This review addresses the mechanisms by which mitochondrial structure and function are regulated, with a focus on vertebrate muscle. We consider the adaptive remodeling that arises during physiological transitions such as differentiation, development, and contractile activity. Parallels are drawn between such phenotypic changes and the pattern of change arising over evolutionary time, as suggested by interspecies comparisons. We address the physiological and evolutionary relationships between ATP production, thermogenesis, and superoxide generation in the context of mitochondrial function. Our discussion of mitochondrial structure focuses on the regulation of membrane composition and maintenance of the three-dimensional reticulum. Current studies of mitochondrial biogenesis strive to integrate muscle functional parameters with signal transduction and molecular genetics, providing insight into the origins of variation arising between physiological states, fiber types, and species.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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