1932

Abstract

With the rising problems of food shortages, energy costs, and raw materials, the food industry must reduce its environmental impact. We present an overview of more resource-efficient processes to produce food ingredients, describing their environmental impact and the functional properties obtained. Extensive wet processing yields high purities but also has the highest environmental impact, mainly due to heating for protein precipitation and dehydration. Milder wet alternatives exclude, for example, low pH–driven separation and are based on salt precipitation or water only. Drying steps are omitted during dry fractionation using air classification or electrostatic separation. Benefits of milder methods are enhanced functional properties. Therefore, fractionation and formulation should be focused on the desired functionality instead of purity. Environmental impact is also strongly reduced by milder refining. Antinutritional factors and off-flavors remain challenges in more mildly produced ingredients. The benefits of less refining motivate the increasing trend toward mildly refined ingredients.

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2023-03-27
2024-06-18
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