Enzyme technologies can be used to create food dispersions with novel functional attributes using structural design principles. Enzymes that utilize food-grade proteins and/or polysaccharides as substrates have gained recent interest among food scientists. The utilization of enzymes for structuring foods is an ecologically and economically viable alternative to the utilization of chemical cross-linking and depolymerization agents. This review highlights recent progress in the use of enzymes to modify food structures, particularly the interfacial and/or bulk properties of food dispersions with special emphasis on commercially available enzymes. Cross-linking enzymes such as transglutaminase and laccase promote the formation of intra- and intermolecular bonds between biopolymers to improve stability and functionality, whereas various degrading enzymes such as proteases alter the native conformation of proteins, leading to self-assembly of hierarchically ordered colloids. Results of this bio-inspired approach show that rational use of structure-affecting enzymes may enable food manufacturers to produce food dispersions with improved physical, functional, textural, and optical properties.


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