Photosystem II uses visible light to drive the oxidation of water, resulting in bioactivated electrons and protons, with the production of molecular oxygen as a byproduct. This water-splitting reaction is carried out by a manganese cluster/tyrosine radical ensemble, the oxygen-evolving complex. Although conventional continuous-wave, perpendicular-polarization electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has significantly advanced our knowledge of the structure and function of the oxygen-evolving complex, significant additional information can be obtained with the application of additional EPR methodologies. Specifically, parallel-polarization EPR spectroscopy can be used to obtain highly resolved EPR spectra of integer spin Mn species, and pulsed EPR spectroscopy with electron spin echo-based sequences, such as electron spin echo envelope modulation and electron spin echo-electron nuclear double resonance, can be used to measure weak interactions obscured in continuous-wave spectroscopy by inhomogeneous broadening.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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