1932

Abstract

Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline. This review applies the framework to movement among life-history stages in marine animals with complex life cycles to consolidate marine movement research and offer insights for scientists working in aquatic and terrestrial realms. Irrespective of data collection or simulation strategy, breaking each life-history stage down into the fundamental units of movement allows each unit to be studied independently or interactively with other units. Understanding these underlying mechanisms of movement within each life-history stage can then be used to construct lifetime movement paths. These paths can allow further investigation of the relative contributions and interdependencies of steps and phases across a lifetime and how these paths influence larger research topics, such as population-level movements.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063134
2018-01-03
2024-04-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/marine/10/1/annurev-marine-121916-063134.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063134&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abelson A, Denny MW. 1997. Settlement of marine organisms in flow. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 28:317–39 [Google Scholar]
  2. Abraham ER. 2007. Sea-urchin feeding fronts. Ecol. Complex. 4:161–68 [Google Scholar]
  3. Alerstam T, Hedenstrom A, Akesson S. 2003. Long-distance migration: evolution and determinants. Oikos 103:247–60 [Google Scholar]
  4. Aziz A. 1977. Preliminary observation on living habits of Acanthaster planci (Linnaeus) at Pulau Tikus, Seribu Islands. Mar. Res. Indones. 17:121–32 [Google Scholar]
  5. Baco AR, Etter RJ, Ribeiro PA, von der Heyden S, Beeril P, Kinlan BP. 2016. A synthesis of genetic connectivity in deep-sea fauna and implications for marine reserve design. Mol. Ecol. 25:3276–98 [Google Scholar]
  6. Blake RW. 2004. Fish functional design and swimming performance. J. Fish Biol. 65:1193–222 [Google Scholar]
  7. Block BA, Jonsen ID, Jorgensen SJ, Winship AJ, Shaffer SA. et al. 2011. Tracking apex marine predator movements in a dynamic ocean. Nature 475:86–90 [Google Scholar]
  8. Bonte D, Van Dyck H, Bullock JM, Coulon A, Delgado M. et al. 2012. Costs of dispersal. Biol. Rev. 87:290–312 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bowler DE, Benton TG. 2005. Causes and consequences of animal dispersal strategies: relating individual behaviour to spatial dynamics. Biol. Rev. 80:205–25 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bradbury IR, Snelgrove PVR. 2001. Contrasting larval transport in demersal fish and benthic invertebrates: the roles of behaviour and advective processes in determining spatial pattern. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58:811–23 [Google Scholar]
  11. Breder CM. 1926. The locomotion of fishes. Zoologica 4:159–297 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bryan SE, Cook AG, Evans JP, Hebden K, Hurrey L. et al. 2012. Rapid, long-distance dispersal by pumice rafting. PLOS ONE 7:e40583 [Google Scholar]
  13. Burgess SC, Baskett ML, Grosberg RK, Morgan SG, Strathmann RR. 2015. When is dispersal for dispersal? Unifying marine and terrestrial perspectives. Biol. Rev. 91:867–82 [Google Scholar]
  14. Buston P. 2003. Forcible eviction and prevention of recruitment in the clown anemonefish. Behav. Ecol. 14:576–82 [Google Scholar]
  15. Butman CA. 1987. Larval settlement of soft-sediment invertebrates: the spatial scales of pattern explained by active habitat selection and the emerging role of hydrodynamical processes. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 25:113–65 [Google Scholar]
  16. Carlton JT, Geller JB. 1993. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261:78–82 [Google Scholar]
  17. Chan KYK, Grunbaum D, O'Donnell MJ. 2011. Effects of ocean-acidification-induced morphological changes on larval swimming and feeding. J. Exp. Biol. 214:3857–67 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chapman BB, Hulthen K, Brodersen J, Nilsson PA, Skov C. et al. 2012. Partial migration in fishes: causes and consequences. J. Fish Biol. 81:456–78 [Google Scholar]
  19. Chapman G. 1958. The hydrostatic skeleton in the invertebrates. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc. 33:338–371 [Google Scholar]
  20. Chia FS, Bucklandnicks J, Young CM. 1984. Locomotion of marine invertebrate larvae: a review. Can. J. Zool. 62:1205–22 [Google Scholar]
  21. Ciannelli L, Buckley K, Olsen EM. 2015. Evolutionary and ecological constraints of fish spawning habitats. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 72:285–96 [Google Scholar]
  22. Claydon J. 2004. Spawning aggregations of coral reef fishes: characteristics, hypotheses, threats and management. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 42:265–302 [Google Scholar]
  23. Cohen JH, Forward RB. 2009. Zooplankton diel vertical migration a review proximate control. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 47:77–109 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cooke SJ, Thorstad EB, Hinch SG. 2004. Activity and energetics of free-spawning fish: insights from electromyogram telemetry. Fish Fish 5:21–52 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cosson J, Groison AL, Suquet M, Fauvel C, Dreanno C, Billard R. 2008. Studying sperm motility in marine fish: an overview on the state of the art. J. Appl. Ichthyol. 24:460–86 [Google Scholar]
  26. Costa DP, Breed GA, Robinson PW. 2012. New insights into pelagic migrations: implications for ecology and conservation. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 43:73–96 [Google Scholar]
  27. Cowen RK, Sponaugle S. 2009. Larval dispersal and marine population connectivity. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1:443–66 [Google Scholar]
  28. Crimaldi JP, Zimmer RK. 2014. The physics of broadcast spawning in benthic invertebrates. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 6:141–65 [Google Scholar]
  29. Crozier LG, Hutchings JA. 2014. Plastic and evolutionary responses to climate change in fish. Evol. Appl. 7:68–87 [Google Scholar]
  30. Daigle RM, Chasse J, Metaxas A. 2016. The relative effect of behaviour in larval dispersal in low energy embayment. Prog. Oceanogr. 144:93–117 [Google Scholar]
  31. Daigle RM, Metaxas A. 2011. Vertical distribution of marine invertebrate larvae in response to thermal stratification in the laboratory. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 409:89–98 [Google Scholar]
  32. Delcourt J, Poncin P. 2012. Shoals and schools: back to the heuristic definitions and quantitative references. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 22:595–619 [Google Scholar]
  33. Denny MW. 1980. Locomotion: the cost of gastropod crawling. Science 208:1288–90 [Google Scholar]
  34. Denny MW. 1990. Terrestrial versus aquatic biology: the medium and its message. Am. Zool. 30:111–21 [Google Scholar]
  35. Denny MW, Gaylord B. 2010. Marine ecomechanics. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 2:89–114 [Google Scholar]
  36. Domenici P. 2010. Context-dependent variability in the components of fish escape response: integrating locomotor performance and behavior. J. Exp. Zool. 313A:59–79 [Google Scholar]
  37. Domenici P, Blagburn JM, Bacon JP. 2011a. Animal escapology I: theoretical issues and emerging trends in escape trajectories. J. Exp. Biol. 214:2463–73 [Google Scholar]
  38. Domenici P, Blagburn JM, Bacon JP. 2011b. Animal escapology II: escape trajectory case studies. J. Exp. Biol. 214:2474–94 [Google Scholar]
  39. Domenici P, Kapoor BG. 2010. Fish Locomotion: An Eco-ethological Perspective Boca Raton, FL: CRC
  40. Emlet RB. 1991. Functional constraints on the evolution of larval forms of marine invertebrates. Am. Zool. 31:707–25 [Google Scholar]
  41. Epifanio CE, Cohen JH. 2016. Behavioral adaptations in larvae of brachyuran crabs: a review. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 482:85–105 [Google Scholar]
  42. Estrella BT, Morrissey TD. 1997. Seasonal movement of offshore American lobster, Homarusamericanus tagged along the eastern shore of Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Fish. Bull. 95:466–76 [Google Scholar]
  43. Fairweather PG. 1988. Movement of intertidal whelks (Morula marginalba and Thais orbita) in relation to availability of prey and shelter. Mar. Biol. 100:63–68 [Google Scholar]
  44. Flukes EB, Johnson CR, Ling SD. 2012. Forming sea urchin barrens from the inside out: an alternative pattern of overgrazing. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 464:179–94 [Google Scholar]
  45. Fontaine M. 1975. Physiological mechanisms in migration of marine and amphihaline fish. Advances in Marine Biology 13 FS Russell, M Yonge 241–355 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  46. Forward RB. 1988. Diel vertical migration: zooplankton photobiology and behavior. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 26:361–93 [Google Scholar]
  47. Full RJ. 1997. Invertebrate locomotor systems. The Handbook of Physiology, Sect. 13: Comparative Physiology, ed. Dantzler WH. 853–930 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  48. Gaines SD, Gaylord B, Gerber LR, Hastings A, Kinlan BP. 2007. Connecting places: the ecological consequences of dispersal in the sea. Oceanography 20:390–99 [Google Scholar]
  49. Garm A, Nilsson DE. 2014. Visual navigation in starfish: first evidence for the use of vision and eyes in starfish. Proc. R. Soc. B 281:20133011 [Google Scholar]
  50. Gawarkiewicz G, Monismith S, Largier J. 2007. Observing larval transport processes affecting population connectivity progress and challenges. Oceanography 20:340–53 [Google Scholar]
  51. Gillanders BM, Able KW, Brown JA, Eggleston DB, Sheridan PF. 2003. Evidence of connectivity between juvenile and adult habitats for mobile marine fauna: an important component of nurseries. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 247:281–95 [Google Scholar]
  52. Godin JGJ. 1997. Evading predators. Behavioural Ecology of Teleost Fishes JGJ Godin 191–236 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  53. Goldstein MC, Carson HS, Eriksen M. 2014. Relationship of diversity and habitat area in North Pacific plastic-associated rafting communities. Mar. Biol. 161:1441–53 [Google Scholar]
  54. Green AL, Maypa AP, Almany GR, Rhodes KL, Weeks R. et al. 2015. Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes and implications for marine reserve network design. Biol. Rev. 90:1215–47 [Google Scholar]
  55. Grosberg RK. 1987. Limited dispersal and proximity-dependent mating success in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Evolution 41:372–84 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gruss A, Kaplan DM, Guenette S, Roberts CM, Botsford LW. 2011. Consequences of adult and juvenile movement for marine protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 144:692–702 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hammer C. 1995. Fatigue and exercise tests with fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 112:1–20 [Google Scholar]
  58. Havenhand JN. 1995. Evolutionary ecology of larval types. See McEdward 1995 79–122
  59. Hein AM, Hou C, Gillooly JF. 2012. Energetic and biomechanical constraints on animal migration distance. Ecol. Lett. 15:104–10 [Google Scholar]
  60. Huey RB, Kingsolver JG. 1989. Evolution of thermal sensitivity of ectotherm performance. Trends Ecol. Evol. 4:131–35 [Google Scholar]
  61. Iyer P, Roughgarden J. 2008. Gametic conflict versus contact in the evolution of anisogamy. Theor. Popul. Biol. 73:461–72 [Google Scholar]
  62. Jonsson B, Jonsson N. 1993. Partial migration: niche shift versus sexual-maturation in fishes. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 3:348–65 [Google Scholar]
  63. Kapoor BG, Hara TJ. 2001. Sensory Biology of Jawed Fishes: New Insights Boca Raton, FL: CRC
  64. Kaupp UB, Kashikar ND, Weyand I. 2008. Mechanisms of sperm chemotaxis. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 70:93–117 [Google Scholar]
  65. Kessel ST, Cooke SJ, Heupel MR, Hussey NE, Simpfendorfer CA. et al. 2014. A review of detection range testing in aquatic passive acoustic telemetry studies. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 24:199–218 [Google Scholar]
  66. Kieffer JD. 2000. Limits to exhaustive exercise in fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 126:161–79 [Google Scholar]
  67. Kim CK, Park K, Powers SP. 2013. Establishing restoration strategy of eastern oyster via a coupled biophysical transport model. Restor. Ecol. 21:353–62 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kingsford MJ, Leis JM, Shanks A, Lindeman KC, Morgan SG, Pineda J. 2002. Sensory environments, larval abilities and local self-recruitment. Bull. Mar. Sci. 70:309–40 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kinlan BP, Gaines SD. 2003. Propagule dispersal in marine and terrestrial environments: a community perspective. Ecology 84:2007–20 [Google Scholar]
  70. Koehl MAR. 1996. Why does morphology matter. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 27:501–42 [Google Scholar]
  71. Koehl MAR. 2007. Hydrodynamics of larval settlement into fouling communities. Biofouling 23:357–68 [Google Scholar]
  72. Koehl MAR, Reidenbach MA. 2010. Swimming by microscopic organisms in ambient water flow. Animal Locomotion GK Taylor, MS Triantafyllou, C Tropea 117–30 Berlin: Springer-Verlag [Google Scholar]
  73. Kurihara H. 2008. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on the early developmental stages of invertebrates. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 373:275–84 [Google Scholar]
  74. Lamare MD, Channon T, Cornelisen C, Clarke M. 2009. Archival electronic tagging of a predatory sea star—testing a new technique to study movement at the individual level. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 373:1–10 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lampert W. 1989. The adaptive significance of the diel vertical migration of zooplankton. Funct. Ecol. 3:21–27 [Google Scholar]
  76. Lauder GV. 2015. Fish locomotion: recent advances and new directions. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 7:521–45 [Google Scholar]
  77. Lauga E, Powers TR. 2009. The hydrodynamics of swimming microorganisms. Rep. Prog. Phys. 72:096601 [Google Scholar]
  78. Leggett WC. 1977. Ecology of fish migrations. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 8:285–308 [Google Scholar]
  79. Leis JM. 2006. Are larvae of demersal fishes plankton or nekton?. Advances in Marine Biology 51 AJ Southward, DW Sims 57–141 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  80. Leis JM, Caselle JE, Bradbury IR, Kristiansen T, Llopiz JK. et al. 2013. Does fish larval dispersal differ between high and low latitudes. Proc. R. Soc. B 280:20130327 [Google Scholar]
  81. Leis JM, Van Herwerden L, Patterson HM. 2011. Estimating connectivity in marine fish populations: What works best. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 49:193–234 [Google Scholar]
  82. Levin LA. 2006. Recent progress in understanding larval dispersal: new directions and digressions. Integr. Comp. Biol. 46:282–97 [Google Scholar]
  83. Levitan DR. 1995. The ecology of fertilization in free-spawning invertebrates. See McEdward 1995 123–56
  84. Levitan DR. 2004. Density-dependent sexual selection in external fertilizers: variances in male and female fertilization success along the continuum from sperm limitation to sexual conflict in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. Am. Nat. 164:298–309 [Google Scholar]
  85. Levitan DR, Sewell MA, Chia FS. 1992. How distribution and abundance influence fertilization success in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. Ecology 73:248–54 [Google Scholar]
  86. Liao JC. 2007. A review of fish swimming mechanics and behaviour in altered flows. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 362:1973–93 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lloyd MJ, Metaxas A, deYoung B. 2012. Patterns in vertical distribution and their potential effects on transport of larval benthic invertebrates in a shallow embayment. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 469:37–52 [Google Scholar]
  88. Lohmann KJ, Lohmann CMF, Endres CS. 2008. The sensory ecology of ocean navigation. J. Exp. Biol. 211:1719–28 [Google Scholar]
  89. Louda SM. 1979. Distribution, movement and diet of the snail Searlesia dira in the inter-tidal community of San Juan Island, Puget Sound, Washington. Mar. Biol. 51:119–31 [Google Scholar]
  90. Macmillan DL. 1975. Physiological analysis of walking in American lobster (Homarus americanus). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 270:1–59 [Google Scholar]
  91. Maggs JQ, Cowley PD. 2016. Nine decades of fish movement research in southern Africa: a synthesis of research and findings from 1928 to 2014. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 26:287 [Google Scholar]
  92. Marshall DJ, Allen RM, Crean AJ. 2008. The ecological and evolutionary importance of maternal effects in the sea. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 46:203–50 [Google Scholar]
  93. Marshall DJ, Keough MJ. 2008. The evolutionary ecology of offspring size in marine invertebrates. Advances in Marine Biology 53 DW Sims 1–60 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  94. Marshall DJ, Krug PJ, Kupriyanova EK, Byrne M, Emlet RB. 2012. The biogeography of marine invertebrate life histories. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 43:97–114 [Google Scholar]
  95. Marshall DJ, Morgan SG. 2011. Ecological and evolutionary consequences of linked life-history stages in the sea. Curr. Biol. 21:R718–25 [Google Scholar]
  96. McDonald KA, Grunbaum D. 2010. Swimming performance in early development and the “other” consequences of egg size for ciliated planktonic larvae. Integr. Comp. Biol. 50:589–605 [Google Scholar]
  97. McEdward L. 1995. Ecology of Marine Invertebrate Larvae Boca Raton, FL: CRC
  98. McMahon K, van Dijk KJ, Ruiz-Montoya L, Kendrick GA, Krauss SL. et al. 2014. The movement ecology of seagrasses. Proc. R. Soc. B 281:20140878 [Google Scholar]
  99. Metaxas A. 2001. Behaviour in flow: perspectives on the distribution and dispersion of meroplanktonic larvae in the water column. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 58:86–98 [Google Scholar]
  100. Metaxas A, Saunders M. 2009. Quantifying the “bio-” components in biophysical models of larval transport in marine benthic invertebrates: advances and pitfalls. Biol. Bull. 216:257–72 [Google Scholar]
  101. Metaxas A, Scheibling RE, Young CM. 2002. Estimating fertilization success in marine benthic invertebrates: a case study with the tropical sea star Oreaster reticulatus. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 226:87–101 [Google Scholar]
  102. Metaxas A, Young CM. 1998. Responses of echinoid larvae to food patches of different algal densities. Mar. Biol. 130:433–45 [Google Scholar]
  103. Miller SL. 1974. Adaptive design of locomotion and foot form in prosobranch gastropods. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 14:99–156 [Google Scholar]
  104. Montgomery JC, Coombs S, Halstead M. 1995. Biology of the mechanosensory lateral line in fishes. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 5:399–416 [Google Scholar]
  105. Montgomery JC, Jeffs A, Simpson SD, Meekan M, Tindle C. 2006. Sound as an orientation cue for the pelagic larvae of reef fishes and decapod crustaceans. Advances in Marine Biology 51 AJ Southward, DW Sims 143–96 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  106. Moran MJ. 1985. The timing and significance of sheltering and foraging behavior of the predatory intertidal gastropod Morula marginalba Blainville (Muricidae). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 93:103–14 [Google Scholar]
  107. Moran NA. 1994. Adaptation and constraint in the complex life-cycles of animals. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 25:573–600 [Google Scholar]
  108. Morgan SG. 1995. Life and death in the plankton: larval mortality and adaptation. See McEdward 1995 279–321
  109. Morris JA, Carman MR. 2012. Fragment reattachment, reproductive status, and health indicators of the invasive colonial tunicate Didemnum vexillum with implications for dispersal. Biol. Invasions 14:2133–40 [Google Scholar]
  110. Nathan R, Getz WM, Revilla E, Holyoak M, Kadmon R, Saltz D. 2008. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research. PNAS 105:19052–59 [Google Scholar]
  111. Naylor E. 2006. Orientation and navigation in coastal and estuarine zooplankton. Mar. Freshw. Behav. Physiol. 39:13–24 [Google Scholar]
  112. Neilson JD, Perry RI. 1990. Diel vertical migrations of marine fishes: an obligate or facultative process. Advances in Marine Biology 26 JHS Blaxter, AJ Southward 115–68 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  113. Ng TPT, Saltin SH, Davies MS, Johannesson K, Stafford R, Williams GA. 2013. Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods. Biol. Rev. 88:683–700 [Google Scholar]
  114. Nielsen JL. 2009. Tagging and Tracking of Marine Animals with Electronic Devices New York: Springer
  115. Nunn AD, Tewson LH, Cowx IG. 2012. The foraging ecology of larval and juvenile fishes. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 22:377–408 [Google Scholar]
  116. O'Connor MI, Bruno JF, Gaines SD, Halpern BS, Lester SE. et al. 2007. Temperature control of larval dispersal and the implications for marine ecology, evolution, and conservation. PNAS 104:1266–71 [Google Scholar]
  117. O'Dor RK. 2013. How squid swim and fly. Can. J. Zool. 91:413–19 [Google Scholar]
  118. Palmer AR, Strathmann RR. 1981. Scale of dispersal in varying environments and its implications for life histories of marine invertebrates. Oecologia 48:308–18 [Google Scholar]
  119. Palmer MA. 1988. Dispersal of marine meiofauna: a review and conceptual model explaining passive transport and active emergence with implications for recruitment. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 48:81–91 [Google Scholar]
  120. Palumbi SR. 1995. Using genetics as an indirect estimator of larval dispersal. See McEdward 1995 369–88
  121. Patterson TA, Thomas L, Wilcox C, Ovaskainen O, Matthiopoulos J. 2008. State-space models of individual animal movement. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23:87–94 [Google Scholar]
  122. Pawlik JR. 1992. Chemical ecology of the settlement of benthic marine invertebrates. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 30:273–335 [Google Scholar]
  123. Pechenik JA. 1999. On the advantages and disadvantages of larval stages in benthic marine invertebrate life cycles. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 177:269–97 [Google Scholar]
  124. Pechenik JA, Wendt DE, Jarrett JN. 1998. Metamorphosis is not a new beginning. BioScience 48:901–10 [Google Scholar]
  125. Pennington JT. 1985. The ecology of fertilization of echinoid eggs: the consequences of sperm dilution, adult aggregation, and synchronous spawning. Biol. Bull. 169:417–30 [Google Scholar]
  126. Petereit C, Hinrichsen HH, Franke A, Koster FW. 2014. Floating along buoyancy levels: dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs. Prog. Oceanogr. 122:131–52 [Google Scholar]
  127. Pineda J. 2000. Linking larval settlement to larval transport: assumptions, potentials, and pitfalls. Oceanogr. East. Pac. 1:84–105 [Google Scholar]
  128. Pineda J, Hare JA, Sponaugle S. 2007. Larval transport and dispersal in the coastal ocean and consequences for population connectivity. Oceanography 20:322–39 [Google Scholar]
  129. Pittman SJ, McAlpine CA. 2003. Movements of marine fish and decapod crustaceans: process, theory and application. Advances in Marine Biology 44 AJ Southward, PA Tyler, CM Young, LA Fuiman 205–94 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  130. Podolsky RD, Emlet RB. 1993. Separating the effects of temperature and viscosity on swimming and water-movement by sand dollar larvae (Dendraster excentricus). J. Exp. Biol. 176:207–21 [Google Scholar]
  131. Pörtner HO. 2002. Environmental and functional limits to muscular exercise and body size in marine invertebrate athletes. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 133:303–21 [Google Scholar]
  132. Queiroga H, Blanton J. 2005. Interactions between behaviour and physical forcing in the control of horizontal transport of decapod crustacean larvae. Advances in Marine Biology 47 AJ Southward, PA Tyler, CM Young, LA Fuiman 107–214 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  133. Ritz DA, Hobday AJ, Montgomery JC, Ward AJW. 2011. Social aggregation in the pelagic zone with special reference to fish and invertebrates. Advances in Marine Biology 60 M Lesser 161–227 London: Academic [Google Scholar]
  134. Rodriguez SR, Ojeda FP, Inestrosa NC. 1993. Settlement of benthic marine invertebrates. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 97:193–207 [Google Scholar]
  135. Royer F, Fromentin JM, Gaspar P. 2005. A state-space model to derive bluefin tuna movement and habitat from archival tags. Oikos 109:473–84 [Google Scholar]
  136. Ruiz GM, Fofonoff PW, Carlton JT, Wonham MJ, Hines AH. 2000. Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 31:481–531 [Google Scholar]
  137. Sameoto JA, Metaxas A. 2008. Can salinity-induced mortality explain larval vertical distribution with respect to a halocline. Biol. Bull. 214:329–38 [Google Scholar]
  138. Sanger AM. 1993. Limits to the acclimation of fish muscle. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 3:1–15 [Google Scholar]
  139. Scheltema RS. 1986. On dispersal and planktonic larvae of benthic invertebrates—an eclectic overview and summary of problems. Bull. Mar. Sci. 39:290–322 [Google Scholar]
  140. Selkoe KA, D'Aloia CC, Crandall ED, Iacchei M, Liggins L. et al. 2016. A decade of seascape genetics: contributions to basic and applied marine connectivity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 554:1–19 [Google Scholar]
  141. Selkoe KA, Toonen RJ. 2011. Marine connectivity: a new look at pelagic larval duration and genetic metrics of dispersal. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 436:291–305 [Google Scholar]
  142. Semmens JM, Pecl GT, Gillanders BM, Waluda CM, Shea EK. et al. 2007. Approaches to resolving cephalopod movement and migration patterns. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 17:401–23 [Google Scholar]
  143. Sewell MA, Levitan DR. 1992. Fertilization success during a natural spawning of the dendrochirote sea cucumber Cucumaria miniata. Bull. Mar. Sci. 51:161–66 [Google Scholar]
  144. Sfakiotakis M, Lane DM, Davies JBC. 1999. Review of fish swimming modes for aquatic locomotion. IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 24:237–52 [Google Scholar]
  145. Shanks AL. 1995. Mechanisms of cross-shelf dispersal of larval invertebrates. See McEdward 1995 323–67
  146. Shanks AL. 2009. Pelagic larval duration and dispersal distance revisited. Biol. Bull. 216:373–85 [Google Scholar]
  147. Shanks AL, Grantham BA, Carr MH. 2003. Propagule dispersal distance and the size and spacing of marine reserves. Ecol. Appl. 13:S159–69 [Google Scholar]
  148. Shapiera M, Gregory RS, Morris CJ, Pennell CJ, Snelgrove PVR. 2014. Season and site fidelity determine home range of dispersing and resident juvenile Greenland cod Gadus ogac in a Newfoundland fjord. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 503:235–46 [Google Scholar]
  149. Smith JE. 1947. The activities of the tube feet of Asteria rubens L. 1. The mechanics of movement and of posture. Q. J. Microsc. Sci. 88:1–14 [Google Scholar]
  150. Sponaugle S, Cowen RK, Shanks A, Morgan SG, Leis JM. et al. 2002. Predicting self-recruitment in marine populations: biophysical correlates and mechanisms. Bull. Mar. Sci. 70:341–75 [Google Scholar]
  151. Staaterman E, Paris CB. 2014. Modelling larval fish navigation: the way forward. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71:918–24 [Google Scholar]
  152. Steneck RS, Paris CB, Arnold SN, Ablan-Lagman MC, Alcala AC. et al. 2009. Thinking and managing outside the box: coalescing connectivity networks to build region-wide resilience in coral reef ecosystems. Coral Reefs 28:367–78 [Google Scholar]
  153. Stockley P, Gage MJG, Parker GA, Moller AP. 1997. Sperm competition in fishes: the evolution of testis size and ejaculate characteristics. Am. Nat. 149:933–54 [Google Scholar]
  154. Stone G, Schubel J, Tausig H. 1999. Electronic marine animal tagging: new frontier in ocean science. Oceanography 12:324–27 [Google Scholar]
  155. Strathmann MF. 1987. Reproduction and Development of Marine Invertebrates of the Northern Pacific Coast: Data and Methods for the Study of Eggs, Embryos, and Larvae Seattle: Univ. Wash. Press
  156. Strathmann RR. 1985. Feeding and nonfeeding larval development and life-history evolution in marine invertebrates. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 16:339–61 [Google Scholar]
  157. Strathmann RR. 1990. Why life histories evolve differently in the sea. Am. Zool. 30:197–207 [Google Scholar]
  158. Strathmann RR. 1993. Hypotheses on the origins of marine larvae. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 24:89–117 [Google Scholar]
  159. Strathmann RR. 2007. Three functionally distinct kinds of pelagic development. Bull. Mar. Sci. 81:167–79 [Google Scholar]
  160. Strathmann RR, Hughes TP, Kuris AM, Lindeman KC, Morgan SG. et al. 2002. Evolution of local recruitment and its consequences for marine populations. Bull. Mar. Sci. 70:377–96 [Google Scholar]
  161. Teodosio MA, Paris CB, Wolanski E, Morais P. 2016. Biophysical processes leading to the ingress of temperate fish larvae into estuarine nursery areas: a review. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 183:187–202 [Google Scholar]
  162. Thiel M, Gutow L. 2004. The ecology of rafting in the marine environment. I. The floating substrata. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 42:181–263 [Google Scholar]
  163. Thiel M, Gutow L. 2005. The ecology of rafting in the marine environment. II. The rafting organisms and community. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 43:279–418 [Google Scholar]
  164. Thiel M, Haye PA. 2006. The ecology of rafting in the marine environment. III. Biogeographical and evolutionary consequences. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. 44:323–429 [Google Scholar]
  165. Thorrold SR, Zacherl DC, Levin LA. 2007. Population connectivity and larval dispersal using geochemical signatures in calcified structures. Oceanography 20:380–89 [Google Scholar]
  166. Treml EA, Roberts JJ, Chao Y, Halpin PN, Possingham HP, Riginos C. 2012. Reproductive output and duration of the pelagic larval stage determine seascape-wide connectivity of marine populations. Integr. Comp. Biol. 52:525–37 [Google Scholar]
  167. Trueman CN, MacKenzie KM, Palmer MR. 2012. Identifying migrations in marine fishes through stable-isotope analysis. J. Fish Biol. 81:826–47 [Google Scholar]
  168. Vaughn D, Allen JD. 2010. The peril of the plankton. Integr. Comp. Biol. 50:552–70 [Google Scholar]
  169. Videler JJ, Wardle CS. 1991. Fish swimming stride by stride: speed limits and endurance. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 1:23–40 [Google Scholar]
  170. Walther BD, Munguia P, Fuiman LA. 2015. Frontiers in marine movement ecology: mechanisms and consequences of migration and dispersal in marine habitats. Biol. Lett. 11:20150146 [Google Scholar]
  171. Werner FE, Cowen RK, Paris CB. 2007. Coupled biological and physical models present capabilities and necessary developments for future studies of population connectivity. Oceanography 20:354–69 [Google Scholar]
  172. White JW, Morgan SG, Fisher JL. 2014. Planktonic larval mortality rates are lower than widely expected. Ecology 95:3344–53 [Google Scholar]
  173. Willis J. 2011. Modelling swimming aquatic animals in hydrodynamic models. Ecol. Model. 222:3869–87 [Google Scholar]
  174. Winston JE. 2012. Dispersal in marine organisms without a pelagic larval phase. Integr. Comp. Biol. 52:447–57 [Google Scholar]
  175. Wolanski E, Kingsford MJ. 2014. Oceanographic and behavioural assumptions in models of the fate of coral and coral reef fish larvae. J. R. Soc. Interface 11:20140209 [Google Scholar]
  176. Woodson CB, McManus MA. 2007. Foraging behavior can influence dispersal of marine organisms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 52:2701–9 [Google Scholar]
  177. Wootton RJ. 1999. Invertebrate paraxial locomotory appendages: design, deformation and control. J. Exp. Biol. 202:3333–45 [Google Scholar]
  178. Worcester SE. 1994. Adult rafting versus larval swimming—dispersal and recruitment of a botryllid ascidian on eelgrass. Mar. Biol. 121:309–17 [Google Scholar]
  179. Wyeth RC, Woodward OM, Willows AOD. 2006. Orientation and navigation relative to water flow, prey, conspecifics, and predators by the nudibranch mollusc Tritonia diomedea. Biol. Bull. 210:97–108 [Google Scholar]
  180. Young CM. 1995. Behavior and locomotion during the dispersal phase of larval life. See McEdward 1995 249–77
  181. Yund PO, Meidel SK. 2003. Sea urchin spawning in benthic boundary layers: Are eggs fertilized before advecting away from females?. Limnol. Oceanogr. 48:795–801 [Google Scholar]
  182. Yund PO, Murdock K, Johnson SL. 2007. Spatial distribution of ascidian sperm: two-dimensional patterns and short vs. time-integrated assays. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 341:103–9 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063134
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-121916-063134
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error