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Abstract

Cell surface transmembrane receptors often form nanometer- to micrometer-scale clusters to initiate signal transduction in response to environmental cues. Extracellular ligand oligomerization, domain-domain interactions, and binding to multivalent proteins all contribute to cluster formation. Here we review the current understanding of mechanisms driving cluster formation in a series of representative receptor systems: glycosylated receptors, immune receptors, cell adhesion receptors, Wnt receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases. We suggest that these clusters share properties of systems that undergo liquid–liquid phase separation and could be investigated in this light.

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2019-05-06
2024-06-13
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