1932

Abstract

Inherent characteristics of native starches such as water insolubility, retrogradation and syneresis, and instability in harsh processing conditions (e.g., high temperature and shearing, low pH) limit their industrial applications. As starch properties mainly depend on starch composition and structure, structural tailoring of starch has been important for overcoming functional limitations and expanding starch applications in different fields. In this review, we first introduce the basics of starch structure, properties, and functionalities and then describe the interactions of starch with lipids, polysaccharides, and phenolics. After reviewing genetic, chemical, and enzymatic modifications of starch, we describe current progress in the areas of porous starch and starch-based nanoparticles. New techniques, such as using the CRISPR–Cas9 technique to tailor starch structures and using an emulsion-assisted approach in forming functional starch nanoparticles, are only feasible when they are established based on fundamental knowledge of starch.

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2022-03-25
2024-04-14
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