This is the second of two chapters (the first chapter appeared in the , 2000, 2:55–81) dealing with some 60 years of accumulated knowledge in the field of impact biomechanics. The regions covered in the first chapter were the head, neck, and thorax. In this chapter, the abdomen, pelvis, and lower extremities are discussed. The thoracolumbar spine is not covered because of length limitations and the low frequency of injury to this area from automotive accidents. Again, in the cited results, the reader needs to be keenly aware of the wide variation in human response and tolerance. This is due primarily to the large biological variations among humans and to the effects of aging. Average values that are useful in design cannot be applied to individuals.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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