1932

Abstract

Environmental pharmaceuticals represent a threat of emerging concern for marine ecosystems. Widely distributed and bioaccumulated, these contaminants could provoke adverse effects on aquatic organisms through modes of action like those reported for target species. In contrast to pharmacological uses, organisms in field conditions are exposed to complex mixtures of compounds with similar, different, or even opposing therapeutic effects. This review summarizes current knowledge of the main cellular pathways modulated by the most common classes of environmental pharmaceuticals occurring in marine ecosystems and accumulated by nontarget species—including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, psychiatric drugs, cardiovascular and lipid regulator agents, steroidal hormones, and antibiotics—and describes an intricate network of possible interactions with both synergistic and antagonistic effects on the same cellular targets and metabolic pathways. This complexity reveals the intrinsic limits of the single-chemical approach to predict the long-term consequences and future impact of pharmaceuticals at organismal, population, and community levels.

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2022-01-03
2024-06-16
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