1932

Abstract

How different is the process of language learning in infants exposed to two languages from birth? Not so long ago, the available evidence pointed to a delay in language learning in bilinguals and suggested differences in several linguistic aspects between monolinguals and bilinguals. At present, the bulk of studies indicates the existence of specific adaptations to the process of language learning. In the current review, we discuss the existing evidence in several abilities in language acquisition in young bilingual infants and toddlers. We also examine studies investigating the impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of cognitive and social abilities beyond language. We analyze the importance of clarifying several methodological issues and challenges, including the definition of bilingualism itself, for the field to advance.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-013119-023724
2020-12-15
2024-06-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/devpsych/2/1/annurev-devpsych-013119-023724.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-013119-023724&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Albareda-Castellot B, Pons F, Sebastian-Galles N 2011. The acquisition of phonetic categories in bilingual infants: new data from an anticipatory eye movement paradigm. Dev. Sci. 14:2395–401
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson JL, Morgan JL, White KS 2003. A statistical basis for speech sound discrimination. Lang. Speech 46:155–82
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Antovich DM, Graf Estes K 2018. Learning across languages: Bilingual experience supports dual language statistical word segmentation. Dev. Sci. 21:2e12548
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Antovich DM, Graf Estes K 2020. One language or two? Navigating cross‐language conflict in statistical word segmentation. Dev. Sci. In press. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12960
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Ayneto A, Sebastián-Gallés N. 2017. The influence of bilingualism on the preference for the mouth region of dynamic faces. Dev. Sci. 20:1e12446
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Barr R, Rusnak SN, Brito NH, Nugent C 2019. Actions speak louder than words: differences in memory flexibility between monolingual and bilingual 18-month-olds. Dev. Sci. 23:2e12881
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Benitez VL, Bulgarelli F, Byers-Heinlein K, Saffran JR, Weiss DJ 2020. Statistical learning of multiple speech streams: a challenge for monolingual infants. Dev. Sci. 23:2e12896
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergelson E, Aslin RN. 2017. Nature and origins of the lexicon in 6-mo-olds. PNAS 114:4912916–21
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bergelson E, Swingley D. 2012. At 6–9 months, human infants know the meanings of many common nouns. PNAS 109:93253–58
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Best CT, Tyler MD. 2007. Nonnative and second-language speech perception: commonalities and complementarities. Language Experience in Second Language Speech Learning: In Honor of James Emil Flege OS Bohn, MJ Munro 13–34 Amsterdam: John Benjamins
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Bialystok E. 2011. Reshaping the mind: the benefits of bilingualism. Can. J. Exp. Psychol. 65:4229–35
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bialystok E, Craik F, Luk G 2012. Bilingualism: consequences for mind and brain. Trends Cogn. Sci. 16:4240–50
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Birulés J, Bosch L, Brieke R, Pons F, Lewkowicz DJ 2019. Inside bilingualism: Language background modulates selective attention to a talker's mouth. Dev. Sci. 22:3e12755
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bosch L, Figueras M, Teixido M, Ramon-Casas M 2013. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages. Front. Psychol. 4:106
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bosch L, Ramon-Casas M. 2014. First translation equivalents in bilingual toddlers’ expressive vocabulary: Does form similarity matter. ? Int. J. Behav. Dev. 38:4317–22
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bosch L, Sebastian-Galles N. 1997. Native-language recognition abilities in 4-month-old infants from monolingual and bilingual environments. Cognition 65:133–69
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bosch L, Sebastian-Galles N. 2001. Evidence of early language discrimination abilities in infants from bilingual environments. Infancy 2:29–49
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bosch L, Sebastian-Galles N. 2003. Simultaneous bilingualism and the perception of a language-specific vowel contrast in the first year of life. Lang. Speech 46:217–43
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Brito N, Barr R. 2014. Flexible memory retrieval in bilingual 6-month-old infants. Dev. Psychobiol. 56:51156–63
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Burns TC et al. 2007. The development of phonetic representation in bilingual and monolingual infants. Appl. Psycholinguist. 28:455–74
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Butler J, Floccia C, Goslin J 2011. Infants’ discrimination of familiar and unfamiliar accents in speech. Infancy 16:4392–417
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Byers-Heinlein K, Burns TC, Werker JF 2010. The roots of bilingualism in newborns. Psychol. Sci. 21:3343–48
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Byers-Heinlein K, Chen K, Xu F 2014. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds’ understanding of the nature of foreign language words. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 119:87–100
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Byers-Heinlein K, Werker JF. 2009. Monolingual, bilingual, trilingual: Infants’ language experience influences the development of a word-learning heuristic. Dev. Sci. 12:5815–23
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Byers-Heinlein K, Werker JF. 2013. Lexicon structure and the disambiguation of novel words: evidence from bilingual infants. Cognition 128:407–16
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Cattani A, Abbot-Smith K, Farag R, Krott A, Arreckx F et al. 2014. How much exposure to English is necessary for a bilingual toddler to perform like a monolingual peer in language tests. ? Int. J. Lang. Commun. Disorders 49:6649–71
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Caudill W, Weinstein H. 1970. Maternal care and infant behavior in Japanese and American urban middle class families. Families in East and West: Socialization Process and Kinship Ties, ed. R Hill, R Königpp. 3971 The Hague, Neth: Mouton
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chua HF, Boland JE, Nisbett RE 2005. Cultural variation in eye movements during scene perception. PNAS 102:3512629–33
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Clancy PM. 1986. The acquisition of communicative style in Japanese. Language Socialization Across Cultures BB Schieffelin, E Ochs 213–50 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Colomer M, Sebastian-Galles N. 2020. Language background shapes third-party communication 2 expectations in 14-month-old infants. Cognition 202:104292
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Comishen KJ, Bialystok E, Adler SA 2019. The impact of bilingual environments on selective attention in infancy. Dev. Sci. 22:4e12797
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Costa A, Caramazza A, Sebastian-Galles N 2000. The cognate facilitation effect: implications for models of lexical access. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 26:51283–96
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Costa A, Sebastian-Galles N. 2014. How does the bilingual experience sculpt the brain. ? Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 15:5336–45
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Curtin S, Byers-Heinlein K, Werker JF 2011. Bilingual beginnings as a lens for theory development: PRIMIR in focus. J. Phon. Exp. 39:4492–504
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Cutler A, Mehler J, Norris D, Segui J 1989. Limits on bilingualism. Nature 340:6230229–30
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Cutler A, Mehler J, Norris D, Segui J 1992. The monolingual nature of speech segmentation by bilinguals. Cogn. Psychol. 24:381–410
    [Google Scholar]
  37. de Bruin A. 2019. Not all bilinguals are the same: a call for more detailed assessments and descriptions of bilingual experiences. Behav. Sci. 9:333
    [Google Scholar]
  38. D'Souza D, Brady D, Haensel JX, D'Souza H 2020. Is mere exposure enough? The effects of bilingual environments on infant cognitive development. R. Soc. Open Sci. 7:2180191
    [Google Scholar]
  39. DeAnda S, Bosch L, Poulin-Dubois D, Zesiger P, Friend M 2016. The language exposure assessment tool: quantifying language exposure in infants and children. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 59:61346–56
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Dehaene-Lambertz G, Houston D. 1998. Faster orientation latencies toward native language in two-month old infants. Lang. Speech 41:21–43
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Diaz B, Baus C, Escera C, Costa A, Sebastian-Galles N 2008. Brain potentials to native phoneme discrimination reveal the origin of individual differences in learning the sounds of a second language. PNAS 105:4216083–88
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Diaz B, Mitterer M, Broersma M, Escera C, Sebastian-Galles N 2016. Variability in L2 phonemic learning originates from speech-specific capabilities: an MMN study on late bilinguals. Biling. Lang. Cogn. 19:955–70
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Dupoux E, Pallier C, Sebastian-Galles N, Mehler J 1997. A destressing “deafness” in French. ? J. Mem. Lang. 36:3406–21
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Dupoux E, Peperkamp S, Sebastien-Galles N 2001. A robust method to study stress “deafness. .” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110:31606–18
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Dupoux E, Peperkamp S, Sebastien-Galles N 2010. Limits on bilingualism revisited: stress “deafness” in simultaneous French-Spanish bilinguals. Cognition 114:2266–75
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Dupoux E, Sebastian-Galles N, Navarrete E, Peperkamp S 2008. Persistent stress “deafness”: the case of French learners of Spanish. Cognition 106:2682–706
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Eimas PD, Siqueland ER, Jusczyk P, Vigorito J 1971. Speech perception in early infancy. Science 171:304–6
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Feldman HM, Dollaghan CA, Campbell TF, Kurs-Lasky M, Janosky JE, Paradise JL 2000. Measurement properties of the MacArthur communicative development inventories at ages one and two years. Child Dev 71:2310–22
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Fennell CT, Byers-Heinlein K, Werker JF 2007. Using speech sounds to guide word learning: the case of bilingual infants. Child Dev 78:51510–25
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Fernald A, Morikawa H. 1993. Common themes and cultural variations in Japanese and American mothers’ speech to infants. Child Dev 64:3637–56
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Floccia C, Delle Luche C, Durrant S, Butler J, Goslin J 2012. Parent or community: Where do 20-month-olds exposed to two accents acquire their representation of words. ? Cognition 124:195–100
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Floccia C, Delle Luche C, Lepadatu I, Chow J, Ratnage P, Plunkett K 2020. Translation equivalent and cross-language semantic priming in bilingual toddlers. J. Mem. Lang. 112:104086
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Fort M, Ayneto-Gimeno A, Escrichs A, Sebastian-Galles N 2018. Impact of bilingualism on infants’ ability to learn from talking and nontalking faces. Lang. Learn. 68:31–57
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Garcia-Sierra A, Rivera-Gaxiola, Percaccio CR, Conboy BT, Romo H et al. 2011. Bilingual language learning: an ERP study relating early brain responses to speech, language input, and later word production. J. Phon. 39:4546–57
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Genesee F. 2001. Bilingual first language acquisition: exploring the limits of the language faculty. Annu. Rev. Appl. Linguist. 21:153–58
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Goldrick M, Runnqvist E, Costa A 2014. Language switching makes pronunciation less nativelike. Psychol. Sci. 25:41031–36
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Gollan TH, Montoya RI, Fennema-Notestine C, Morris SK 2005. Bilingualism affects picture naming but not picture classification. Mem. Cogn. 33:71220–34
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Grosjean F. 1989. Neurolinguists, beware! The bilingual is not two monolinguals in one person. Brain Lang 36:3–15
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Havy M, Bouchon C, Nazzi T 2015. Phonetic processing when learning words: the case of bilingual infants. Int. J. Behav. Dev. 40:141–52
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Havy M, Nazzi T. 2009. Better processing of consonantal over vocalic information in word learning at 16 months of age. Infancy 14:4439–56
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Henderson AME, Scott JC. 2015. She called that thing a mido, but should you call it a mido too? Linguistic experience influences infants’ expectations of conventionality. Front. Psychol. 6:332
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hoff E, Core C, Place S, Rumiche R, Senor M, Parra M 2012. Dual language exposure and early bilingual development. J. Child Lang. 39:11–27
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Hoff E, Rumiche R, Burridge A, Ribot KM, Welsh SN 2014. Expressive vocabulary development in children from bilingual and monolingual homes: a longitudinal study from two to four years. Early Child. Res. Q. 29:4433–44
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Houston-Price C, Caloghiris Z, Raviglione E 2010. Language experience shapes the development of the mutual exclusivity bias. Infancy 15:2125–50
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Ibáñez-Lillo A, Costa A, Pons F, Sebastian-Galles N 2010. Inhibitory control in 8-month-old monolingual and bilingual infants: evidence from an anticipatory eye movement task Poster presented at the 22nd International Conference on Infant Studies Baltimore, MD:
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Ivanova I, Costa A. 2008. Does bilingualism hamper lexical access in speech production. ? Acta Psychol 127:2277–88
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Jardak A, Byers-Heinlein K. 2019. Labels or concepts? The development of semantic networks in bilingual two-year-olds. Child Dev 90:2e212–29
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Jusczyk PW, Aslin RN. 1995. Infants’ detection of the sound patterns of words in fluent speech. Cogn. Psychol. 29:11–23
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Kalashnikova M, Pejovic J, Carreiras M 2020. The effects of bilingualism an attentional processes in the first year of life. Dev. Sci. In press. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.13011
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  70. Kandhadai P, Hall DG, Werker JF 2017. Second label learning in bilingual and monolingual infants. Dev. Sci. 20:1e12429
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Kovács ÁM, Mehler J. 2009a. Flexible learning of multiple speech structures in bilingual infants. Science 325:5940611–12
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Kovács ÁM, Mehler J. 2009b. Cognitive gains in 7-month-old bilingual infants. PNAS 106:166556–60
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Kremin LV, Byers-Heinlein K. 2020. Why not both? Rethinking categorical and continuous approaches to bilingualism. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/nkvap
    [Crossref]
  74. Kuhl PK, Conboy BT, Coffey-Corina S, Padden D, Rivera-Gaxiola M, Nelson T 2008. Phonetic learning as a pathway to language: new data and native language magnet theory expanded (NLM-e). Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 363:1493979–1000
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Kuhl PK, Conboy BT, Padden D, Nelson T, Pruitt J 2005. Early speech perception and later language development: implications for the “critical period. .” Lang. Learn. Dev. 1:3–4237–64
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Lewkowicz DJ, Hansen-Tift AM. 2012. Infants deploy selective attention to the mouth of a talking face when learning speech. PNAS 109:51431–36
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Liu L, Kager R. 2015. Bilingual exposure influences infant VOT perception. Infant Behav. Dev. 38:27–36
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Marchman VA, Fernald A, Hurtado N 2010. How vocabulary size in two languages relates to efficiency in spoken word recognition by young Spanish-English bilinguals. J. Child Lang. 37:4817–40
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Markman EM, Wasow JL, Hansen MB 2003. Use of the mutual exclusivity assumption by young word learners. Cogn. Psychol. 47:3241–75
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Mattock K, Polka L, Rvachew S, Krehm M 2010. The first steps in word learning are easier when the shoes fit: comparing monolingual and bilingual infants. Dev. Sci. 13:1229–43
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Morin-Lessard E, Poulin-Dubois D, Segalowitz N, Byers-Heinlein K 2019. Selective attention to the mouth of talking faces in monolinguals and bilinguals aged 5 months to 5 years. Dev. Psychol. 55:81640–55
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Nacar Garcia L, Guerrero-Mosquera C, Colomer M, Sebastian-Galles N 2018. Evoked and oscillatory EEG activity differentiates language discrimination in young monolingual and bilingual infants. Sci. Rep. 8:12770
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Navarra J, Soto-Faraco S. 2007. Hearing lips in a second language: Visual articulatory information enables the perception of second language sounds. Psychol. Res. 71:14–12
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Nazzi T, Jusczyk PW, Johnson EK 2000. Language discrimination by English-learning 5-month-olds: effects of rhythm and familiarity. J. Mem. Lang. 43:1–19
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Orena AJ, Byers-Heinlein K, Polka L 2019. What do bilingual infants actually hear? Evaluating measures of language input to bilingual-learning 10-month-olds. Dev. Sci. 23:2e12901
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Orena AJ, Polka L. 2019. Monolingual and bilingual infants’ word segmentation abilities in an inter-mixed dual-language task. Infancy 24:5718–37
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Paap KR, Greenberg ZI. 2013. There is no coherent evidence for a bilingual advantage in executive processing. Cogn. Psychol. 66:2232–58
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Pallier C, Bosch L, Sebastian-Galles N 1997. A limit on behavioral plasticity in speech perception. Cognition 64:3B9–17
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Pallier C, Colomé A, Sebastian-Galles N 2001. The influence of native-language phonology on lexical access: exemplar-based versus abstract lexical entries. Psychol. Sci. 12:6445–49
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Pitts CE, Onishi KH, Vouloumanos A 2015. Who can communicate with whom? Language experience affects infants’ evaluation of others as monolingual or multilingual. Cognition 134:185–92
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Polka L, Orena AJ, Sundara M, Worrall J 2017. Segmenting words from fluent speech during infancy – challenges and opportunities in a bilingual context. Dev. Sci. 20:1e12419
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Pons F, Bosch L, Lewkowicz DJ 2015. Bilingualism modulates infants’ selective attention to the mouth of a talking face. Psychol. Sci. 26:4490–98
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Potter CE, Lew-Williams C. 2019. Infants’ selective use of speaker cues across contexts Talk presented at the Society for Research in Child Development Baltimore, MD: March
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Ramon-Casas M, Bosch L. 2010. Are non-cognate words phonologically better specified than cognates in the early lexicon of bilingual children?. Selected Proceedings of the 4th Conference on Laboratory Approaches to Spanish Phonology M Ortega-Llebaria 31–36 Somerville, MA: Cascadilla
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Ramon-Casas M, Swingley D, Sebastian-Galles N, Bosch L 2009. Vowel categorization during word recognition in bilingual toddlers. Cogn. Psychol. 59:196–121
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Ramus F, Hauser MD, Miller C, Morris D, Mehler J 2000. Language discrimination by human newborns and by cotton-top tamarin monkeys. Science 288:349–51
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Ramus F, Nespor M, Mehler J 1999. Correlates of linguistic rhythm in the speech signal. Cognition 73:265–92
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Saffran JR, Kirkham NZ. 2017. Infant statistical learning. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 69:18–28
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Santolin C, Saffran JR. 2018. Constraints on statistical learning across species. Trends Cogn. Sci. 22:152–63
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Sebastian-Galles N, Albareda-Castellot B, Weikum WM, Werker JF 2012. A bilingual advantage in visual language discrimination in infancy. Psychol. Sci. 23:9994–99
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Sebastian-Galles N, Baus C. 2005. On the relationship between perception and production in L2 categories. Twenty-First Century Psycholinguistics: Four Cornerstones A Cutler 279–92 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Sebastian-Galles N, Bosch L. 2002. Building phonotactic knowledge in bilinguals: role of early exposure. J. Exp. Psychol. Hum. Percept. Perform. 28:4974–89
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Sebastian-Galles N, Bosch L. 2009. Developmental shift in the discrimination of vowel contrasts in bilingual infants: Is the distributional account all there is to it. ? Dev. Sci. 12:6874–87
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Sebastian-Galles N, Echeverria S, Bosch L 2005. The influence of initial exposure on lexical representation: comparing early and simultaneous bilinguals. J. Mem. Lang. 52:2240–55
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Sebastian-Galles N, Rodriguez-Fornells A, De Diego-Balaguer R, Diaz B 2006. First- and second-language phonological representations in the mental lexicon. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 18:81277–91
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Sebastian-Galles N, Soto-Faraco S. 1999. Online processing of native and non-native phonemic contrasts in early bilinguals. Cognition 72:2111–23
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Shatz M. 1991. Using cross-cultural research to inform us about the role of language development. Cultural Approaches to Parenting MH Bornstein 139–53 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Singh L. 2014. One world, two languages: cross-language semantic priming in bilingual toddlers. Child Dev 85:2755–66
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Singh L, Foong J. 2012. Influences of lexical tone and pitch on word recognition in bilingual infants. Cognition 124:2128–42
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Singh L, Fu CSL, Rahman AA, Hameed WB, Sanmugam S et al. 2015. Back to basics: a bilingual advantage in infant visual habituation. Child Dev 86:1294–302
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Singh L, Quinn PC, Xiao NG, Lee K 2019. Monolingual but not bilingual infants demonstrate racial bias in social cue use. Dev. Sci. 22:6e12809
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Skoruppa K, Pons F, Christophe A, Bosch L, Dupoux E et al. 2009. Language-specific stress perception by 9-month-old French and Spanish infants. Dev. Sci. 12:6914–19
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Spivey MJ, Marian V. 1999. Cross talk between native and second languages: partial activation of an irrelevant lexicon. Psychol. Sci. 10:281–84
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Sumby WH, Pollack I. 1954. Visual contribution to speech intelligibility in noise. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 26:212–15
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Sundara M, Polka L, Molnar M 2008. Development of coronal stop perception: Bilingual infants keep pace with their monolingual peers. Cognition 108:1232–42
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Sundara M, Scutellaro A. 2011. Rhythmic distance between languages affects the development of speech perception in bilingual infants. J. Phon. 39:4505–13
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Tincoff R, Jusczyk PW. 1999. Some beginnings of word comprehension in 6-month-olds. Psychol. Sci. 10:2172–75
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Toro J, Trobalon J, Sebastian-Galles N 2003. The use of prosodic cues in language discrimination tasks by rats. Anim. Cogn. 6:2131–36
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Tsang T, Atagi N, Johnson SP 2018. Selective attention to the mouth is associated with expressive language skills in monolingual and bilingual infants. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 169:93–109
    [Google Scholar]
  120. van Heuven WJB, Dijkstra T 2010. Language comprehension in the bilingual brain: fMRI and ERP support for psycholinguistic models. Brain Res. Rev. 64:1104–22
    [Google Scholar]
  121. von Holzen K, Fennell CT, Mani N 2019. The impact of cross-language phonological overlap on bilingual and monolingual toddlers’ word recognition. Bilingualism 22:3476–99
    [Google Scholar]
  122. von Holzen K, Mani N 2012. Language nonselective lexical access in bilingual toddlers. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 113:4569–86
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Vouloumanos A. 2018. Voulez-vous jouer avec moi? Twelve-month-olds understand that foreign languages can communicate. Cognition 173:87–92
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Weikum WM, Vouloumanos A, Navarra J, Soto-Faraco S, Sebastian-Galles N, Werker JF 2007. Visual language discrimination in infancy. Science 316:58281159
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Werker JF. 2018. Perceptual beginnings to language acquisition. Appl. Psycholinguist. 39:4703–28
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Werker JF, Curtin S. 2005. PRIMIR: a developmental framework of infant speech processing. Lang. Learn. Dev. 1:2197–234
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Werker JF, Hensch TK. 2015. Critical periods in speech perception: new directions. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 66:173–96
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Werker JF, Tees RC. 1992. The organization and reorganization of human speech perception. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 15:377–402
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-013119-023724
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error