1932

Abstract

Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters) are a new group of processing-induced chemical toxicants with possible nephrotoxicity and testicular toxicity. 3-MCPD esters have been detected in many food categories, including refined edible oils, bread, coffee, and infant formula. 3-MCPD esters have also been detected in human breast milk, indicating their possible absorption and distribution in human organs and tissues. 3-MCPD esters have become a food safety concern, and in 2013 the European Food Safety Authority estimated a tolerable daily value (TDI) of 2 μg/kg body weight (BW) for the amount of free 3-MCPD. This review summarizes the available information on 3-MCPD ester research, including the analytical methods, exposure biomarkers, absorption and metabolism, toxicities, formation mechanisms, and mitigation strategies as well as the occurrence of 3-MCPD esters in human foods. This review may serve as a scientific foundation for advancing our understanding of 3-MCPD esters and their food safety concerns.

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2019-03-25
2024-06-20
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