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Abstract

Edible nanoparticles are being developed for the oral delivery of nutrients to improve human health and well-being. Because of the extremely demanding conditions foods experience within the gastrointestinal tract, fundamental knowledge about the biological fate of encapsulated nutrients must be constantly revised. In this review, we first provide an overview of the fundamental absorption pathways of ingested foods and then discuss the evaluation models available to test and predict the biological fate of nutrient-loaded nanoparticles. Then, owing to their importance for human health, the impacts of nanoparticles on the gut microbiota are evaluated. Lastly, the limitations of current evaluation methods are highlighted and future research directions on the study and application of edible nanoparticles for the oral delivery of bioactive food compounds are discussed.

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2023-03-27
2024-06-21
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