydrolysates with mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides. Food Hydrocoll. 30:53–60 [Google Scholar]
  94. Liu F, Tang C-H. 2013. Soy protein nanoparticle aggregates as Pickering stabilizers for oil-in-water emulsions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:8888–98 [Google Scholar]
  95. Liu F, Tang C-H. 2014a. Emulsifying properties of soy protein nanoparticles: influence of the protein concentration and/or emulsification process. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:2644–54 [Google Scholar]
  96. Liu F, Tang C-H. 2014b. Phytosterol colloidal particles as Pickering stabilizers for emulsions. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:5133–41 [Google Scholar]
  97. Lobato-Calleros C, Recillas-Mota MT, Espinosa-Solares T, Alvarez-Ramirez J, Vernon-Carter EJ. 2009. Microstructural and rheological properties of low-fat stirred yoghurts made with skim milk and multiple emulsions. J. Texture Stud. 40:657–75 [Google Scholar]
  98. Loveday SM, Su J, Rao MA, Anema SG, Singh H. 2011. Effect of calcium on the morphology and functionality of whey protein nanofibrils. Biomacromolecules 12:3780–88 [Google Scholar]
  99. Loveday SM, Wang XL, Rao MA, Anema SG, Creamer LK, Singh H. 2010. Tuning the properties of β-lactoglobulin nanofibrils with pH, NaCl and CaCl2. Int. Dairy J. 20:571–79 [Google Scholar]
  100. Loveday SM, Wang XL, Rao MA, Anema SG, Singh H. 2012. β-Lactoglobulin nanofibrils: effect of temperature on fibril formation kinetics, fibril formation and the rheological properties of fibril dispersions. Food Hydrocoll. 27:242–49 [Google Scholar]
  101. Luo Z, Murray BS, Ross AL, Povey MJW, Morgan MRA, Day AJ. 2012. Effects of pH on the ability of flavonoids to act as Pickering emulsion stabilizers. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 92:84–90 [Google Scholar]
  102. Mackie A, Macierzanka A. 2010. Colloidal aspects of protein digestion. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 15:102–8 [Google Scholar]
  103. Maier C, Zeeb B, Weiss J. 2014. Investigations into aggregate formation with oppositely charged oil-in-water emulsions at different pH values. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 117:368–75 [Google Scholar]
  104. Mao YY, McClements DJ. 2012. Fabrication of functional micro-clusters by heteroaggregation of oppositely charged protein-coated lipid droplets. Food Hydrocoll. 27:80–90 [Google Scholar]
  105. Mao YY, McClements DJ. 2013. Modification of emulsion properties by heteroaggregation of oppositely charged starch-coated and protein-coated fat droplets. Food Hydrocoll. 33:320–26 [Google Scholar]
  106. Marefati A, Rayner M, Timgren A, Dejmek P, Sjöö M. 2013. Freezing and freeze-drying of Pickering emulsions stabilized by starch granules. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 436:512–20 [Google Scholar]
  107. Markman G, Livney YD. 2012. Maillard-conjugate based core–shell co-assemblies for nanoencapsulation of hydrophobic nutraceuticals in clear beverages. Food Funct. 3:262–70 [Google Scholar]
  108. Marquez AL, Wagner JR. 2010. Rheology of double (W/O/W) emulsions prepared with soybean milk and fortified with calcium. J. Texture Stud. 41:651–71 [Google Scholar]
  109. Matos M, Timgren A, Sjöö M, Dejmek P, Rayner M. 2013. Preparation and encapsulation properties of double Pickering emulsions stabilized by quinoa starch granules. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 423:147–53 [Google Scholar]
  110. McClements DJ. 2010. Design of nano-laminated coatings to control bioavailability of lipophilic food components. J. Food Sci. 75:R30–42 [Google Scholar]
  111. McClements DJ. 2012. Advances in fabrication of emulsions with enhanced functionality using structural design principles. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 17:235–45 [Google Scholar]
  112. Meshulam D, Lesmes U. 2014. Responsiveness of emulsions stabilized by lactoferrin nano-particles to simulated intestinal conditions. Food Funct. 5:65–73 [Google Scholar]
  113. Mezzenga R, Fischer P. 2013. The self-assembly, aggregation and phase transitions of food protein systems in one, two and three dimensions. Rep. Prog. Phys. 76:046601 [Google Scholar]
  114. Minekus M, Alminger M, Alvito P, Balance S, Bohn T. et al. 2014. A standardized static in vitro digestion method suitable for food—an international consensus. Food Funct. 5:113–24 [Google Scholar]
  115. Moro A, Baez GD, Busti PA, Delorenzi NJ. 2011. Effects of heat-treated β-lactoglobulin and its aggregates on foaming properties. Food Hydrocoll. 25:1009–15 [Google Scholar]
  116. Morris VJ, Groves K. 2013. Food Microstructures: Microscopy, Measurement and Modelling Cambridge, UK: Woodhead [Google Scholar]
  117. Mosca AC, Rocha JA, Sala G, van de Velde F, Stieger M. 2012. Inhomogeneous distribution of fat enhances the perception of fat-related sensory attributes in gelled foods. Food Hydrocoll. 27:448–55 [Google Scholar]
  118. Moschakis T. 2013. Microrheology and particle tracking in food gels and emulsions. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:311–23 [Google Scholar]
  119. Moschakis T, Murray BS, Dickinson E. 2010. On the kinetics of acid-induced sodium caseinate gelation using particle tracking to probe the microrheology. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 345:278–85 [Google Scholar]
  120. Munialo CD, Martin AH, van der Linden E, de Jongh HH. 2014. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 62:2418–27 [Google Scholar]
  121. Murray BS, Dickinson E, Wang Y. 2009. Bubble stability in the presence of oil-in-water emulsion droplets: influence of surface shear versus dilatational rheology. Food Hydrocoll. 23:1198–208 [Google Scholar]
  122. Murray BS, Durga K, Yusoff A, Stoyanov SD. 2011. Stabilization of foams and emulsions by mixtures of surface-active food-grade particles and proteins. Food Hydrocoll. 25:627–38 [Google Scholar]
  123. Nicolai T, Durand D. 2013. Controlled food protein aggregation for new functionality. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:249–56 [Google Scholar]
  124. Nicolai T, Britten M, Schmitt C. 2011. β-Lactoglobulin and WPI aggregates: formation, structure and applications. Food Hydrocoll. 25:1945–62 [Google Scholar]
  125. Niu LY, Jiang ST, Pan LJ, Zhai YS. 2011. Characteristics and functional properties of wheat germ protein glycated with saccharides through Maillard reaction. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 46:2197–203 [Google Scholar]
  126. Norton JE, Norton IT. 2010. Designer colloids—towards healthy everyday foods. Soft Matter 6:3735–42 [Google Scholar]
  127. O'Dwyer SP, O'Beirne D, Eidhin DN, Hennessy AA, O'Kennedy BT. 2013. Formation, rheology and susceptibility to lipid oxidation of multiple emulsions (O/W/O) in table spreads containing omega-3 rich oils. LWT Food Sci. Technol. 51:484–91 [Google Scholar]
  128. O'Regan J, Mulvihill DM. 2010a. Heat stability and freeze–thaw stability of oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate–maltodextrin conjugates. Food Chem. 119:182–90 [Google Scholar]
  129. O'Regan J, Mulvihill DM. 2010b. Sodium caseinate–maltodextrin conjugate hydrolysates: preparation, characterisation and some functional properties. Food Chem. 123:21–31 [Google Scholar]
  130. O'Regan J, Mulvihill DM. 2010c. Sodium caseinate–maltodextrin conjugate stabilized double emulsions: encapsulation and stability. Food Res. Int. 43:224–31 [Google Scholar]
  131. Pascua Y, Koç H, Foegeding EA. 2013. Food structure: roles of mechanical properties and oral processing in determining sensory texture of soft materials. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:324–33 [Google Scholar]
  132. Pawlik AK, Norton IT. 2012. Encapsulation stability of duplex emulsions prepared with SPG cross-flow membrane, SPG rotating membrane and rotor–stator techniques—a comparison. J. Membr. Sci. 415–16:459–68 [Google Scholar]
  133. Pawlik AK, Norton IT. 2014. Bridging benchtop research and industrial processed foods: structuring of model food emulsions. Food Struct. 1:24–38 [Google Scholar]
  134. Pinaud F, Geisel K, Massé P, Catargi B, Isa L. et al. 2014. Adsorption of microgels at an oil–water interface: correlation between packing and 2D elasticity. Soft Matter 10:6963–74 [Google Scholar]
  135. Qi JR, Liao JS, Yin SW, Zhu JH, Yang XQ. 2010. Formation of acid-precipitated soy protein–dextran conjugates by Maillard reaction in liquid systems. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45:2573–80 [Google Scholar]
  136. Radulova GM, Golemanov K, Danov KD, Kralchevsky PA, Stoyanov SD. et al. 2012. Surface shear rheology of adsorbed layers from the protein HFBII hydrophobin: effect of added β-casein. Langmuir 28:4168–77 [Google Scholar]
  137. Rayner M, Marku D, Eriksson M, Sjöö M, Dejmek P, Wahlgren M. 2014. Biomass-based particles for the formulation of Pickering type emulsions in food and topical applications. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 458:48–62 [Google Scholar]
  138. Rayner M, Sjöö M, Timgren A, Dejmek P. 2012a. Quinoa starch granules as stabilizing particles for production of Pickering emulsions. Faraday Discuss. 158:139–44 [Google Scholar]
  139. Rayner M, Timgren A, Sjöö M, Dejmek P. 2012b. Quinoa starch granules: a candidate for stabilising food-grade Pickering emulsions. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92:1841–47 [Google Scholar]
  140. Reger M, Hoffmann H. 2012. Hydrophobin-coated boehmite nanoparticles stabilizing oil-in-water emulsions. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 368:378–86 [Google Scholar]
  141. Reger M, Sekine T, Okamoto T, Watanabe K, Hoffmann H. 2011. Pickering emulsions stabilized by novel clay–hydrophobin synergism. Soft Matter 7:11021–30 [Google Scholar]
  142. Ritchering W. 2012. Responsive emulsions stabilized by stimuli-sensitive microgels: emulsions with special non-Pickering properties. Langmuir 28:17218–29 [Google Scholar]
  143. Rodríguez Patino JM, Pilosof AMR. 2011. Protein–polysaccharide interactions at fluid interfaces. Food Hydrocoll. 25:1925–37 [Google Scholar]
  144. Rossier-Miranda FJ, Schroen K, Boom R. 2010. Mechanical characterization and pH response of fibril-reinforced microcapsules prepared by layer-by-layer adsorption. Langmuir 26:19106–13 [Google Scholar]
  145. Rousseau D. 2013. Trends in structuring edible emulsions with Pickering fat crystals. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:283–91 [Google Scholar]
  146. Rühs PA, Affolter C, Windhab EJ, Fischer P. 2013. Shear and dilatational linear and nonlinear subphase-controlled interfacial rheology of β-lactoglobulin fibrils and their derivatives. J. Rheol. 57:1003–22 [Google Scholar]
  147. Rühs PA, Scheuble N, Windhab EJ, Mezzenga R, Fischer P. 2012. Simultaneous control of pH and ionic strength during interfacial rheology of β-lactoglobulin fibrils adsorbed at liquid/liquid interfaces. Langmuir 28:12536–43 [Google Scholar]
  148. Rullier B, Axelos MAV, Langevin D, Novales B. 2010. β-Lactoglobulin aggregates in foam films: effect of the concentration and size of the protein aggregates. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 343:330–37 [Google Scholar]
  149. Russell ER, Sprakel J, Kodger TE, Weitz DA. 2012. Colloidal gelation of oppositely charged particles. Soft Matter 8:8697–703 [Google Scholar]
  150. Sagis LMC, Scholten E. 2014. Complex interfaces in food: structural and mechanical properties. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 37:59–71 [Google Scholar]
  151. Sala G, de Wijk RA, van de Velde F, van Aken GA. 2008. Matrix properties affect the sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels. Food Hydrocoll. 22:353–63 [Google Scholar]
  152. Santana RC, Sato ACK, Cunha RL. 2012. Emulsions stabilized by heat-treated collagen fibres. Food Hydrocoll. 26:73–81 [Google Scholar]
  153. Sapei L, Naqvi MA, Rousseau D. 2012. Stability and release properties of double emulsions for food applications. Food Hydrocoll. 27:316–23 [Google Scholar]
  154. Sarkar A, Goh KKT, Singh H. 2009. Colloidal stability and interactions of milk-protein stabilized emulsions in an artificial saliva. Food Hydrocoll. 23:1270–78 [Google Scholar]
  155. Schmelz T, Lesmes U, Weiss J, McClements DJ. 2011. Modulation of physicochemical properties of lipid droplets using β-lactoglobulin and/or lactoferrin interfacial coatings. Food Hydrocoll. 25:1181–89 [Google Scholar]
  156. Schmitt V, Ravaine V. 2013. Surface compaction versus stretching in Pickering emulsions stabilised by microgels. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:532–41 [Google Scholar]
  157. Scholten E, Moschakis T, Biliaderis CG. 2014. Biopolymer composites for engineering food structures to control product functionality. Food Struct. 1:39–54 [Google Scholar]
  158. Schuch A, Wrenger J, Schuchmann HP. 2014. Production of W/O/W double emulsions: influence of emulsification device on release of water by coalescence. Colloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 461:344–51 [Google Scholar]
  159. Serfert Y, Schröder J, Mescher A, Laackmann J, Rätzke K. et al. 2013. Spray drying behaviour and functionality of emulsions with β-lactoglobulin/pectin interfacial complexes. Food Hydrocoll. 31:438–45 [Google Scholar]
  160. Shimoni G, Levi CS, Tal SL, Lesmes U. 2013. Emulsion stabilization by lactoferrin nanoparticles under in vitro digestion conditions. Food Hydrocoll. 33:264–72 [Google Scholar]
  161. Singh H, Ye A. 2013. Structural and biochemical factors affecting the digestion of protein-stabilized emulsions. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:360–70 [Google Scholar]
  162. Skelhon TS, Grossiord N, Morgan AR, Bon SAF. 2012. Quiescent water-in-oil Pickering emulsions as a route toward healthier fruit juice infused chocolate confectionary. J. Mater. Chem. 22:19289–95 [Google Scholar]
  163. Spotti MJ, Martinez MJ, Pilosof AMR, Candioti M, Rubiolo AC, Carrara CR. 2014. Rheological properties of whey protein and dextran conjugates at different reaction times. Food Hydrocoll. 38:76–84 [Google Scholar]
  164. Spotti MJ, Perduca MJ, Piagentini A, Santiago LG, Rubiolo AC, Carrara CR. 2013. Gel mechanical properties of milk whey protein–dextran conjugates obtained by Maillard reaction. Food Hydrocoll. 31:26–32 [Google Scholar]
  165. Stanimirova RD, Gurkov TD, Kralchevsky PA, Balashev KT, Stoyanov SD, Pelan EG. 2013. Surface pressure and elasticity of hydrophobin HFBII layers on the air–water interface: rheology versus structure detected by AFM imaging. Langmuir 29:6053–67 [Google Scholar]
  166. Stieger M. de Velde F. , van 2013. Microstructure, texture and oral processing: new ways to reduce sugar and salt in foods. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:334–48 [Google Scholar]
  167. Stokes JR, Boehma MW, Baier SK. 2013. Oral processing, texture and mouthfeel: from rheology to tribology and beyond. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:349–59 [Google Scholar]
  168. Sun WW, Yu SJ, Yang XQ, Wang JM, Zhang JB. et al. 2011a. Study on the rheological properties of heat-induced whey protein isolate–dextran conjugate gel. Food Res. Int. 44:3259–63 [Google Scholar]
  169. Sun WW, Yu SJ, Zeng XA, Yang XQ, Jia X. 2011b. Properties of whey protein isolate–dextran conjugate prepared using pulsed electric field. Food Res. Int. 44:1052–58 [Google Scholar]
  170. Tan Y, Xu K, Liu C, Li Y, Lu C, Wang P. 2012. Fabrication of starch-based nano-spheres to stabilize Pickering emulsion. Carbohydr. Polym. 88:1358–63 [Google Scholar]
  171. Tan Y, Xu K, Niu C, Liu C, Li Y. et al. 2014. Triglyceride–water emulsions stabilized by starch-based nanoparticles. Food Hydrocoll. 36:70–75 [Google Scholar]
  172. Tang CH, Wang SS, Huang QR. 2012. Improvement of heat-induced fibril assembly of soy β-conglycinin (7S globulins) at pH 2.0 through electrostatic screening. Food Res. Int 46:229–336 [Google Scholar]
  173. Tikekar RV, Pan Y, Nitin N. 2013. Fate of curcumin encapsulated in silica nanoparticle stabilized Pickering emulsion during storage and simulated digestion. Food Res. Int. 51:370–77 [Google Scholar]
  174. Tzoumaki MV, Moschakis T, Kiosseoglou V, Biliaderis CG. 2011. Oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by chitin nanocrystal particles. Food Hydrocoll. 25:1521–29 [Google Scholar]
  175. van Aken GA, Vingerhoeds MH, de Wijk RA. 2011. Textural perception of liquid emulsions: role of oil content, oil viscosity and emulsion viscosity. Food Hydrocoll. 25:789–96 [Google Scholar]
  176. van der Sman RGM. 2012. Soft matter approaches to food structuring. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 176–77:18–30 [Google Scholar]
  177. Velikov KP. 2012. Colloidal emulsions and particles as micronutrient and nutraceutical delivery systems. Encapsulation Technologies and Delivery Systems for Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals N Garti, DJ McClements 317–91 Cambridge, UK: Woodhead [Google Scholar]
  178. Wang JM, Yang XQ, Yin SW, Yuan DB. et al. 2011. Growth kinetics of amyloid-like fibrils derived from individual subunits of soya β-conglycinin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:11270–77 [Google Scholar]
  179. Wang Y, Bouillon C, Cox A, Dickinson E, Durga K. et al. 2013. Interfacial study of class II hydrophobin and its mixtures with milk proteins: relationship to bubble stability. J. Agric. Food Chem. 61:1554–62 [Google Scholar]
  180. Wong BT, Day L, Augustin MA. 2011. Deamidated wheat protein–dextran Maillard conjugates: effect of size and location of polysaccharide conjugated on steric stabilization of emulsions at acidic pH. Food Hydrocoll. 25:1424–32 [Google Scholar]
  181. Xhanari K, Syverud K, Stenius P. 2011. Emulsions stabilized by microfibrillated cellulose: the effect of hydrophobization, concentration and O/W ratio. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 32:447–52 [Google Scholar]
  182. Xu CH, Yu SJ, Yang XQ, Qi JR, Lin H, Zhao ZG. 2010a. Emulsifying properties and structural characteristics of β-conglycinin and dextran conjugates synthesized in a pressurized liquid system. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 45:995–1001 [Google Scholar]
  183. Xu D, Yuan F, Wang X, Li X, Hou Z, Gao Y. 2010b. The effect of whey protein isolate–dextran conjugates on the freeze–thaw stability of oil-in-water emulsions. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 32:77–83 [Google Scholar]
  184. Xu D, Wang X, Jiang J, Yuan F, Gao Y. 2012. Impact of whey protein – beet pectin conjugation on the physicochemical stability of β-carotene emulsions. Food Hydrocoll. 28:258–66 [Google Scholar]
  185. Xue F, Li C, Zhu XW, Wang L, Pan S. 2013. Comparative studies on the physicochemical properties of soy protein isolate-maltodextrin and soy protein isolate-gum acacia conjugate prepared through Maillard reaction. Food Res. Int. 51:490–95 [Google Scholar]
  186. Yadav MP, Strahan GD, Mukhopadhyay S, Hotchkiss AT, Hicks KB. 2012. Formation of corn fiber gum–milk protein conjugates and their molecular characterization. Food Hydrocoll. 26:326–33 [Google Scholar]
  187. Ye A, Gilliland J, Singh H. 2011. Thermal treatment to form a complex surface layer of sodium caseinate and gum Arabic on oil–water interfaces. Food Hydrocoll. 25:1677–86 [Google Scholar]
  188. Yusoff A, Murray BS. 2011. Modified starch granules as particle-stabilizers of oil-in-water emulsions. Food Hydrocoll. 25:42–55 [Google Scholar]
  189. Zeeb B, Fischer L, Weiss J. 2011. Cross-linking of interfacial layers affects the salt and temperature stability of multilayered emulsions consisting of fish gelatin and sugar beet pectin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:10546–55 [Google Scholar]
  190. Zeeb B, Gibbs M, Fischer L, Weiss J. 2012. Cross-linking of interfacial layers in multi-layered oil-in-water emulsions using laccase: characterization and pH-stability. Food Hydrocoll. 27:126–36 [Google Scholar]
  191. Zhai JI, Day L, Aguilara M-I, Wooster TJ. 2013. Protein folding at emulsion oil/water interfaces. Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 18:257–71 [Google Scholar]
  192. Zhai JI, Miles AJ, Pattenden LK, Lee T-H, Augustin MA. et al. 2010. Changes in β-lactoglobulin conformation at the oil/water interface of emulsions studied by synchrotron radiation circular dichroism spectroscopy. Biomacromolecules 11:2136–42 [Google Scholar]
  193. Zhang JB, Wu N, Yang XQ, He XT, Wang LJ. 2012. Improvement of emulsifying properties of Maillard reaction products from β-conglycinin and dextran using controlled enzymatic hydrolysis. Food Hydrocoll. 28:301–12 [Google Scholar]
  194. Zhang XL, Penfold J, Thomas RK, Tucker IM, Petkov JT. et al. 2011. Adsorption behaviour of hydrophobin and hydrophobin/surfactant mixtures at the air–water interface. Langmuir 27:11316–23 [Google Scholar]
  195. Zhu D, Damodaran S, Lucey JA. 2010. Physicochemical and emulsifying properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)–dextran conjugates produced in aqueous solution. J. Agric. Food Chem. 58:2988–94 [Google Scholar]
  196. Zimmerer L, Jones OG. 2014. Emulsification capacity of microgels assembled from β-lactoglobulin and pectin. Food Biophys. 9:229–37 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error