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Abstract

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a bioactive phytochemical abundant in cruciferous vegetables. One of its main in vivo metabolites is 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), formed by the condensation of two molecules of I3C. Both I3C and DIM alter multiple signaling pathways and related molecules controlling diverse cellular events, including oxidation, inflammation, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immunity. There is a growing body of evidence from both in vitro and in vivo models that these compounds possess strong potential to prevent several forms of chronic disease such as inflammation, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hypertension, neurodegenerative diseases, and osteoporosis. This article reviews current knowledge of the occurrence of I3C in nature and foods, along with the beneficial effects of I3C and DIM concerning prevention and treatment of human chronic diseases, focusing on preclinical studies and their mechanisms of action at cellular and molecular levels.

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2023-03-27
2024-04-14
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