As parasitoids upon solitary bees and wasps and their nest cohabitants, have an intricate life history that involves both female cooperation and variably expressed male siblicidal conflict. Inter- and intrasexual dimorphism includes blind, flightless males and (probably nutritionally determined) short- and long-winged females. Thought to be highly inbred, do not conform to local mate competition (LMC) theory but exhibit simple forms of many social insect traits, including overlapping adult generations, different female phenotypes, close kinship ties, parental care, and altruistic cooperative escape behaviors. Most host records and research findings are based on only 3 species—, and —but any of the 12 species could have pest potential due to their polyphagy, explosive population growth, cryptic habits, and behavioral plasticity. Readily cultured in the laboratory, offer considerable potential as a model for genetic, developmental, and behavioral studies.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error