1932

Abstract

A naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of mule deer was first reported in Colorado and Wyoming in 1967 and has since spread to other members of the cervid family in 22 states, 2 Canadian provinces, and the Republic of Korea. Chronic wasting disease (CWD), caused by exposure to an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein, is characterized by progressive neurological disease in susceptible natural and experimental hosts and is ultimately fatal. CWD is thought to be transmitted horizontally in excreta and through contaminated environments, features common to scrapie of sheep, though rare among TSEs. Evolving detection methods have revealed multiple strains of CWD and with continued development may lead to an effective antemortem test. Managing the spread of CWD, through the development of a vaccine or environmental cleanup strategies, is an active area of interest. As such, CWD represents a unique challenge in the study of prion diseases.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-animal-022114-111001
2015-02-16
2024-05-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/animal/3/1/annurev-animal-022114-111001.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-animal-022114-111001&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Williams ES, Young S. 1980. Chronic wasting disease of captive mule deer: a spongiform encephalopathy. J. Wildl. Dis. 16:89–98 [Google Scholar]
  2. Williams ES, Young S. 1982. Spongiform encephalopathy of Rocky Mountain elk. J. Wildl. Dis. 18:465–71 [Google Scholar]
  3. Spraker TR, Miller MW, Williams ES, Getzy DM, Adrian WJ et al. 1997. Spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral Colorado. J. Wildl. Dis. 33:1–6 [Google Scholar]
  4. Baeten LA, Powers BE, Jewell JE, Spraker TR, Miller MW. 2007. A natural case of chronic wasting disease in a free-ranging moose (Alces alces shirasi). J. Wildl. Dis. 43:309–14 [Google Scholar]
  5. Kreeger TJ, Montgomery DL, Jewell JE, Schultz W, Williams ES. 2006. Oral transmission of chronic wasting disease in captive Shira's moose. J. Wildl. Dis. 42:640–45 [Google Scholar]
  6. ProMED-Mail 2007. Chronic wasting disease, cervids—Canada (Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia) (04). ProMED-mail 20071027.3497
  7. ProMED-Mail 2005. Chronic wasting disease, cervids—USA (New York) (03): human exposure. ProMED-mail 20050409.1028
  8. ProMED-Mail 2010. Chronic wasting disease, cervid—USA (Missouri) (03): 1st rep. ProMED-mail 20100303.0697
  9. ProMED-Mail 2010. Chronic wasting disease, cervid—USA (Virginia) (02). ProMED-mail 20100124.0261
  10. ProMED-Mail 2012. Chronic wasting disease, cervid—USA (Pennsylvania). ProMED-mail 20121014.1341794
  11. ProMED-Mail 2012. Chronic wasting disease, cervid—USA (Texas). ProMED-mail 20120711.1197183
  12. Sigurdson CJ. 2008. A prion disease of cervids: chronic wasting disease. Vet. Res. 39:41 [Google Scholar]
  13. ProMED-Mail 2011. Chronic wasting disease, cervid —USA (Maryland). ProMED-mail 20110212.0486
  14. ProMED-Mail 2012. Chronic wasting disease, cervid—USA (Iowa). ProMED-mail 20120721.1210369
  15. Sohn HJ, Kim JH, Choi KS, Nah JJ, Joo YS et al. 2002. A case of chronic wasting disease in an elk imported to Korea from Canada. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64:855–58 [Google Scholar]
  16. ProMED-Mail 2005. Chronic wasting disease, cervid—USA (New York). ProMED-mail 20050505.1241
  17. Moore RC, Lee IY, Silverman GL, Harrison PM, Strome R et al. 1999. Ataxia in prion protein (PrP)-deficient mice is associated with upregulation of the novel PrP-like protein doppel. J. Mol. Biol. 292:797–817 [Google Scholar]
  18. Watts JC, Westaway D. 2007. The prion protein family: diversity, rivalry, and dysfunction. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1772:654–72 [Google Scholar]
  19. Wopfner F, Weidenhöfer G, Schneider R, von Brunn A, Gilch S et al. 1999. Analysis of 27 mammalian and 9 avian PrPs reveals high conservation of flexible regions of the prion protein. J. Mol. Biol. 289:1163–78 [Google Scholar]
  20. Brayton KA, O'Rourke KI, Lyda AK, Miller MW, Knowles DP. 2004. A processed pseudogene contributes to apparent mule deer prion gene heterogeneity. Gene 326:167–73 [Google Scholar]
  21. O'Rourke KI, Spraker TR, Hamburg LK, Besser TE, Brayton KA, Knowles DP. 2004. Polymorphisms in the prion precursor functional gene but not the pseudogene are associated with susceptibility to chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer. J. Gen. Virol. 85:1339–46 [Google Scholar]
  22. Johnson C, Johnson J, Vanderloo JP, Keane D, Aiken JM, McKenzie D. 2006. Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease. J. Gen. Virol. 87:2109–14 [Google Scholar]
  23. Rivera-Milla E, Oidtmann B, Panagiotidis CH, Baier M, Sklaviadis T et al. 2006. Disparate evolution of prion protein domains and the distinct origin of Doppel- and prion-related loci revealed by fish-to-mammal comparisons. FASEB J. 20:317–19 [Google Scholar]
  24. Pastore A, Zagari A. 2007. A structural overview of the vertebrate prion proteins. Prion 1:185–97 [Google Scholar]
  25. Aguzzi A, Calella AM. 2009. Prions: protein aggregation and infectious diseases. Physiol. Rev. 89:1105–52 [Google Scholar]
  26. Hornshaw MP, McDermott JR, Candy JM. 1995. Copper binding to the N-terminal tandem repeat regions of mammalian and avian prion protein. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 207:621–29 [Google Scholar]
  27. Huber R, Deboer T, Tobler I. 1999. Prion protein: A role in sleep regulation?. J. Sleep Res. 8:Suppl. 130–36 [Google Scholar]
  28. Le Pichon CE, Valley MT, Polymenidou M, Chesler AT, Sagdullaev BT et al. 2009. Olfactory behavior and physiology are disrupted in prion protein knockout mice. Nat. Neurosci. 12:60–69 [Google Scholar]
  29. Tomaz B, Aljaz M, Ales J, Gregor M. 2014. Deletion of the prion gene Prnp affects offensive aggression in mice. Behav. Brain Res. 266:216–21 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ingram RJ, Isaacs JD, Kaur G, Lowther DE, Reynolds CJ et al. 2009. A role of cellular prion protein in programming T-cell cytokine responses in disease. FASEB J. 23:1672–84 [Google Scholar]
  31. Benestad SL, Austbø L, Tranulis MA, Espenes A, Olsaker I. 2012. Healthy goats naturally devoid of prion protein. Vet. Res. 43:87 [Google Scholar]
  32. Richt JA, Kasinathan P, Hamir AN, Castilla J, Sathiyaseelan T et al. 2007. Production of cattle lacking prion protein. Nat. Biotechnol. 25:132–38 [Google Scholar]
  33. Bruce ME, Dickinson AG. 1985. Genetic control of amyloid plaque production and incubation period in scrapie-infected mice. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. 44:285–94 [Google Scholar]
  34. Parry HB. 1979. Elimination of natural scrapie in sheep by sire genotype selection. Nature 277:127–29 [Google Scholar]
  35. Goldmann W. 2008. PrP genetics in ruminant transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Vet. Res. 39:30 [Google Scholar]
  36. Mutinelli F, Aufiero GM, Pozzato N, Marangon S, Agrimi U et al. 2003. Eradication of scrapie in a Massese sheep flock by PrP allele selection. Vet. Rec. 152:60 [Google Scholar]
  37. Hunter N, Goldmann W, Smith G, Hope J. 1994. Frequencies of PrP gene variants in healthy cattle and cattle with BSE in Scotland. Vet. Rec. 135:400–3 [Google Scholar]
  38. Goldfarb LG, Petersen RB, Tabaton M, Brown P, LeBlanc AC et al. 1992. Fatal familial insomnia and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: disease phenotype determined by a DNA polymorphism. Science 258:806–8 [Google Scholar]
  39. Schätzl HM, Wopfner F, Gilch S, von Brunn A, Jäger G. 1997. Is codon 129 of prion protein polymorphic in human beings but not in animals?. Lancet 349:1603–4 [Google Scholar]
  40. Robinson SJ, Samuel MD, O'Rourke KI, Johnson CJ. 2012. The role of genetics in chronic wasting disease of North American cervids. Prion 6:153–62 [Google Scholar]
  41. Robinson SJ, Samuel MD, Johnson CJ, Adams M, McKenzie DI. 2012. Emerging prion disease drives host selection in a wildlife population. Ecol. Appl. 22:1050–59 [Google Scholar]
  42. Race B, Meade-White K, Miller MW, Fox KA, Chesebro B. 2011. In vivo comparison of chronic wasting disease infectivity from deer with variation at prion protein residue 96. J. Virol. 85:9235–38 [Google Scholar]
  43. Johnson CJ, Herbst A, Duque-Velasquez C, Vanderloo JP, Bochsler P et al. 2011. Prion protein polymorphisms affect chronic wasting disease progression. PLOS ONE 6:e17450 [Google Scholar]
  44. Jewell JE, Conner MM, Wolfe LL, Miller MW, Williams ES. 2005. Low frequency of PrP genotype 225SF among free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) with chronic wasting disease. J. Gen. Virol. 86:2127–34 [Google Scholar]
  45. O'Rourke KI, Spraker TR, Zhuang D, Greenlee JJ, Gidlewski TE, Hamir AN. 2007. Elk with a long incubation prion disease phenotype have a unique PrPd profile. Neuroreport 18:1935–38 [Google Scholar]
  46. Miller MW, Williams ES. 2003. Prion disease: horizontal prion transmission in mule deer. Nature 425:35–36 [Google Scholar]
  47. Keane DP, Barr DJ, Bochsler PN, Hall SM, Gidlewski T et al. 2008. Chronic wasting disease in a Wisconsin white-tailed deer farm. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 20:698–703 [Google Scholar]
  48. ProMED-Mail 2001. Chronic wasting disease, wild deer—Canada (Saskatchewan). ProMED-mail 20010409.0697
  49. Williams ES, Miller MW. 2002. Chronic wasting disease in deer and elk in North America. Rev. Sci. Tech. 21:305–16 [Google Scholar]
  50. Joly DO, Ribic CA, Langenberg JA, Beheler K, Batha CA et al. 2003. Chronic wasting disease in free-ranging Wisconsin white-tailed deer. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:599–601 [Google Scholar]
  51. Clements GM, Hygnstrom SE, Gilsdorf JM, Baasch DM, Clements MJ, Vercauteren KC. 2011. Movements of white-tailed deer in riparian habitat: implications for infectious diseases. J. Wildl. Manag. 75:1436–42 [Google Scholar]
  52. ProMED-Mail 2000. Chronic wasting disease, elk—Canada (Saskatchewan). ProMED-mail 20000425.0619
  53. Knight J. 2002. Ranches blamed over spread of mad deer. Nature 416:569–70 [Google Scholar]
  54. Williams ES. 2005. Chronic wasting disease. Vet. Pathol. 42:530–49 [Google Scholar]
  55. ProMED-Mail 2008. Chronic wasting disease, moose—USA (Wyoming). ProMED-mail 20081018.3299
  56. Gov. Alta 2013. CWD in moose in Alberta info sheet. Wildl. Info Bull. 8:1–2
  57. Balachandran A, Harrington NP, Algire J, Soutyrine A, Spraker TR et al. 2010. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to red deer (Cervus elaphus elaphus): early detection and late stage distribution of protease-resistant prion protein. Can. Vet. J. 51:169–78 [Google Scholar]
  58. Hamir AN, Greenlee JJ, Nicholson EM, Kunkle RA, Richt JA et al. 2011. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer by intracerebral route: final report. Can. J. Vet. Res. 75:152–56 [Google Scholar]
  59. Nalls AV, McNulty E, Powers J, Seelig DM, Hoover C et al. 2013. Mother to offspring transmission of chronic wasting disease in Reeves' muntjac deer. PLOS ONE 8:e71844 [Google Scholar]
  60. Mitchell GB, Sigurdson CJ, O'Rourke KI, Algire J, Harrington NP et al. 2012. Experimental oral transmission of chronic wasting disease to reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). PLOS ONE 7:e39055 [Google Scholar]
  61. Jeffrey M, González L. 2007. Classical sheep transmissible spongiform encephalopathies: pathogenesis, pathological phenotypes and clinical disease. Neuropathol. Appl. Neurobiol. 33:373–94 [Google Scholar]
  62. Sigurdson CJ, Barillas-Mury C, Miller MW, Oesch B, van Keulen LJM et al. 2002. PrPCWD lymphoid cell targets in early and advanced chronic wasting disease of mule deer. J. Gen. Virol. 83:2617–28 [Google Scholar]
  63. Spraker TR, Balachandran A, Zhuang D, O'Rourke KI. 2004. Variable patterns of distribution of PrP(CWD) in the obex and cranial lymphoid tissues of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with subclinical chronic wasting disease. Vet. Rec. 155:295–302 [Google Scholar]
  64. Fox KA, Jewell JE, Williams ES, Miller MW. 2006. Patterns of PrPCWD accumulation during the course of chronic wasting disease infection in orally inoculated mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). J. Gen. Virol. 87:3451–61 [Google Scholar]
  65. Mathiason CK, Powers JG, Dahmes SJ, Osborn DA, Miller KV et al. 2006. Infectious prions in the saliva and blood of deer with chronic wasting disease. Science 314:133–36 [Google Scholar]
  66. Miller MW, Williams ES, Hobbs NT, Wolfe LL. 2004. Environmental sources of prion transmission in mule deer. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:1003–6 [Google Scholar]
  67. Mathiason CK, Hays SA, Powers J, Hayes-Klug J, Langenberg J et al. 2009. Infectious prions in pre-clinical deer and transmission of chronic wasting disease solely by environmental exposure. PLOS ONE 4:e5916 [Google Scholar]
  68. Haley NJ, Seelig DM, Zabel MD, Telling GC, Hoover EA. 2009. Detection of CWD prions in urine and saliva of deer by transgenic mouse bioassay. PLOS ONE 4:e4848 [Google Scholar]
  69. Krumm CE, Conner MM, Miller MW. 2005. Relative vulnerability of chronic wasting disease infected mule deer to vehicle collisions. J. Wildl. Dis. 41:503–11 [Google Scholar]
  70. Krumm CE, Conner MM, Hobbs NT, Hunter DO, Miller MW. 2009. Mountain lions prey selectively on prion-infected mule deer. Biol. Lett. 6:209–11 [Google Scholar]
  71. Miller MW, Williams ES. 2004. Chronic wasting disease of cervids. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 284:193–214 [Google Scholar]
  72. Williams ES, Young S. 1993. Neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). Vet. Pathol. 30:36–45 [Google Scholar]
  73. Sigurdson CJ, Spraker TR, Miller MW, Oesch B, Hoover EA. 2001. PrPCWD in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk and endocrine glands of deer with chronic wasting disease. J. Gen. Virol. 82:2327–34 [Google Scholar]
  74. Heisey DM, Mickelsen NA, Schneider JR, Johnson CJ, Langenberg JA et al. 2010. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) susceptibility of several North American rodents that are sympatric with cervid CWD epidemics. J. Virol. 84:210–15 [Google Scholar]
  75. Di Bari MA, Nonno R, Castilla J, D'Agostino C, Pirisinu L et al. 2013. Chronic wasting disease in bank voles: characterisation of the shortest incubation time model for prion diseases. PLOS Pathog. 9:e1003219 [Google Scholar]
  76. Raymond GJ, Raymond LD, Meade-White KD, Hughson AG, Favara C et al. 2007. Transmission and adaptation of chronic wasting disease to hamsters and transgenic mice: evidence for strains. J. Virol. 81:4305–14 [Google Scholar]
  77. Perrott MR, Sigurdson CJ, Mason GL, Hoover EA. 2013. Mucosal transmission and pathogenesis of chronic wasting disease in ferrets. J. Gen. Virol. 94:432–42 [Google Scholar]
  78. Mathiason CK, Nalls AV, Seelig DM, Kraft SL, Carnes K et al. 2013. Susceptibility of domestic cats to chronic wasting disease. J. Virol. 87:1947–56 [Google Scholar]
  79. Bartz JC, Marsh RF, McKenzie DI, Aiken JM. 1998. The host range of chronic wasting disease is altered on passage in ferrets. Virology 251:297–301 [Google Scholar]
  80. Hamir AN, Kunkle RA, Cutlip RC, Miller JM, O'Rourke KI et al. 2005. Experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease agent from mule deer to cattle by the intracerebral route. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 17:276–81 [Google Scholar]
  81. Hamir AN, Miller JM, Kunkle RA, Hall SM, Richt JA. 2007. Susceptibility of cattle to first-passage intracerebral inoculation with chronic wasting disease agent from white-tailed deer. Vet. Pathol. 44:487–93 [Google Scholar]
  82. Race B, Meade-White KD, Miller MW, Barbian KD, Rubenstein R et al. 2009. Susceptibilities of nonhuman primates to chronic wasting disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:1366–76 [Google Scholar]
  83. Race B, Meade-White KD, Phillips K, Striebel J, Race R, Chesebro B. 2014. Chronic wasting disease agents in nonhuman primates. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 20:833–37 [Google Scholar]
  84. Browning SR, Mason GL, Seward T, Green M, Eliason GA et al. 2004. Transmission of prions from mule deer and elk with chronic wasting disease to transgenic mice expressing cervid PrP. J. Virol. 78:13345–50 [Google Scholar]
  85. Perrott MR, Sigurdson CJ, Mason GL, Hoover EA. 2012. Evidence for distinct chronic wasting disease (CWD) strains in experimental CWD in ferrets. J. Gen. Virol. 93:212–21 [Google Scholar]
  86. Sigurdson CJ, Mathiason CK, Perrott MR, Eliason GA, Spraker TR et al. 2008. Experimental chronic wasting disease (CWD) in the ferret. J. Comp. Pathol. 138:189–96 [Google Scholar]
  87. Aldhous P. 1990. BSE: spongiform encephalopathy found in cat. Nature 345:194 [Google Scholar]
  88. Peet RL, Curran JM. 1992. Spongiform encephalopathy in an imported cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Aust. Vet. J. 69:171 [Google Scholar]
  89. Kirkwood JK, Cunningham AA. 1994. Epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the British Isles. Vet. Rec. 135:296–303 [Google Scholar]
  90. Seelig DM, Nalls AV, Flasik M, Frank V, Eaton S et al. 2014. Lesion profiling and subcellular prion localization of cervid chronic wasting disease in domestic cats. Vet. Pathol. In press [Google Scholar]
  91. Hamir AN, Kehrli ME Jr, Kunkle RA, Greenlee JJ, Nicholson EM et al. 2011. Experimental interspecies transmission studies of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies to cattle: comparison to bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 23:407–20 [Google Scholar]
  92. Kong Q, Huang S, Zou W, Vanegas D, Wang M et al. 2005. Chronic wasting disease of elk: transmissibility to humans examined by transgenic mouse models. J. Neurosci. 25:7944–49 [Google Scholar]
  93. Marsh RF, Kincaid AE, Bessen RA, Bartz JC. 2005. Interspecies transmission of chronic wasting disease prions to squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). J. Virol. 79:13794–96 [Google Scholar]
  94. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep 2003. Fatal degenerative neurologic illnesses in men who participated in wild game feasts—Wisconsin, 2002. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:125–27 [Google Scholar]
  95. Mawhinney S, Pape WJ, Forster JE, Anderson CA, Bosque P, Miller MW. 2006. Human prion disease and relative risk associated with chronic wasting disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:1527–35 [Google Scholar]
  96. Garruto RM, Reiber C, Alfonso MP, Gastrich H, Needham K et al. 2008. Risk behaviors in a rural community with a known point-source exposure to chronic wasting disease. Environ. Health 7:31 [Google Scholar]
  97. Haley N, Mathiason C, Zabel MD, Telling GC, Hoover E. 2009. Detection of sub-clinical CWD infection in conventional test-negative deer long after oral exposure to urine and feces from CWD+ deer. PLOS ONE 4:e7990 [Google Scholar]
  98. Tamguney G, Miller MW, Wolfe LL, Sirochman TM, Glidden DV et al. 2009. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces. Nature 461:529–32 [Google Scholar]
  99. Pulford B, Spraker TR, Wyckoff AC, Meyerett C, Bender H et al. 2012. Detection of PrPCWD in feces from naturally exposed Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using protein misfolding cyclic amplification. J. Wildl. Dis. 48:425–34 [Google Scholar]
  100. Henderson DM, Manca M, Haley NJ, Denkers ND, Nalls AV et al. 2013. Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva. PLOS ONE 8:e74377 [Google Scholar]
  101. Tamguney G, Richt JA, Hamir AN, Greenlee JJ, Miller MW et al. 2012. Salivary prions in sheep and deer. Prion 6:52–61 [Google Scholar]
  102. Seidel B, Thomzig A, Buschmann A, Groschup MH, Peters R et al. 2007. Scrapie agent (strain 263K) can transmit disease via the oral route after persistence in soil over years. PLOS ONE 2:e435 [Google Scholar]
  103. Johnson CJ, Phillips KE, Schramm PT, McKenzie D, Aiken JM, Pedersen JA. 2006. Prions adhere to soil minerals and remain infectious. PLOS Pathog. 2:e32 [Google Scholar]
  104. Johnson CJ, Pedersen JA, Chappell RJ, McKenzie D, Aiken JM. 2007. Oral transmissibility of prion disease is enhanced by binding to soil particles. PLOS Pathog. 3:e93 [Google Scholar]
  105. Cooke CM, Rodger J, Smith A, Fernie K, Shaw G, Somerville RA. 2007. Fate of prions in soil: detergent extraction of PrP from soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41:811–17 [Google Scholar]
  106. Smith CB, Booth CJ, Pedersen JA. 2011. Fate of prions in soil: a review. J. Environ. Qual. 40:449–61 [Google Scholar]
  107. Saunders SE, Bartelt-Hunt SL, Bartz JC. 2012. Occurrence, transmission, and zoonotic potential of chronic wasting disease. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 18:369–76 [Google Scholar]
  108. Walter WD, Walsh DP, Farnsworth ML, Winkelman DL, Miller MW. 2010. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds. Nat. Commun. 2:200 [Google Scholar]
  109. Saunders SE, Bartz JC, Vercauteren KC, Bartelt-Hunt SL. 2011. An enzymatic treatment of soil-bound prions effectively inhibits replication. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 77:4313–17 [Google Scholar]
  110. Jacobson KH, Lee S, Somerville RA, McKenzie D, Benson CH, Pedersen JA. 2010. Transport of the pathogenic prion protein through soils. J. Environ. Qual. 39:1145–52 [Google Scholar]
  111. Saunders SE, Shikiya RA, Langenfeld K, Bartelt-Hunt SL, Bartz JC. 2011. Replication efficiency of soil-bound prions varies with soil type. J. Virol. 85:5476–82 [Google Scholar]
  112. Angers RC, Kang HE, Napier D, Browning S, Seward T et al. 2010. Prion strain mutation determined by prion protein conformational compatibility and primary structure. Science 328:1154–58 [Google Scholar]
  113. Kurt TD, Perrott MR, Wilusz CJ, Wilusz J, Supattapone S et al. 2007. Efficient in vitro amplification of chronic wasting disease PrPRES. J. Virol. 81:9605–8 [Google Scholar]
  114. Keane D, Barr D, Osborn R, Langenberg J, O'Rourke K et al. 2009. Validation of use of rectoanal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue for immunohistochemical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:1412–17 [Google Scholar]
  115. Wild MA, Spraker TR, Sigurdson CJ, O'Rourke KI, Miller MW. 2002. Preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease in captive mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using tonsillar biopsy. J. Gen. Virol. 83:2629–34 [Google Scholar]
  116. Spraker TR, Gidlewski TL, Balachandran A, VerCauteren KC, Creekmore L, Munger RD. 2006. Detection of PrPCWD in postmortem rectal lymphoid tissues in Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) infected with chronic wasting disease. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 18:553–57 [Google Scholar]
  117. Spraker TR, VerCauteren KC, Gidlewski T, Schneider DA, Munger R et al. 2009. Antemortem detection of PrPCWD in preclinical, ranch-raised Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) by biopsy of the rectal mucosa. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 21:15–24 [Google Scholar]
  118. Guiroy DC, Williams ES, Song KJ, Yanagihara R, Gajdusek DC. 1993. Fibrils in brain of Rocky Mountain elk with chronic wasting disease contain scrapie amyloid. Acta Neuropathol. 86:77–80 [Google Scholar]
  119. Guiroy DC, Williams ES, Yanagihara R, Gajdusek DC. 1991. Immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (PrP27-30) in chronic wasting disease of Rocky Mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer. Neurosci. Lett. 126:195–98 [Google Scholar]
  120. Hibler CP, Wilson KL, Spraker TR, Miller MW, Zink RR et al. 2003. Field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 15:311–19 [Google Scholar]
  121. Haley NJ, Mathiason C, Carver S, Telling GC, Zabel MC, Hoover EA. 2012. Sensitivity of protein misfolding cyclic amplification vs. immunohistochemistry in antemortem detection of CWD infection. J. Gen. Virol. 93:1141–50 [Google Scholar]
  122. Tamgüney G, Giles K, Bouzamondo-Bernstein E, Bosque PJ, Miller MW et al. 2006. Transmission of elk and deer prions to transgenic mice. J. Virol. 80:9104–14 [Google Scholar]
  123. LaFauci G, Carp RI, Meeker HC, Ye X, Kim JI et al. 2006. Passage of chronic wasting disease prion into transgenic mice expressing Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) PrPC. J. Gen. Virol. 87:3773–80 [Google Scholar]
  124. Saborio GP, Permanne B, Soto C. 2001. Sensitive detection of pathological prion protein by cyclic amplification of protein misfolding. Nature 411:810–13 [Google Scholar]
  125. Haley NJ, Mathiason CK, Carver S, Zabel M, Telling GC, Hoover EA. 2011. Detection of chronic wasting disease prions in salivary, urinary, and intestinal tissues of deer: potential mechanisms of prion shedding and transmission. J. Virol. 85:6309–18 [Google Scholar]
  126. Castilla J, Saa P, Soto C. 2005. Detection of prions in blood. Nat. Med. 11:982–85 [Google Scholar]
  127. Atarashi R, Satoh K, Sano K, Fuse T, Yamaguchi N et al. 2011. Ultrasensitive human prion detection in cerebrospinal fluid by real-time quaking-induced conversion. Nat. Med. 17:175–78 [Google Scholar]
  128. Atarashi R, Wilham JM, Christensen L, Hughson AG, Moore RA et al. 2008. Simplified ultrasensitive prion detection by recombinant PrP conversion with shaking. Nat. Methods 5:211–12 [Google Scholar]
  129. Wilham JM, Orru CD, Bessen RA, Atarashi R, Sano K et al. 2010. Rapid end-point quantitation of prion seeding activity with sensitivity comparable to bioassays. PLOS Pathog. 6:e1001217 [Google Scholar]
  130. Haley NJ, Van de Motter A, Carver S, Henderson D, Davenport K et al. 2013. Prion-seeding activity in cerebrospinal fluid of deer with chronic wasting disease. PLOS ONE 8:e81488 [Google Scholar]
  131. Williams ES, Miller MW, Kreeger TJ, Kahn RH, Thorne ET. 2002. Chronic wasting disease of deer and elk: a review with recommendations for management. J. Wildl. Manag. 66:551–63 [Google Scholar]
  132. Manjerovic MB, Green ML, Mateus-Pinilla N, Novakofski J. 2014. The importance of localized culling in stabilizing chronic wasting disease prevalence in white-tailed deer populations. Prev. Vet. Med. 113:139–45 [Google Scholar]
  133. Dep. Environ. Conserv 2014. Status of CWD. Albany: N.Y. State Dep. Environ. Conserv. http://www.dec.ny.gov/animals/33220.html
  134. Minn. Dep. Nat. Resour 2014. Managing Chronic Wasting Disease. St. Paul: Minn. Dep. Nat. Resour. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/hunting/deer/cwd/index.html
  135. ProMED-Mail 2011. Chronic wasting disease, cervid—USA (West Virginia). ProMED-mail 20110118.0208
  136. ProMED-Mail 2004. Chronic wasting disease, cervids—USA (Colorado, Wyoming). ProMED-mail 20040121.0240
  137. Van Deelen TR. Chronic Wasting Disease and the Science in Support of the Ban on Baiting and Feeding Deer. http://www.cwd-info.org/pdf/FeedingDeer.pdf
  138. Thomsen BV, Schneider DA, O'Rourke KI, Gidlewski T, McLane J et al. 2012. Diagnostic accuracy of rectal mucosa biopsy testing for chronic wasting disease within white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) herds in North America: effects of age, sex, polymorphism at PRNP codon 96, and disease progression. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 24:878–87 [Google Scholar]
  139. Elder AM, Henderson DM, Nalls AV, Wilham JM, Caughey BW et al. 2013. In vitro detection of prionemia in TSE-infected cervids and hamsters. PLOS ONE 8:e80203 [Google Scholar]
  140. Orrú CD, Bongianni M, Tonoli G, Hughson AG, Ferrari S et al. 2014. How to perform olfactory mucosa brushing in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Prion (Oral abstr.) 8:12–24 [reference in Prion volume 9 (April/May/June 2014) issue supplement]
  141. Sigurdson CJ, Nilsson KPR, Hornemann S, Manco G, Polymenidou M et al. 2007. Prion strain discrimination using luminescent conjugated polymers. Nat. Methods 4:1023–30 [Google Scholar]
  142. Caughey B, Raymond GJ, Bessen RA. 1998. Strain-dependent differences in β-sheet conformations of abnormal prion protein. J. Biol. Chem. 273:32230–35 [Google Scholar]
  143. Daus ML, Beekes M. 2012. Chronic wasting disease: fingerprinting the culprit in risk assessments. Prion 6:17–22 [Google Scholar]
  144. Daus ML, Wagenführ K, Thomzig A, Boerner S, Hermann P et al. 2013. Infrared microspectroscopy detects protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA)-induced conformational alterations in hamster scrapie progeny seeds. J. Biol. Chem. 288:35068–80 [Google Scholar]
  145. Pilon JL, Rhyan JC, Wolfe LL, Davis TR, McCollum MP et al. 2013. Immunization with a synthetic peptide vaccine fails to protect mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) from chronic wasting disease. J. Wildl. Dis. 49:694–98 [Google Scholar]
  146. Wisnewski T, Mathiason C, Peyser DK, Herline K, Nalls AV et al. 2013. Mucosal immunization to prevent chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer. Prion 7:35 [Google Scholar]
  147. Dickinson J, Murdoch H, Dennis MJ, Hall GA, Bott R et al. 2009. Decontamination of prion protein (BSE301V) using a genetically engineered protease. J. Hosp. Infect. 72:65–70 [Google Scholar]
  148. Xu S, Reuter T, Gilroyed BH, Dudas S, Graham C et al. 2013. Biodegradation of specified risk material and fate of scrapie prions in compost. J. Environ. Sci. Health. A 48:26–36 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-animal-022114-111001
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-animal-022114-111001
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error