1932

Abstract

This article reviews the economic and analytical challenges of adaptation to climate change. Adaptation to climate risks that can no longer be avoided is an important aspect of the global response to climate change. Humans have always adapted to changing climatic conditions, and there is growing, if still patchy, evidence of widespread adaptation behavior. However, adaptation is not autonomous as sometimes claimed. It requires knowledge, planning, coordination, and foresight. There are important knowledge gaps, behavioral barriers, and market failures that hold back effective adaptation and require policy intervention. We identify the most urgent adaptation priorities, including areas where delay might lock in future vulnerability, and outline the decision-making challenges of adapting to an unknown future climate. We also highlight the strong interlinkages between adaptation and economic development, pointing out that decisions on industrial strategy, urban planning, and infrastructure investment all have a strong bearing on future vulnerability to climate change. We review the implications of these links for adaptation finance and what the literature tells us about the balance between adaptation and mitigation.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-100516-033554
2017-10-05
2024-04-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/resource/9/1/annurev-resource-100516-033554.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-100516-033554&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Adapt. Subcomm. (ASC). 2014. Managing Climate Risks to Well-Being and the Economy London: UK Adapt. Subcomm.
  2. Adger WN, Dessai S, Goulden M, Hulme M, Lorenzoni I. et al. 2009. Are there social limits to adaptation to climate change?. Clim. Change 93:3–4335–54 [Google Scholar]
  3. Agrawala S. 2005. Bridge over Troubled Waters: Linking Climate Change and Development Paris: OECD
  4. Agrawala S, Bosello F, Carraro C, de Bruin K, De Cian E. et al. 2011a. Plan or react? Analysis of adaptation costs and benefits using integrated assessment models. Clim. Change Econ. 2:3175–208 [Google Scholar]
  5. Agrawala S, Carraro M, Kingsmill N, Lanzi E, Mullan M, Prudent-Richard G. 2011b. Private Sector Engagement in Adaptation to Climate Change: Approaches to Managing Climate Risks Paris: OECD
  6. Agrawala S, Fankhauser S. 2008. Economic Aspects of Adaptation to Climate Change: Costs, Benefits and Policy Instruments Paris: OECD
  7. Auffhammer M, Aroonruengsawat A. 2011. Simulating the impacts of climate change, prices and population on California's residential electricity consumption. Clim. Change 109:1191–210 [Google Scholar]
  8. Auffhammer M, Mansur ET. 2014. Measuring climatic impacts on energy consumption: a review of the empirical literature. Energy Econ 46:522–30 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bahn O, Chesney M, Gheyssens J. 2012. The effect of proactive adaptation on green investment. Environ. Sci. Policy 18:9–24 [Google Scholar]
  10. Banerjee L. 2007. Effect of flood on agricultural wages in Bangladesh: an empirical analysis. World Dev 35:111989–2009 [Google Scholar]
  11. Barbier EB. 2007. Valuing ecosystem services as productive inputs. Econ. Policy 22:49178–229 [Google Scholar]
  12. Barnett BJ, Mahul O. 2007. Weather index insurance for agriculture and rural areas in lower-income countries. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 89:51241–47 [Google Scholar]
  13. Barr R, Fankhauser S, Hamilton K. 2010. Adaptation investments: a resource allocation framework. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Change 15:8843–58 [Google Scholar]
  14. Barreca A, Clay K, Deschênes O, Greenstone M, Shapiro JS. 2013. Adapting to climate change: the remarkable decline in the US temperature-mortality relationship over the 20th century NBER Work. Pap 18692
  15. Beine M, Parsons C. 2015. Climatic factors as determinants of international migration. Scand. J. Econ. 117:2723–67 [Google Scholar]
  16. Berkhout F. 2012. Adaptation to climate change by organizations. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Clim. Change 3:191–106 [Google Scholar]
  17. Berrittella M, Bigano A, Roson R, Tol RS. 2006. A general equilibrium analysis of climate change impacts on tourism. Tourism Manag 27:5913–24 [Google Scholar]
  18. Bhave A, Conway D, Dessai S, Stainforth D. 2016. Barriers and opportunities for robust decision making approaches to support climate change adaptation in the developing world. Climate Risk Manag 14:1–10 [Google Scholar]
  19. Biagini B, Miller A. 2013. Engaging the private sector in adaptation to climate change in developing countries: importance, status and challenges. Clim. Dev. 5:3242–52 [Google Scholar]
  20. Biesbroek R, Klostermann J, Termeer C, Kabat P. 2011. Barriers to climate change adaptation in the Netherlands. Clim. Law 2:2181–99 [Google Scholar]
  21. Bosello F, Carraro C, De Cian E. 2010. Climate policy and the optimal balance between mitigation, adaptation and unavoided damage. Clim. Change Econ. 1:1–22 [Google Scholar]
  22. Bosello F, Roson R, Tol RS. 2007. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: sea level rise. Environ. Resour. Econ. 37:3549–71 [Google Scholar]
  23. Boustan LP, Kahn ME, Rhode PW. 2012. Moving to higher ground: migration response to natural disasters in the early twentieth century. Am. Econ. Rev. 102:3238–44 [Google Scholar]
  24. Bowen A. 2011. Raising climate finance to support developing country action: some economic considerations. Clim. Policy 11:31020–36 [Google Scholar]
  25. Bréchet T, Hritonenko N, Yatsenko Y. 2013. Adaptation and mitigation in long-term climate policy. Environ. Resour. Econ. 55:2217–43 [Google Scholar]
  26. Brooks N, Adger WN, Kelly PM. 2005. The determinants of vulnerability and adaptive capacity at the national level and the implications for adaptation. Glob. Environ. Change 15:151–63 [Google Scholar]
  27. Buob S, Stephan G. 2013. On the incentive compatibility of funding adaptation. Clim. Change Econ. 4:21–18 [Google Scholar]
  28. Burke M, Emerick K. 2016. Adaptation to climate change: evidence from US agriculture. Am. Econ. J. Econ. Policy 8:3106–40 [Google Scholar]
  29. Burke M, Hsiang S, Miguel E. 2015. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production. Nature 527:235–39 [Google Scholar]
  30. Burton I. 2009. Climate change and the adaptation deficit. The Earthscan Reader on Adaptation to Climate Change L Schipper, I Burton 89–98 London: Earthscan [Google Scholar]
  31. Callaway JM, Louw DB, Nkomo JC, Hellmuth ME, Sparks DA. 2006. The Berg River dynamic spatial equilibrium model: a new tool for assessing the benefits and costs of alternatives for coping with water demand growth, climate variability, and climate change in the Western Cape Work. Pap. AIACC 3141
  32. Carleton T, Hsiang S. 2016. The social and economic impacts of climate change. Science 353:63049837–115 [Google Scholar]
  33. Castells-Quintana D, Lopez-Uribe M, McDermott T. 2016. Coping with climate risk: the options. The Economics of Climate-Resilient Development S Fankhauser, T McDermott 53–76 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  34. Chambwera M, Heal G, Dubeux C, Hallegatte S, Leclerc L. et al. 2014. Economics of adaptation. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change833–68 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  35. Cimato F, Mullan M. 2010. Adapting to climate change: analysing the role of government DEFRA Evid. Anal. Ser. Pap. 1, UK Dep. Environ. Food Rural Aff. London:
  36. Ciscar JC, Iglesias A, Feyen L, Szabó L, Van Regemorter D. et al. 2011. Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe. PNAS 108:72678–83 [Google Scholar]
  37. Collier P, Conway G, Venables T. 2008. Climate change and Africa. Oxf. Rev. Econ. Policy 24:2337–53 [Google Scholar]
  38. Conway D, Dechezleprêtre A, Haščič I, Johnstone N. 2015. Invention and diffusion of water supply and water efficiency technologies: insights from a global patent dataset. Water Econ. Policy 1:41550010 [Google Scholar]
  39. Das S, Vincent JR. 2009. Mangroves protected villages and reduced death toll during Indian super cyclone. PNAS 106:187357–60 [Google Scholar]
  40. de Bruin KC. 2011. Distinguishing between proactive (stock) and reactive (flow) adaptation CERE Work. Pap. 8, Cent. Environ. Resour. Econ. Univ. Umea Swed.: [Google Scholar]
  41. de Bruin KC, Dellink RB. 2011. How harmful are restrictions on adapting to climate change. Glob. Environ. Change 21:34–45 [Google Scholar]
  42. de Bruin KC, Dellink RB, Tol RSJ. 2009. AD-DICE: an implementation of adaptation in the DICE model. Clim. Change 95:63–81 [Google Scholar]
  43. Dell M, Jones BF, Olken BA. 2012. Temperature shocks and economic growth: evidence from the last half century. Am. Econ. J. Macroecon. 4:66–95 [Google Scholar]
  44. Dell M, Jones BF, Olken BA. 2014. What do we learn from the weather? The new climate–economy literature. J. Econ. Lit. 52:3740–98 [Google Scholar]
  45. Dercon S. 2002. Income risk, coping strategies, and safety nets. World Bank Res. Obs. 17:2141–66 [Google Scholar]
  46. Deschênes O, Greenstone M. 2011. Climate change, mortality, and adaptation: evidence from annual fluctuations in weather in the US. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 3:4152–85 [Google Scholar]
  47. Dessai S, Hulme M. 2007. Assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions to climate change uncertainties: a case study on water resources management in the East of England. Glob. Environ. Change 17:59–72 [Google Scholar]
  48. Dietz S, Dixon C, Ward J. 2016. Locking in climate vulnerability: Where are the investment hotspots?. The Economics of Climate-Resilient Development S Fankhauser, T McDermott 77–98 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  49. Di Falco S, Veronesi M. 2013. How can African agriculture adapt to climate change? A counterfactual analysis from Ethiopia. Land Econ 89:4743–66 [Google Scholar]
  50. Di Falco S, Veronesi M, Yesuf M. 2011. Does adaptation to climate change provide food security? A micro-perspective from Ethiopia. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 93:3829–46 [Google Scholar]
  51. Dow K, Berkhout F, Preston BL, Klein RJ, Midgley G, Shaw MR. 2013. Limits to adaptation. Nat. Clim. Change 3:4305–7 [Google Scholar]
  52. Eboli F, Parrado R, Roson R. 2010. Climate-change feedback on economic growth: explorations with a dynamic general equilibrium model. Environ. Dev. Econ. 15:5515–33 [Google Scholar]
  53. Eskander S, Barbier E. 2016. Agricultural adaptation to natural disasters through the land rental market: evidence from Bangladesh Work. Pap. 236, Grantham Res. Inst. Clim. Change Environ., Lond. Sch. Econ.
  54. Eskeland GS, Mideksa TK. 2010. Electricity demand in a changing climate. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Change 15:8877–97 [Google Scholar]
  55. Eyckmans J, Fankhauser S, Kverndokk S. 2015. Development aid and climate finance. Environ. Resour. Econ. 63:2429–50 [Google Scholar]
  56. Fankhauser S. 1995. Protection versus retreat: the economic costs of sea level rise. Environ. Plan. A 27:299–319 [Google Scholar]
  57. Fankhauser S. 2010. The costs of adaptation. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Clim. Change 1:123–30 [Google Scholar]
  58. Fankhauser S, McDermott T. 2014. Understanding the adaptation deficit: Why are poor countries more vulnerable to climate events than rich countries. Glob. Environ. Change 27:9–18 [Google Scholar]
  59. Fankhauser S, McDermott T. 2016. Climate-resilient development: an introduction. The Economics of Climate-Resilient Development S Fankhauser, T McDermott 1–14 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  60. Fankhauser S, Schmidt-Traub G. 2011. From adaptation to climate-resilient development. The cost of climate-proofing the Millennium Development Goals in Africa. Clim. Dev. 3:1–20 [Google Scholar]
  61. Fankhauser S, Soare R. 2013. An economic approach to adaptation: illustrations from Europe. Clim. Change 118:2367–79 [Google Scholar]
  62. Feng S, Krueger AB, Oppenheimer M. 2010. Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico's cross-border migration. PNAS 107:3214257–62 [Google Scholar]
  63. Feng S, Oppenheimer M, Schlenker W. 2012. Climate change, crop yields, and internal migration in the United States NBER Work. Pap. 17734
  64. Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Qin D, Dokken DJ. et al. 2012. Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  65. Fisher-Vanden K, Wing IS, Lanzi E, Popp D. 2013. Modeling climate change feedbacks and adaptation responses: recent approaches and shortcomings. Clim. Change 117:3481–95 [Google Scholar]
  66. Füssel HM, Hallegatte S, Reder M. 2012. International adaptation funding. Climate Change, Justice and Sustainability: Linking Climate and Development Policy O Edenhofer, J Wallacher, H Lotze-Campen, M Reder, B Knopf, J Müller 311–30 New York: Springer Sci. Bus. Media [Google Scholar]
  67. Grothmann T, Patt A. 2005. Adaptive capacity and human cognition: the process of individual adaptation to climate change. Glob. Environ. Change 15:3199–213 [Google Scholar]
  68. Hallegatte S. 2008. An adaptive regional input-output model and its application to the assessment of the economic cost of Katrina. Risk Anal 28:3779–99 [Google Scholar]
  69. Hallegatte S. 2009. Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Glob. Environ. Change 19:2240–47 [Google Scholar]
  70. Hallegatte S, Shah A, Brown C, Lempert R, Gill S. 2012. Investment decision making under deep uncertainty—application to climate change Policy Res. Work. Pap. 6193, World Bank Washington, DC:
  71. Hamilton JM, Maddison DJ, Tol RS. 2005. Climate change and international tourism: a simulation study. Glob. Environ. Change 15:3253–66 [Google Scholar]
  72. Hanson S, Nicholls R, Ranger N, Hallegatte S, Corfee-Morlot R. et al. 2011. A global ranking of port cities with high exposure to climate extremes. Clim. Change 104:189–111 [Google Scholar]
  73. Heal G, Millner A. 2014. Reflections: uncertainty and decision making in climate change economics. Rev. Environ. Econ. Policy 8:1120–37 [Google Scholar]
  74. Henderson VH, Storeygard A, Deichmann U. 2014. 50 years of urbanization in Africa: examining the role of climate change Res. Work. Pap. 6925, World Bank Dev. Res. Group Policy Washington, DC:
  75. Hong HG, Li FW, Xu J. 2016. Climate risks and market efficiency NBER Work. Pap. 22890
  76. Hsiang S. 2016. Climate econometrics. Annu. Rev. Resour. Econ. 8:43–75 [Google Scholar]
  77. Hsiang S, Narita D. 2012. Adaptation to cyclone risk: evidence from the global cross-section. Clim. Change Econ. 3:21250011 [Google Scholar]
  78. Ingham A, Ma J, Ulph AM. 2005. Can adaptation and mitigation be complements? Work. Pap. 79, Tyndall Cent. Clim. Change Res. Norwich, UK:
  79. Kahn M. 2005. The death toll from natural disasters: the role of income, geography and institutions. Rev. Econ. Stat. 87:271–84 [Google Scholar]
  80. Kahn M. 2016. The climate change adaptation literature. Rev. Environ. Econ. Policy 10:1166–78 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kazianga H, Udry C. 2006. Consumption smoothing? Livestock, insurance and drought in rural Burkina Faso. J. Dev. Econ. 79:2413–46 [Google Scholar]
  82. Klein RJ. 2010. Linking adaptation and development finance: a policy dilemma not addressed in Copenhagen. Climate Dev 2:3203–6 [Google Scholar]
  83. Klein RJ, Huq S, Denton F, Downing TE, Richels RG. et al. 2007. Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change745–77 Cambridge, UK:: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  84. Kopytko N, Perkins J. 2011. Climate change, nuclear power, and the adaptation–mitigation dilemma. Energy Policy 39:1318–33 [Google Scholar]
  85. Kunreuther H, Heal G, Allen M, Edenhofer O, Field CB, Yohe G. 2013. Risk management and climate change. Nat. Clim. Change 3:5447–50 [Google Scholar]
  86. Kurukulasuriya P, Kala N, Mendelsohn R. 2011. Adaptation and climate change impacts: a structural Ricardian model of irrigation and farm income in Africa. Clim. Change Econ. 2:2149–74 [Google Scholar]
  87. Lempert RJ, Groves DG, Popper SW, Bankes SC. 2006. A general, analytic method for generating robust strategies and narrative scenarios. Manag. Sci. 52:4514–28 [Google Scholar]
  88. Lempert RJ, Kalra N, Peyraud S, Mao Z, Tan SB. et al. 2013. Ensuring robust flood risk management in Ho Chi Minh City Policy Res. Work. Pap. 6465, World Bank Washington, DC:
  89. Lempert RJ, Schlesinger ME. 2000. Robust strategies for abating climate change. Clim. Change 45:3387–401 [Google Scholar]
  90. Li J, Mullan M, Helgeson J. 2014. Improving the practice of economic analysis of climate change adaptation. J. Benefit-Cost Anal. 5:3445–67 [Google Scholar]
  91. Linnenluecke M, Griffiths A, Winn M. 2013. Firm and industry adaptation to climate change: a review of climate adaptation studies in the business and management field. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Clim. Change 4:397–416 [Google Scholar]
  92. Maddison D. 2001. In search of warmer climates? The impact of climate change on flows of British tourists. Clim. Change 49:1–2193–208 [Google Scholar]
  93. Mansur E, Mendelsohn R, Morrison W. 2008. Climate change adaptation: a study of fuel choice and consumption in the US energy sector. J. Environ. Econ. Manag. 55:2175–93 [Google Scholar]
  94. Markandya A, Galarraga I, de Murieta ES. 2014. Routledge Handbook of the Economics of Climate Change Adaptation Abingdon, UK: Routledge
  95. Massetti E, Mendelsohn R. 2015. The economics of adaptation to climate change Work. Pap., Georgia Inst. Tech. Atlanta, Ga.:
  96. McDermott TKJ, Barry F, Tol RSJ. 2013. Disasters and development: natural disasters, credit constraints and economic growth. Oxford Econ. Pap. 66:3750–73 [Google Scholar]
  97. McGray H, Hammill A, Bradley R, Schipper EL, Parry JE. 2007. Weathering the storm: options for framing adaptation and development WRI Rep., World Resour. Inst. Washington, DC:
  98. Mendelsohn R. 2012. The economics of adaptation to climate change in developing countries. Clim. Change Econ. 3:21250006 [Google Scholar]
  99. Mendelsohn R, Nordhaus WD, Shaw D. 1994. The impact of global warming on agriculture: a Ricardian analysis. Am. Econ. Rev. 84:4753–71 [Google Scholar]
  100. Miao Q, Popp D. 2014. Necessity as the mother of invention: innovative responses to natural disasters. J. Environ. Econ. Manag. 68:2280–95 [Google Scholar]
  101. Mideksa TK. 2010. Economic and distributional impacts of climate change: the case of Ethiopia. Glob. Environ. Change 20:2278–86 [Google Scholar]
  102. Millner A, Dietz S. 2015. Adaptation to climate change and economic growth in developing countries. Environ. Dev. Econ. 20:03380–406 [Google Scholar]
  103. Moser SC, Ekstrom JA. 2010. A framework to diagnose barriers to climate change adaptation. PNAS 107:5122026–31 [Google Scholar]
  104. Mueller V, Quisumbing A. 2011. How resilient are labour markets to natural disasters? The case of the 1998 Bangladesh flood. J. Dev. Stud. 47:121954–71 [Google Scholar]
  105. Mullan M, Kingsmill N, Kramer AM, Agrawala S. 2013. National Adaptation Planning: Lessons from OECD Countries OECD Environ. Work. Pap. 54 OECD Paris:
  106. Narain U, Margulis S, Essam T. 2011. Estimating costs of adaptation to climate change. Clim. Policy 11:31001–19 [Google Scholar]
  107. Nelson GC, Rosegrant MW, Palazzo A, Gray I, Ingersoll C. et al. 2010. Food security, farming, and climate change to 2050: scenarios, results, policy options Rep., Int. Food Policy Res. Inst. Washington, DC:
  108. Nordhaus W, Sztorc P. 2013. DICE 2013R: Introduction and Users Manual New Haven, CT: Yale Univ http://www.econ.yale.edu/∼nordhaus/homepage/documents/DICE_Manual_103113r2.pdf
  109. Noy I. 2009. The macroeconomic consequences of disasters. J. Dev. Econ. 88:2221–31 [Google Scholar]
  110. Parry M, Arnell N, Berry P, Dodman D, Fankhauser S. et al. 2009. Adaptation to climate change: assessing the costs. Environment 51:629–36 [Google Scholar]
  111. Paul BK. 2009. Why relatively fewer people died? The case of Bangladesh's Cyclone Sidr. Nat. Hazards 50:2289–304 [Google Scholar]
  112. Penning-Rowsell EC, Sultana P, Thompson PM. 2013. The ‘last resort’? Population movement in response to climate-related hazards in Bangladesh. Environ. Sci. Policy 27:S44–59 [Google Scholar]
  113. Pindyck RS. 2013. Climate change policy: What do the models tell us. J. Econ. Lit. 51:3860–72 [Google Scholar]
  114. Pitt M. 2008. Learning Lessons from the 2007 Floods London: UK Cabinet Off.
  115. Ranger N, Harvey A, Garbett-Shiels S-L. 2014. Safeguarding development aid against climate change: evaluating progress and identifying best practice. Dev. Pract. 24:4467–86 [Google Scholar]
  116. Ranger N, Millner A, Dietz S, Fankhauser S, Lopez A, Ruta G. 2010. Adaptation in the UK: a decision making process Policy Brief, Grantham Res. Inst. Clim. Change Environ., Lond. Sch. Econ.
  117. Ranger N, Reeder T, Lowe J. 2013. Addressing ‘deep'uncertainty over long-term climate in major infrastructure projects: four innovations of the Thames Estuary 2100 Project. EURO J. Decis. Process. 1:3–4233–62 [Google Scholar]
  118. Ranger N, Surminski S. 2013. A preliminary assessment of the impact of climate change on non-life insurance demand in the BRICS economies. Int. J. Disaster Risk Reduct. 3:14–30 [Google Scholar]
  119. Rapson D. 2014. Durable goods and long-run electricity demand: evidence from air conditioner purchase behavior. J. Environ. Econ. Manag. 68:1141–60 [Google Scholar]
  120. Reilly J, Hohmann N, Kane S. 1994. Climate change and agricultural trade: Who benefits, who loses. Glob. Environ. Change 4:124–36 [Google Scholar]
  121. Reilly J, Paltsev S, Felzer B, Wang X, Kicklighter D. et al. 2007. Global economic effects of changes in crops, pasture, and forests due to changing climate, carbon dioxide, and ozone. Energy Policy 35:115370–83 [Google Scholar]
  122. Repetto R. 2008. The climate crisis and the adaptation myth Work. Pap. 13, Yale Sch. For. Environ. Stud. New Haven, Conn.:
  123. Robinson S, Willenbockel D, Strzepek K. 2012. A dynamic general equilibrium analysis of adaptation to climate change in Ethiopia. Rev. Dev. Econ. 16:3489–502 [Google Scholar]
  124. Rosenthal D, Gruenspecht H, Moran E. 1995. Effects of global warming on energy use for space heating and cooling in the United States. Energy J 16:77–96 [Google Scholar]
  125. Rosenzweig C, Tubiello FN. 2007. Adaptation and mitigation strategies in agriculture: an analysis of potential synergies. Mitig. Adapt. Strateg. Glob. Change 12:5855–73 [Google Scholar]
  126. Schelling T. 1992. Some economics of global warming. Am. Econ. Rev. 82:1–14 [Google Scholar]
  127. Schelling T. 1997. The cost of combating global warming: facing the tradeoffs. Foreign Aff 76:68–14 [Google Scholar]
  128. Schneider SH, Easterling WE, Mearns LO. 2000. Adaptation: sensitivity to natural variability, agent assumptions and dynamic climate changes. Clim. Change 45:1203–21 [Google Scholar]
  129. Seo SN, McCarl B, Mendelsohn R. 2010. From beef cattle to sheep under global warming? An analysis of adaptation by livestock species choice in South America. Ecol. Econ. 69:122486–94 [Google Scholar]
  130. Seo SN, Mendelsohn R. 2008. An analysis of crop choice: adapting to climate change in South American farms. Ecol. Econ. 67:1109–16 [Google Scholar]
  131. Smith JB, Dickinson T, Donahue JD, Burton I, Haites E. et al. 2011. Development and climate change adaptation funding: coordination and integration. Clim. Policy 11:3987–1000 [Google Scholar]
  132. Smith JB, Lenhart SS. 1996. Climate change adaptation policy options. Clim. Res. 6:2193–201 [Google Scholar]
  133. Smith VK, Carbone JC, Pope JC, Hallstrom DG, Darden ME. 2006. Adjusting to natural disasters. J. Risk Uncertain. 33:1–237–54 [Google Scholar]
  134. Sobel R, Leeson P. 2006. Government's response to Hurricane Katrina: a public choice analysis. Public Choice 127:155–73 [Google Scholar]
  135. Stern N. 2013. The structure of economic modeling of the potential impacts of climate change: grafting gross underestimation of risk onto already narrow science models. J. Econ. Lit. 51:3838–59 [Google Scholar]
  136. Stern N. 2016. Economics: current climate models are grossly misleading. Nature 530:7591407–9 [Google Scholar]
  137. Tol RSJ, Yohe GW. 2007. The weakest link hypothesis for adaptive capacity: an empirical test. Glob. Environ. Change 17:218–27 [Google Scholar]
  138. Tri NH, Adger WN, Kelly PM. 1998. Natural resource management in mitigating climate impacts: the example of mangrove restoration in Vietnam. Glob. Environ. Change 8:149–61 [Google Scholar]
  139. UN Framew. Conv. Clim. Change (UNFCCC). 2007. Investment and Financial Flows to Address Climate Change Bonn, Ger: Secr. UNFCCC
  140. Vafeidis AT, Nicholls RJ, McFadden L, Tol RS, Hinkel J. et al. 2008. A new global coastal database for impact and vulnerability analysis to sea-level rise. J. Coastal Res. 24:4917–24 [Google Scholar]
  141. Wang J, Mendelsohn R, Dinar A, Huang J. 2010. How Chinese farmers change crop choice to adapt to climate change. Clim. Change Econ. 1:167–86 [Google Scholar]
  142. Watkiss P. 2016. Adaptation experience and prioritization. The Economics of Climate-Resilient Development S Fankhauser, T McDermott 125–42 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  143. Watkiss P, Benzie M, Klein R. 2015. The complementarity and comparability of climate change adaptation and mitigation. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Clim. Change 6:6541–57 [Google Scholar]
  144. Watkiss P, Hunt A. 2016. Assessing climate-resilient development options. The Economics of Climate-Resilient Development S Fankhauser, T McDermott 99–124 Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar [Google Scholar]
  145. Watson R, Zinyowera M, Moss R, Dokken D. 1995. Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change. Scientific-Technical Analysis. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  146. Weyant J, Davidson O, Dowlatabadi H, Edmonds J, Grubb M. et al. 1995. Integrated assessment of climate change. Climate Change 1995. Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change367–96 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  147. World Bank. 2010. Economics of Adaptation to Climate Change: Synthesis Report Washington, DC: World Bank
  148. World Bank. 2016. Shock Waves: Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty Washington, DC: World Bank
  149. Yohe G, Neumann J, Ameden H. 1995. Assessing the economic cost of greenhouse-induced sea level rise methods and application in support of a national survey. J. Environ. Econ. Manag. 29:S78–S97 [Google Scholar]
  150. Yohe G, Tol RSJ. 2002. Indicators for social and economic coping capacity—moving toward a working definition of adaptive capacity. Glob. Environ. Change 12:125–40 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-100516-033554
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-resource-100516-033554
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error