1932

Abstract

Developing a deeper understanding of dynamic chemical, electronic, and morphological changes at interfaces is key to solving practical issues in electrochemical energy storage systems (EESSs). To unravel this complexity, an assortment of tools with distinct capabilities and spatiotemporal resolutions have been used to creatively visualize interfacial processes as they occur. This review highlights how electrochemical scanning probe techniques (ESPTs) such as electrochemical atomic force microscopy, scanning electrochemical microscopy, scanning ion conductance microscopy, and scanning electrochemical cell microscopy are uniquely positioned to address these challenges in EESSs. We describe the operating principles of ESPTs, focusing on the inspection of interfacial structure and chemical processes involved in Li-ion batteries and beyond. We discuss current examples, performance limitations, and complementary ESPTs. Finally, we discuss prospects for imaging improvements and deep learning for automation. We foresee that ESPTs will play an enabling role in advancing EESSs as we transition to renewable energies.

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2023-06-14
2024-06-25
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  • Article Type: Review Article
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