1932

Abstract

The skin is the main interface between the body and the environment, providing a biological barrier against an array of chemical and physical pollutants (e.g., ultraviolet light, ozone, etc.). Exposure of the skin to these outdoor stressors generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can overwhelm the skin's endogenous defense systems (e.g., catalase, vitamins C and E, etc.), resulting in premature skin aging due to the induction of DNA damage, mitochondrial damage, lipid peroxidation, activation of inflammatory signaling pathways, and formation of protein adducts. In this review, we discuss how topical application of antioxidants, including vitamins C and E, carotenoids, resveratrol, and pycnogenol, can be combined with dietary supplementation of these antioxidant compounds in addition to probiotics and essential minerals to protect against outdoor stressor-induced skin damage, including the damage associated with aging.

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2020-03-25
2024-06-24
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