Fifty-five years have passed and more than 100,000 articles have been published since the first report of an electrochemical enzyme biosensor. However, very few biosensors have reached practical application and commercialization. The bulk of the research effort has been on increasing sensitivity and selectivity. In contrast, the number of publications dealing with stability or stabilization of enzyme biosensors is very small. Here, we critically review enzyme stabilization strategies as well as the progress that has been done in the past 20 years with respect to enzyme biosensor stabilization. Glucose oxidase, lactate oxidase, alcohol oxidase, and xanthine oxidase are the focus of this review because of their potential applications in food. The inconsistency in reporting biosensor stability was identified as a critical hurdle to research progress in this area. Fundamental questions that remain unanswered are outlined.


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