Heating therapies are increasingly used in cardiology, dermatology, gynecology, neurosurgery, oncology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, and urology, among other medical specialties. This widespread use of heating is driven primarily by the availability of new technology, not by a detailed understanding of the biothermomechanics. Without basic quantification of the underlying physical and chemical processes in terms of parameters that can be controlled clinically, identification of preferred interventions will continue to be based primarily on trial and error, thus necessitating large clinical studies and years of accumulative experience. Perusal of the literature reveals that much has been learned over the past century about the response of cells, proteins, and tissues to supra-physiologic temperatures; yet, the associated findings are reported in diverse journals and the underlying basic processes remain unidentified. In this review, we seek to contrast various findings on the kinetics of the thermal denaturation of collagen and to encourage investigators to consider the many open problems in part via a synthesis of results from the diverse literatures.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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