1932

Abstract

Plastics contamination in the marine environment was first reported nearly 50 years ago, less than two decades after the rise of commercial plastics production, when less than 50 million metric tons were produced per year. In 2014, global plastics production surpassed 300 million metric tons per year. Plastic debris has been detected worldwide in all major marine habitats, in sizes from microns to meters. In response, concerns about risks to marine wildlife upon exposure to the varied forms of plastic debris have increased, stimulating new research into the extent and consequences of plastics contamination in the marine environment. Here, I present a framework to evaluate the current understanding of the sources, distribution, fate, and impacts of marine plastics. Despite remaining knowledge gaps in mass budgeting and challenges in investigating ecological impacts, the increasing evidence of the ubiquity of plastics contamination in the marine environment, the continued rapid growth in plastics production, and the evidence—albeit limited—of demonstrated impacts to marine wildlife support immediate implementation of source-reducing measures to decrease the potential risks of plastics in the marine ecosystem.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060409
2017-01-03
2024-07-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/marine/9/1/annurev-marine-010816-060409.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060409&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Allen R, Jarvis D, Sayer S, Mills C. 2012. Entanglement of grey seals Halichoerus grypus at a haul out site in Cornwall, UK. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64:2815–19 [Google Scholar]
  2. Am. Chem. Counc 2015. 2015 Resin Review. Washington, DC: Am. Chem. Counc. [Google Scholar]
  3. Andrady AL. 2015. Plastics and Environmental Sustainability Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons [Google Scholar]
  4. Arthur C, Baker J, Bamford H. 2009. Proceedings of the International Research Workshop on the Occurrence, Effects, and Fate of Microplastic Marine Debris. Tech. Memo. NOS-OR&R-30 Washington, DC: Natl. Ocean. Atmos. Adm. [Google Scholar]
  5. Balazs GH. 1985. Impact of ocean debris on marine turtles: entanglement and ingestion. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27–29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii RS Shomura, HO Yoshida 387–429 Tech. Memo. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54 Washington, DC: Natl. Ocean. Atmos. Adm. [Google Scholar]
  6. Beck CA, Barros NB. 1991. The impact of debris on the Florida manatee. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 22:508–10 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bergmann M, Gutow L, Klages M. 2015. Marine Anthropogenic Litter Heidelberg, Ger.: Springer [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergmann M, Klages M. 2012. Increase of litter at the Arctic deep-sea observatory HAUSGARTEN. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64:2734–41 [Google Scholar]
  9. Besseling E, Wegner A, Foekema EM, van den Heuvel-Greve MJ, Koelmans AA. 2013. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.). Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:593–600 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bjorndal KA, Bolten AB, Lagueux CJ. 1994. Ingestion of marine debris by juvenile sea turtles in coastal Florida habitats. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 28:154–58 [Google Scholar]
  11. Brandão ML, Braga KM, Luque JL. 2011. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62:2246–49 [Google Scholar]
  12. Browne MA, Chapman MG, Thompson RC, Amaral-Zettler LA, Jambeck J, Mallos NJ. 2015a. Spatial and temporal patterns of stranded intertidal marine debris: Is there a picture of global change?. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:7082–94 [Google Scholar]
  13. Browne MA, Crump P, Niven SJ, Teuten E, Tonkin A. et al. 2011. Accumulation of microplastic on shorelines worldwide: sources and sinks. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45:9175–79 [Google Scholar]
  14. Browne MA, Dissanayake A, Galloway TS, Lowe DM, Thompson RC. 2008. Ingested microscopic plastic translocates to the circulatory system of the mussel, Mytilus edulis (L.). Environ. Sci. Technol. 42:5026–31 [Google Scholar]
  15. Browne MA, Niven SJ, Galloway TS, Rowland SJ, Thompson RC. 2013. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity. Curr. Biol. 23:2388–92 [Google Scholar]
  16. Browne MA, Underwood AJ, Chapman MG, Williams R, Thompson RC, van Franeker JA. 2015b. Linking effects of anthropogenic debris to ecological impacts. Proc. R. Soc. B 282:20142929 [Google Scholar]
  17. Brunner K, Kukulka T, Proskurowski G, Law KL. 2015. Passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer: 2. Observations and simulations of microplastic marine debris. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120:7559–73 [Google Scholar]
  18. Buchanan JB. 1971. Pollution by synthetic fibres. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 2:23 [Google Scholar]
  19. Bugoni L, Krause L, Petry MV. 2001. Marine debris and human impacts on sea turtles in southern Brazil. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 42:1330–34 [Google Scholar]
  20. Butler JRA, Gunn R, Berry HL, Wagey GA, Hardesty BD, Wilcox C. 2013. A value chain analysis of ghost nets in the Arafura Sea: identifying trans-boundary stakeholders, intervention points and livelihood trade-offs. J. Environ. Manag. 123:14–25 [Google Scholar]
  21. Calder DR, Choong HHC, Carlton JT, Chapman JW, Miller JA, Geller J. 2014. Hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from Japanese tsunami marine debris washing ashore in the northwestern United States. Aquat. Invasions 4:425–40 [Google Scholar]
  22. Campagna C, Falabella V, Lewis M. 2007. Entanglement of southern elephant seals in squid fishing gear. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 23:414–18 [Google Scholar]
  23. Carey MJ. 2011. Intergenerational transfer of plastic debris by short-tailed shearwaters (Ardenna tenuirostris). Emu 111:229–34 [Google Scholar]
  24. Carpenter EJ, Smith KL. 1972. Plastics on the Sargasso Sea surface. Science 175:1240–41 [Google Scholar]
  25. Carr SA, Liu J, Tesoro AG. 2016. Transport and fate of microplastic particles in wastewater treatment plants. Water Res. 91:174–82 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cedervall T, Hansson LA, Lard M, Frohm B, Linse S. 2012. Food chain transport of nanoparticles affects behaviour and fat metabolism in fish. PLOS ONE 7:e32254 [Google Scholar]
  27. Chiappone M, Dienes H, Swanson DW, Miller SL. 2005. Impacts of lost fishing gear on coral reef sessile invertebrates in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Biol. Conserv. 121:221–30 [Google Scholar]
  28. Chiappone M, White A, Swanson DW, Miller SL. 2002. Occurrence and biological impacts of fishing gear and other marine debris in the Florida Keys. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 44:597–604 [Google Scholar]
  29. Choy CA, Drazen JC. 2013. Plastic for dinner? Observations of frequent debris ingestion by pelagic predatory fishes from the central North Pacific. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 485:155–63 [Google Scholar]
  30. Chua EM, Shimeta J, Nugegoda D, Morrison PD, Clarke BO. 2014. Assimilation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers from microplastics by the marine amphipod, Allorchestes compressa. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:8127–34 [Google Scholar]
  31. Cole M, Lindeque PK, Fileman E, Clark J, Lewis C. et al. 2016. Microplastics alter the properties and sinking rates of zooplankton faecal pellets. Environ. Sci. Technol. 50:3239–46 [Google Scholar]
  32. Colton JB, Knapp FD, Burns BR. 1974. Plastic particles in surface waters of the northwestern Atlantic. Science 185:491–97 [Google Scholar]
  33. Connors PG, Smith KG. 1982. Oceanic plastic particle pollution: suspected effect on fat deposition in red phalaropes. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 13:18–20 [Google Scholar]
  34. Cooper DA, Corcoran PL. 2010. Effects of mechanical and chemical processes on the degradation of plastic beach debris on the island of Kauai, Hawaii. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60:650–54 [Google Scholar]
  35. Cozar A, Echevarría F, González-Gordillo JI, Irigoien X, Úbeda B. et al. 2014. Plastic debris in the open ocean. PNAS 111:10239–44 [Google Scholar]
  36. Croxall JP, Rodwell S, Boyd IL. 1990. Entanglement in man-made debris of Antarctic fur seals at Bird Island, South Georgia. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 6:221–33 [Google Scholar]
  37. Cundell AM. 1973. Plastic materials accumulating in Narragansett Bay. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 4:187–88 [Google Scholar]
  38. Dau BK, Gilardi KVK, Gulland FM, Higgins A, Holcomb JB. et al. 2009. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife. J. Wildl. Dis. 45:355–62 [Google Scholar]
  39. Davison P, Asch RG. 2011. Plastic ingestion by mesopelagic fishes in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 432:173–80 [Google Scholar]
  40. Day RH, Wehle DHS, Coleman FC. 1985. Ingestion of plastic pollutants by marine birds. Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27–29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii RS Shomura, HO Yoshida 344–86 Tech. Memo. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54 Washington, DC: Natl. Ocean. Atmos. Adm. [Google Scholar]
  41. de Stephanis R, Giménez J, Carpinelli E, Gutierrez-Exposito C, Cañadas A. 2013. As main meal for sperm whales: plastics debris. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 69:206–14 [Google Scholar]
  42. Dekiff JH, Remy D, Klasmeier J, Fries E. 2014. Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in sediments from Norderney. Environ. Pollut. 186:248–56 [Google Scholar]
  43. Dixon TR, Cooke AJ. 1977. Discarded containers on a Kent beach. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 8:105–9 [Google Scholar]
  44. Doyle MJ, Watson W, Bowlin NM, Sheavly SB. 2011. Plastic particles in coastal pelagic ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. Mar. Environ. Res. 71:41–52 [Google Scholar]
  45. Eriksen J, Mason S, Wilson S, Box C, Zellers A. et al. 2013. Microplastic pollution in surface waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 77:177–82 [Google Scholar]
  46. Eriksen M, Lebreton LCM, Carson HS, Thiel M, Moore CJ. et al. 2014. Plastic pollution in the world's oceans: more than 5 trillion plastic pieces weighing over 250,000 tons afloat at sea. PLOS ONE 9:e111913 [Google Scholar]
  47. Fazey FMC, Ryan PG. 2016. Biofouling on buoyant marine plastics: an experimental study into the effect of size on surface longevity. Environ. Pollut. 210:354–60 [Google Scholar]
  48. Filella M. 2015. Questions of size and numbers in environmental research on microplastics: methodological and conceptual aspects. Environ. Chem. 12:527–38 [Google Scholar]
  49. Fischer V, Elsner NO, Brenke N, Schwabe E, Brandt A. 2015. Plastic pollution of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (NW Pacific). Deep-Sea Res. II 111:399–405 [Google Scholar]
  50. Fowler CW. 1987. Marine debris and northern fur seals: a case study. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 18:326–35 [Google Scholar]
  51. Fries E, Dekiff JH, Willmeyer J, Nuelle M-T, Ebert M, Remy D. 2013. Identification of polymer types and additives in marine microplastic particles using pyrolysis-GC/MS and scanning electron microscopy. Environ. Sci. Process. Impacts 15:1949–56 [Google Scholar]
  52. Fry DM, Fefer SI, Sileo L. 1987. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 18:339–43 [Google Scholar]
  53. G7 2015. Leaders' declaration: G7 summit, 7–8 June 2015. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/7320LEADERS%20STATEMENT_FINAL_CLEAN.pdf [Google Scholar]
  54. Galgani F, Leaute JP, Moguedet P, Souplet A, Verin Y. et al. 2000. Litter on the sea floor along European coasts. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 40:516–27 [Google Scholar]
  55. Gall SC, Thompson RC. 2015. The impact of debris on marine life. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 92:170–79 [Google Scholar]
  56. Goldstein MC, Goodwin DS. 2013. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. PeerJ 1:e184 [Google Scholar]
  57. Goldstein MC, Rosenberg M, Cheng L. 2012. Increased oceanic microplastic debris enhances oviposition in an endemic pelagic insect. Biol. Lett. 8:817–20 [Google Scholar]
  58. Goldstein MC, Titmus AJ, Ford M. 2013. Scales of spatial heterogeneity of plastic marine debris in the northeast Pacific Ocean. PLOS ONE 8:e80020 [Google Scholar]
  59. Goldsworthy SD, Page B. 2007. A risk-assessment approach to evaluating the significance of seal bycatch in two Australian fisheries. Biol. Conserv. 139:269–85 [Google Scholar]
  60. Good TP, June JA, Etnier MA, Broadhurst G. 2010. Derelict fishing nets in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits: patterns and threats to marine fauna. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60:39–50 [Google Scholar]
  61. Gouin T, Roche N, Lohmann R, Hodges G. 2011. A thermodynamic approach for assessing the environmental exposure of chemicals absorbed to microplastic. Environ. Sci. Technol. 45:1466–72 [Google Scholar]
  62. Green DS, Boots B, Blockley DJ, Rocha C, Thompson R. 2015. Impacts of discarded plastic bags on marine assemblages and ecosystem functioning. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:5380–89 [Google Scholar]
  63. Harper PC, Fowler JA. 1987. Plastic pellets in New Zealand storm-killed prions (Pachyptila spp.) 1958–1977. Notornis 34:65–70 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hidalgo-Ruz V, Gutow L, Thompson RC, Thiel M. 2012. Microplastics in the marine environment: a review of the methods used for identification and quantification. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46:3060–75 [Google Scholar]
  65. Hirai H, Takada H, Ogata Y, Yamashita R, Mizukawa K. et al. 2011. Organic micropollutants in marine plastic debris from the open ocean and remote and urban beaches. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62:1683–92 [Google Scholar]
  66. Holmström A. 1975. Plastic films on the bottom of the Skagerack. Nature 255:622–23 [Google Scholar]
  67. Hoornweg D, Bhada-Tata P. 2012. What a Waste: A Global Review of Solid Waste Management Washington, DC: World Bank [Google Scholar]
  68. Jackson GD, Buxton NG, George MJA. 2000. Diet of the southern opah Lampris immaculatus on the Patagonian Shelf; the significance of the squid Moroteuthis ingens and anthropogenic plastic. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 206:261–71 [Google Scholar]
  69. Jacobsen JK, Massey L, Gulland F. 2010. Fatal ingestion of floating net debris by two sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus). Mar. Pollut. Bull. 60:765–67 [Google Scholar]
  70. Jambeck JR, Geyer R, Wilcox C, Siegler TR, Perryman M. et al. 2015. Plastic waste inputs from land into the ocean. Science 347:768–71 [Google Scholar]
  71. Katsanevakis S, Verriopoulos G, Nicolaidou A, Thessalou-Legaki M. 2007. Effect of marine litter on the benthic megafauna of coastal soft bottoms: a manipulative field experiment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 54:771–78 [Google Scholar]
  72. Keeling CD, Piper SC, Heimann M. 1989. A three-dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 4. Mean annual gradients and interannual variations. Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas DH Peterson 305–63 Geophys. Monogr 55 Washington, DC: Am. Geophys. Union [Google Scholar]
  73. Kiessling T, Gutow L, Thiel M. 2015. Marine litter as habitat and dispersal vector. See Bergmann et al. 2015 141–81
  74. Knowlton AR, Hamilton PK, Marx MK, Pettis HM, Kraus SD. 2012. Monitoring North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis entanglement rates: a 30 yr retrospective. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 466:293–302 [Google Scholar]
  75. Koelmans AA. 2015. Modeling the role of microplastics in bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. A critical review. See Bergmann et al. 2015 309–24
  76. Koelmans AA, Besseling E, Foekema EM. 2014a. Leaching of plastic additives to marine organisms. Environ. Pollut. 187:49–54 [Google Scholar]
  77. Koelmans AA, Besseling E, Shim WJ. 2015. Nanoplastics in the aquatic environment. Critical review. See Bergmann et al. 2015 325–40
  78. Koelmans AA, Gouin T, Thompson R, Wallace N, Arthur C. 2014b. Plastics in the marine environment. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 33:5–10 [Google Scholar]
  79. Kühn S, Bravo Rebolledo EL, van Franeker JA. 2015. Deleterious effects of litter on marine life. See Bergmann et al. 2015 75–116
  80. Kukulka T, Proskurowski G, Morét-Ferguson SE, Meyer DW, Law KL. 2012. The effect of wind mixing on the vertical distribution of buoyant plastic debris. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39:L07601 [Google Scholar]
  81. Law KL, Morét-Ferguson SE, Goodwin DS, Zettler ER, DeForce E. et al. 2014. Distribution of surface plastic debris in the eastern Pacific Ocean from an 11-year data set. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:4732–38 [Google Scholar]
  82. Law KL, Morét-Ferguson SE, Maximenko NA, Proskurowski G, Peacock EE. et al. 2010. Plastic accumulation in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre. Science 329:1185–88 [Google Scholar]
  83. Lee K-W, Shim WJ, Kwon OY, Kang J-H. 2013. Size-dependent effects of micro polystyrene particles in the marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:11278–83 [Google Scholar]
  84. Lewis CF, Slade SL, Maxwell KE, Matthews TR. 2009. Lobster trap impact on coral reefs: effects of wind-driven trap movement. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 43:271–82 [Google Scholar]
  85. Löder MGJ, Gerdts G. 2015. Methodology used for the detection and identification of microplastics—a critical appraisal. See Bergmann et al. 2015 201–27
  86. Lohmann R. 2012. Critical review of low-density polyethylene's partitioning and diffusion coefficients for trace organic contaminants and implications for its use as a passive sampler. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46:606–18 [Google Scholar]
  87. Long M, Moriceau B, Gallinari M, Lambert C, Huvet A. et al. 2015. Interactions between microplastics and phytoplankton aggregates: impact on their respective fates. Mar. Chem. 175:39–46 [Google Scholar]
  88. Lusher A. 2015. Microplastics in the marine environment: distribution, interactions and effects. See Bergmann et al. 2015 245–307
  89. Magnusson K, Norén F. 2014. Screening of microplastic particles in and down-stream a wastewater treatment plant Rep. C 55, IVL Swed. Environ. Res. Inst., Stockholm [Google Scholar]
  90. McCauley SJ, Bjorndal KA. 1999. Conservation implications of dietary dilution from debris ingestion: sublethal effects in post-hatchling loggerhead sea turtles. Conserv. Biol. 13:925–29 [Google Scholar]
  91. McCormick A, Hoellein TJ, Mason SA, Schluep J, Kelly JJ. 2014. Microplastic is an abundant and distinct microbial habitat in an urban river. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:11863–71 [Google Scholar]
  92. Moore E, Lyday S, Roletto J, Litle K, Parrish JK. et al. 2009. Entanglements of marine mammals and seabirds in central California and the north-west coast of the United States 2001–2005. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 58:1045–51 [Google Scholar]
  93. Natl. Res. Counc 1975. Assessing Potential Ocean Pollutants. Washington, DC: Natl. Acad. Sci. [Google Scholar]
  94. Newman S, Watkins E, Farmer A, ten Brink P, Schweitzer J-P. 2015. The economics of marine litter.. See Bergmann et al. 2015 367–94
  95. Ng KL, Obbard JP. 2006. Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 52:761–67 [Google Scholar]
  96. Obbard RW, Sadri S, Wong YQ, Khitun AA, Baker I, Thompson RC. 2014. Global warming releases microplastic legacy frozen in Arctic Sea ice. Earth's Future 2:315–20 [Google Scholar]
  97. Ocean Conserv 2014. Turning the Tide on Trash: 2014 Report Washington, DC: Ocean Conserv. [Google Scholar]
  98. Ogata Y, Takada H, Mizukawa K, Hirai H, Iwasa S. et al. 2009. International Pellet Watch: global monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in coastal waters. 1. Initial phase data on PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 58:1437–46 [Google Scholar]
  99. Oliveira M, Ribeiro A, Hylland K, Guilhermino L. 2013. Single and combined effects of microplastics and pyrene on juveniles (0+ group) of the common goby Pomatoschistus microps (Teleostei, Gobiidae). Ecol. Indic. 34:641–47 [Google Scholar]
  100. Özdilek HG, Yalçin-Özdilek S, Ozaner FS, Sönmez B. 2006. Impact of accumulated beach litter on Chelonia mydas L. 1758 (green turtle) hatchlings of the Samandağ Coast, Hatay, Turkey. Fresen. Environ. Bull. 15:95–103 [Google Scholar]
  101. Pham CK, Gomes-Pereria JN, Isidro EJ, Santos RS, Morato T. 2013. Abundance of litter on Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, Northeast Atlantic). Deep-Sea Res. II 98:204–8 [Google Scholar]
  102. Pham CK, Ramirez-Llodra E, Alt CHS, Amaro T, Bergmann M. et al. 2014. Marine litter distribution and density in European seas, from the shelves to deep basins. PLOS ONE 9:e95839 [Google Scholar]
  103. Phuong NN, Zalouk-Vergnous A, Poirier L, Kamari A, Châtel A. et al. 2016. Is there any consistency between the microplastics found in the field and those used in laboratory experiments?. Environ. Pollut. 211:111–23 [Google Scholar]
  104. Plast. Eur 2015. Plastics—the Facts 2015. Brussels: Plast. Eur. [Google Scholar]
  105. Ritch E, Brennan C, MacLeod C. 2009. Plastic bag politics: modifying consumer behaviour for sustainable development. Int. J. Consum. Stud. 33:168–74 [Google Scholar]
  106. Rochman CM. 2015. The complex mixture, fate and toxicity of chemicals associated with plastic debris in the marine environment. See Bergmann et al. 2015 117–40
  107. Rochman CM, Boxall A. 2014. Environmental relevance: a necessary component of experimental design to answer the question, “So what?”. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 10:311–12 [Google Scholar]
  108. Rochman CM, Browne MA, Halpern BS, Hentschel BT, Hoh E. et al. 2013a. Classify plastic waste as hazardous. Nature 494:169–71 [Google Scholar]
  109. Rochman CM, Browne MA, Underwood AJ, van Franeker JA, Thompson RC, Amaral-Zettler LA. 2016. The ecological impacts of marine debris: unraveling the demonstrated evidence from what is perceived. Ecology 97:302–12 [Google Scholar]
  110. Rochman CM, Hoh E, Hentschel B, Kaye S. 2013b. Long-term field measurement of sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic pellets: implications for plastic marine debris. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:1646–54 [Google Scholar]
  111. Rochman CM, Hoh E, Kurobe T, Teh SJ. 2013c. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress. Sci. Rep. 3:3263 [Google Scholar]
  112. Ryan PG. 1988. Effects of ingested plastic on seabird feeding: evidence from chickens. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 19:125–28 [Google Scholar]
  113. Ryan PG. 2015. A brief history of marine litter research. See Bergmann et al. 2015 1–25
  114. Ryan PG, Moore CJ, van Franeker JA, Moloney CL. 2009. Monitoring the abundance of plastic debris in the marine environment. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:1999–2012 [Google Scholar]
  115. Schleicher LS, Miller JW, Watkins-Kenney SC, Carnes-McNaughton LF, Wilde-Ramsing MU. 2008. Non-destructive chemical characterization of ceramic sherds from Shipwreck 31CR314 and Brunswick Town, North Carolina. J. Archaeol. Sci. 35:2824–38 [Google Scholar]
  116. Schuyler A, Hardesty BD, Wilcox C, Townsend K. 2014. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles. Conserv. Biol. 28:129–39 [Google Scholar]
  117. Sherman P, van Sebille E. 2016. Modeling marine surface microplastic transport to assess optimal removal locations. Environ. Res. Lett. 11:014006 [Google Scholar]
  118. Smith SDA, Markic A. 2013. Estimates of marine debris accumulation on beaches are strongly affected by the temporal scale of sampling. PLOS ONE 8:e83694 [Google Scholar]
  119. SPI (Soc. Plast. Ind.) 2015. History of plastics. https://www.plasticsindustry.org/AboutPlastics/content.cfm?ItemNumber=670&navItemNumber=1117 [Google Scholar]
  120. Talvitie J, Heinonen M. 2014. BASE project 2012–2014: preliminary study on synthetic microfibers and particles at a municipal waste water treatment plant Rep., Baltic Mar. Environ. Prot. Comm. HELCOM, Helsinki [Google Scholar]
  121. Teuten EL, Saquing JM, Knappe DRU, Barlaz MA, Jonsson S. et al. 2009. Transport and release of chemicals from plastics to the environment and to wildlife. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 364:2027–45 [Google Scholar]
  122. Thiel M, Hinojosa IA, Miranda L, Pantoja JF, Rivadeneira MM, Vásquez N. 2013. Anthropogenic marine debris in the coastal environment: a multi-year comparison between coastal waters and local shores. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 71:307–16 [Google Scholar]
  123. Thompson RC, Olsen Y, Mitchell RP, Davis A, Rowland SJ. et al. 2004. Lost at sea: Where is all the plastic?. Science 304:838 [Google Scholar]
  124. Uhrin AV, Schellinger J. 2011. Marine debris impacts to a tidal fringing-marsh in North Carolina. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62:2605–10 [Google Scholar]
  125. UNEP (UN Environ. Programme) 2014. UNEP Year Book: Emerging Issues in Our Global Environment 2014 Nairobi, Kenya: UNEP [Google Scholar]
  126. Uneputty P, Evans SM. 1997. The impact of plastic debris on the biota of tidal flats in Ambon Bay (Eastern Indonesia). Mar. Environ. Res. 44:233–42 [Google Scholar]
  127. US EPA (US Environ. Prot. Agency) 1993. Plastic pellets in the aquatic environment: sources and recommendations. Rep. EPA/842/S-93/001, US EPA, Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  128. US EPA (US Environ. Prot. Agency) 1998. Guidelines for ecological risk assessment Rep. EPA/630/R-95/002F, US EPA, Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  129. US EPA (US Environ. Prot. Agency) 2014. Municipal solid waste generation, recycling, and disposal in the United States, tables and figures for 2012 Rep., US EPA, Washington, DC [Google Scholar]
  130. US EPA (US Environ. Prot. Agency) 2016. Municipal solid waste https://archive.epa.gov/epawaste/nonhaz/municipal/web/html/index.html [Google Scholar]
  131. Van Cauwenberghe L, Devriese L, Galgani F, Robbens J, Janssen CR. 2015. Microplastics in sediments: a review of techniques, occurrence and effects. Mar. Environ. Res. 111:5–17 [Google Scholar]
  132. Van Cauwenberghe L, Janssen CR. 2014. Microplastics in bivalves cultured for human consumption. Environ. Pollut. 193:65–70 [Google Scholar]
  133. Van Cauwenberghe L, Vanreusel A, Mees J, Janssen CR. 2013. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments. Environ. Pollut. 182:495–99 [Google Scholar]
  134. van Franeker JA, Blaize C, Danielsen J, Fairclough K, Gollan J. et al. 2011. Monitoring plastic ingestion by the northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis in the North Sea. Environ. Pollut. 159:2609–15 [Google Scholar]
  135. van Franeker JA, Law KL. 2015. Seabirds, gyres and global trends in plastic pollution. Environ. Pollut. 203:89–96 [Google Scholar]
  136. van Sebille E, Wilcox C, Lebreton L, Maximenko N, Hardesty BD. et al. 2015. A global inventory of small floating plastic debris. Environ. Res. Lett. 10:124006 [Google Scholar]
  137. Vélez-Rubio GM, Estrades A, Fallabrino A, Tomás J. 2013. Marine turtle threats in Uruguayan waters: insights from 12 years of stranding data. Mar. Biol. 160:2797–811 [Google Scholar]
  138. Venrick EL, Backman TW, Bartram WC, Platt CJ, Thornhill MS, Yates RE. 1973. Man-made objects on the surface of the Central North Pacific Ocean. Nature 241:271 [Google Scholar]
  139. von Moos N, Burkhardt-Holm P, Köhler A. 2012. Uptake and effects of microplastics on cells and tissue of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L. after an experimental exposure. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46:11327–35 [Google Scholar]
  140. Vu VT, Lai DY. 1997. Approaches to characterizing human health risks of exposure to fibers. Environ. Health Perspect. 105:1329–36 [Google Scholar]
  141. Widmer WM, Hennemann MC. 2010. Marine debris in the island of Santa Catarina, South Brazil: spatial patterns, composition, and biological aspects. J. Coast. Res. 26:993–1000 [Google Scholar]
  142. Wilcox C, Hardesty BD, Sharples R, Griffin DA, Lawson TJ, Gunn R. 2012. Ghostnet impacts on globally threatened turtles, a spatial risk analysis for northern Australia. Conserv. Lett. 1:1–8 [Google Scholar]
  143. Wilcox C, van Sebille E, Hardesty BD. 2015. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing. PNAS 112:11899–904 [Google Scholar]
  144. Williams R, Ashe E, O'Hara PD. 2011. Marine mammals and debris in coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 62:1303–16 [Google Scholar]
  145. Winn JP, Woodward BL, Moore MJ, Peterson ML, Riley JG. 2008. Modeling whale entanglement injuries: an experimental study of tissue compliance, line tension, and draw-length. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 24:326–40 [Google Scholar]
  146. Wong CS, Green DR, Cretney WJ. 1974. Quantitative tar and plastic waste distributions in the Pacific Ocean. Nature 247:30–32 [Google Scholar]
  147. Woodall LC, Sanchez-Vidal A, Canals M, Paterson GLJ, Coppock R. et al. 2014. The deep sea is a major sink for microplastic debris. R. Soc. Open Sci. 1:140317 [Google Scholar]
  148. Woodward BL, Winn JP, Moore MJ, Peterson ML. 2006. Experimental modeling of large whale entanglement injuries. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 22:299–310 [Google Scholar]
  149. Wright SL, Rowe D, Thompson RC, Galloway TS. 2013. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms. Curr. Biol. 23:R1031–33 [Google Scholar]
  150. Ye S, Andrady AL. 1991. Fouling of floating plastic debris under Biscayne Bay exposure conditions. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 22:608–13 [Google Scholar]
  151. Zettler ER, Mincer TJ, Amaral-Zettler LA. 2013. Life in the “Plastisphere”: microbial communities on plastic marine debris. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47:7137–46 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060409
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-010816-060409
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error