Food, energy, and water (FEW) systems play a fundamental role in determining societal health and economic well-being. However, current and expected changes in climate, population, and land use place these systems under considerable stress. To improve policies that target these challenges, this review highlights the need for integrating biophysical and economic models of the FEW nexus. We discuss advancements in modeling individual components that comprise this system and outline fundamental research needs for these individual areas as well as for model integration. Though great strides have been made in individual and integrated modeling, we nevertheless find a considerable need for improved integration of economic decision-making with biophysical models. We also highlight a need for improved model validation.


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