1932

Abstract

Children's neighborhood contexts are defined by rising socioeconomic inequality and segregation. This article reviews several decades of research on how neighborhood socioeconomic conditions are associated with children's development. The nonexperimental literature suggests that the most salient neighborhood socioeconomic condition depends on the outcome—disadvantage for social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes and advantage for achievement-related outcomes. Moreover, children's cumulative exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic conditions over the first two decades of life, and possibly especially in childhood, may matter most for later development. These findings are partially supported by the few experimental studies available, and across study designs, neighborhood effects are typically modest. In order to improve our understanding of this topic, we recommend methodologically rigorous designs—experimental and nonexperimental—and comparative approaches, particularly ones addressing the complexities of development in neighborhood contexts. To guide this research, we provide an integrated framework that captures a broad and dynamic perspective including macro forces, neighborhood social processes and resources, physical features, spatial dynamics, and individual differences.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221
2019-12-24
2024-04-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/devpsych/1/1/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aaronson D. 1998. Using sibling data to estimate the impact of neighborhoods on children's educational outcomes. J. Hum. Resour. 33:915–46
    [Google Scholar]
  2. AECF (Annie E. Casey Found.) 2018. Children living in high poverty areas in the United States Data tables, Kids Count Data Cent., AECF Baltimore, MD: https://tinyurl.com/AECFkids
  3. Anderson S, Leventhal T, Dupéré V 2014a. Exposure to neighborhood affluence and poverty in childhood and adolescence and academic achievement and behavior. Appl. Dev. Sci. 18:123–38
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson S, Leventhal T, Newman S, Dupéré V 2014b. Residential mobility among children: a framework for child and family policy. Cityscape 16:5–36
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Andersson R, Musterd S. 2005. Area-based policies: a critical appraisal. Tijdschr. Econ. Soc. Geogr. 96:377–89
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Arcaya MC, Graif C, Waters MC, Subramanian S 2015. Health selection into neighborhoods among families in the Moving to Opportunity Program. Am. J. Epidemiol. 183:130–37
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bandura A. 2000. Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bazemore G, Schiff M. 2015. Restorative Community Justice: Repairing Harm and Transforming Communities Abingdon, UK: Routledge
  9. Bischoff K, Reardon SF. 2014. Residential segregation by income, 1970–2009. Diversity and Disparities: America Enters a New Century JR Logan 208–35 New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Blair A, Ross NA, Gariepy G, Schmitz N 2014. How do neighborhoods affect depression outcomes? A realist review and a call for the examination of causal pathways. Soc. Psychiatry Psychiatr. Epidemiol. 49:873–87
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Blau PM. 1977. A macrosociological theory of social structure. Am. J. Sociol. 83:26–54
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Braga AA, Clarke RV. 2014. Explaining high-risk concentrations of crime in the city: social disorganization, crime opportunities, and important next steps. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 51:480–98
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Brechwald WA, Prinstein MJ. 2011. Beyond homophily: a decade of advances in understanding peer influence processes. J. Res. Adolesc. 21:166–79
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Bronfenbrenner U. 1979. The Ecology of Human Development Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  15. Bronfenbrenner U, Morris PA. 2006. The bioecological model of human development. Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 1 W Damon, RM Lerner 793–828 New York: Wiley, 6th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Browning CR, Soller B. 2014. Moving beyond neighborhood: activity spaces and ecological networks as contexts for youth development. Cityscape 16:165–96
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Buka SL, Brennan RT, Rich-Edwards JW, Raudenbush SW, Earls F 2003. Neighborhood support and the birth weight of urban infants. Am. J. Epidemiol. 157:1–8
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Burton L, Jarrett RL. 2000. In the mix, yet on the margins: the place of families in urban neighborhood and child development research. J. Marriage Fam. 62:1114–35
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Casciano R, Massey DS. 2012. Neighborhood disorder and anxiety symptoms: new evidence from a quasi-experimental study. Health Place 18:180–90
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ceci SJ. 2006. Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917–2005). Am. Psychol. 61:173–74
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cerdá M, Morenoff JD, Hansen BB, Hicks KJT, Duque LF et al. 2012. Reducing violence by transforming neighborhoods: a natural experiment in Medellin, Columbia. Am. J. Epidemiol. 175:1045–53
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Chamberlain AW, Hipp JR. 2015. It's all relative: concentrated disadvantage within and across neighborhoods and communities, and the consequences for neighborhood crime. J. Crim. Justice 43:431–43
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Chang LY, Wang MY, Tsai PS 2016. Neighborhood disadvantage and physical aggression in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of multilevel studies. Aggress. Behav. 42:441–54
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Charles CZ. 2003. The dynamics of racial residential segregation. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 29:167–207
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Chase-Lansdale PL, Mott FL, Brooks-Gunn J, Phillips DA 1991. Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth: a unique research opportunity. Dev. Psychol. 27:918–31
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Chawla L. 2015. Benefits of nature contact for children. J. Plan. Lit. 30:433–52
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Chetty R, Hendren N. 2018a. The impacts of neighborhoods on intergenerational mobility. I: Childhood exposure effects. Q. J. Econ. 133:1107–62
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chetty R, Hendren N. 2018b. The impacts of neighborhoods on intergenerational mobility. II: County-level estimates. Q. J. Econ. 133:1163–228
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Chetty R, Hendren N, Katz LF 2016. The effects of exposure to better neighborhoods on children: new evidence from the Moving to Opportunity experiment. Am. Econ. Rev. 106:855–902
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Chetty R, Hendren N, Kline P, Saez E 2014. Where is the land of opportunity? The geography of intergenerational mobility in the United States. Q. J. Econ. 129:1553–623
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Christakis NA, Fowler JH. 2013. Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and humanbehavior. Stat. Med. 32:556–77
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Cook TD, Campbell DT, Shadish W 2002. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin
  33. Corder G. 2014. Community policing. The Oxford Handbook of Police and Policing MD Reisig, RJ Kane 148–71 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Crane J. 1991. The epidemic theory of ghettos and neighborhood effects on dropping out and teenage childbearing. Am. J. Sociol. 96:1126–59
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Crowder K, South SJ. 2011. Spatial and temporal dimensions of neighborhood effects on high school graduation. Soc. Sci. Res. 40:87–106
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Currarini S, Jackson MO, Pin P 2010. Identifying the roles of race-based choice and chance in high school friendship network formation. PNAS 107:4857–61
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Currie J. 2012. Antipoverty programs for poor children and families. The Oxford Handbook of the Economics of Poverty PN Jefferson 277–315 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Diez-Roux AV, Mair C. 2010. Neighborhoods and health. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1186:125–45
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Dishion TJ, Tipsord JM. 2011. Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 62:189–214
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Dobbie W, Fryer RG Jr 2011. Are high-quality schools enough to increase achievement among the poor? Evidence from the Harlem Children's Zone. Am. Econ. J. Appl. Econ. 3:158–87
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Dolcini MM, Harper GW, Watson SE, Catania JA, Ellen JM 2005. Friends in the ’hood: Should peer-based health promotion programs target nonschool friendship networks?. J. Adolesc. Health 36:267e6–e15
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Duncan GJ. 1994. Families and neighbors as sources of disadvantage in the schooling decisions of white and black adolescents. Am. J. Educ. 103:20–53
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Duncan GJ, Boisjoly J, Harris KM 2001. Sibling, peer, neighbor, and schoolmate correlations as indicators of the importance of context for adolescent development. Demography 38:437–47
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Duncan GJ, Connell JP, Klebanov PK 1997. Conceptual and methodological issues in estimating causal effects of neighborhood and family conditions on individual development. Neighborhood Poverty: Context and Consequences for Children, Vol. 1 J Brooks-Gunn, GJ Duncan, JL Aber 219–50 New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Duncan GJ, Engel M, Claessens A, Dowsett C 2014. Replication and robustness in developmental research. Dev. Psychol. 50:2417–25
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Duncan GJ, Magnuson KA, Ludwig J 2004. The endogeneity problem in developmental studies. Res. Hum. Dev. 1:59–80
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Duncan GJ, Magnuson K, Votruba-Drzal E 2017. Moving beyond correlations in assessing the consequences of poverty. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 68:413–34
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Duncan GJ, Ziol‐Guest KM, Kalil A 2010. Early‐childhood poverty and adult attainment, behavior, and health. Child Dev 81:306–25
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Dupéré V, Leventhal T, Crosnoe R, Dion É 2010. Understanding the positive role of neighborhood socioeconomic advantage in achievement: the contribution of the home, child care, and school environments. Dev. Psychol. 46:1227–44
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Entwisle B. 2007. Putting people into place. Demography 44:687–703
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Fauth RC, Leventhal T, Brooks‐Gunn J 2007. Welcome to the neighborhood? Long‐term impacts of moving to low‐poverty neighborhoods on poor children's and adolescents’ outcomes. J. Res. Adolesc. 17:249–84
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Foster EM, McLanahan S. 1996. An illustration of the use of instrumental variables: Do neighborhood conditions affect a young person's chance of finishing high school. ? Psychol. Methods 1:249–60
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Franzini L, Elliott MN, Cuccaro P, Schuster M, Gilliland MJ et al. 2009. Influences of physical and social neighborhood environments on children's physical activity and obesity. Am. J. Public Health 99:271–78
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Friedson M, Sharkey PT. 2015. Violence and neighborhood disadvantage after the crime decline. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 660:341–58
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Galster GC. 2012. The mechanism(s) of neighbourhood effects: theory, evidence, and policy implications. Neighbourhood Effects Research: New Perspectives M van Ham, D Manley, N Bailey, L Simpson, D Maclennan 23–56 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Galster G, Marcotte DE, Mandell M, Wolman H, Augustine N 2007. The influence of neighborhood poverty during childhood on fertility, education, and earnings outcomes. Hous. Stud. 22:723–51
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Galster G, Santiago A. 2017. Neighbourhood ethnic composition and outcomes for low-income Latino and African American children. Urban Stud 54:482–500
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Gennetian L, Sanbonmatsu L, Katz L, Kling J, Sciandra M et al. 2012. The long-term effects of Moving to Opportunity on youth outcomes. Cityscape 14:137–67
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Goering J, Feins JD, eds. 2003. Choosing a Better Life? Evaluating the Moving to Opportunity Social Experiment Washington, DC: Urban Inst.
  60. Gould ED, Lavy V, Paserman MD 2004. Immigrating to opportunity: estimating the effect of school quality using a natural experiment on Ethiopians in Israel. Q. J. Econ. 119:489–526
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Graif C, Matthews SA. 2017. The long arm of poverty: extended and relational geographies of child victimization and neighborhood violence exposures. Justice Q 34:1096–125
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Harding DJ. 2003. Counterfactual models of neighborhood effects: the effect of neighborhood poverty on dropping out and teenage pregnancy. Am. J. Sociol. 109:676–719
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Harding DJ. 2011. Rethinking the cultural context of schooling decisions in disadvantaged neighborhoods: from deviant subculture to cultural heterogeneity. Sociol. Educ. 84:322–39
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Harlem Children's Zone 2009. The HCZ Project New York: Harlem Children's Zone http://www.hcz.org/index.php/about-us/the-hcz-project
  65. Haynie DL, Silver E, Teasdale B 2006. Neighborhood characteristics, peer influence, and adolescent violence. J. Quant. Criminol. 22:147–69
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Hedman L, van Ham M 2012. Understanding neighbourhood effects: selection bias and residential mobility. Neighbourhood Effects Research: New Perspectives M van Ham, D Manley, N Bailey, L Simpson, D Maclennan 79–99 Dordrecht, Neth: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Howell J. 2019. The unstudied reference neighborhood: towards a critical theory of empirical neighborhood studies. Sociol. Compass 13:1–13
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Ingoldsby EM, Shaw DS, Winslow E, Schonberg M, Gilliom M, Criss MM 2006. Neighborhood disadvantage, parent–child conflict, neighborhood peer relationships, and early antisocial behavior problem trajectories. J. Abnorm. Child Psychol. 34:303–19
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Jackson AL, Browning CR, Krivo LJ, Kwan M-P, Washington HM 2016. The role of immigrant concentration within and beyond residential neighborhoods in adolescent alcohol use. J. Youth Adolesc. 45:17–34
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Jackson MI, Mare RD. 2007. Cross-sectional and longitudinal measurements of neighborhood experience and their effects on children. Soc. Sci. Res. 36:590–610
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Jargowsky PA. 1997. Poverty and Place: Ghettos, Barrios, and the American City New York: Russel Sage Found.
  72. Jargowsky PA. 2015. The Architecture of Segregation: Civil Unrest, the Concentration of Poverty, and Public Policy New York: Century Found./Rutgers Cent. Urban Res. Educ.
  73. Jencks C, Mayer S. 1990. The social consequences of growing up in a poor neighborhood. Inner-City Poverty in the United States L Lynn, M McGeary 111–86 Washington, DC: Natl. Acad.
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Johnson O. 2013. Is concentrated advantage the cause? The relative contributions of neighborhood advantage and disadvantage to educational inequality. Urban Rev 45:561–85
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Kaufman JE, Rosenbaum JE. 1992. The education and employment of low-income black youth in white suburbs. Educ. Eval. Policy Anal. 14:229–40
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Keels M. 2008. Second‐generation effects of Chicago's Gautreaux residential mobility program on children's participation in crime. J. Res. Adolesc. 18:305–52
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Keels M, Duncan GJ, Deluca S, Mendenhall R, Rosenbaum J 2005. Fifteen years later: Can residential mobility programs provide a long-term escape from neighborhood segregation, crime, and poverty. ? Demography 42:51–73
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Keizer K, Lindenberg S, Steg L 2008. The spreading of disorder. Science 322:1681–85
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Kerr M, Stattin H, Biesecker G, Ferrer‐Wreder L 2003. Relationships with parents and peers in adolescence. Handb. Psychol.395–419
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Kessler RC, Duncan GJ, Gennetian LA, Katz LF, Kling JR et al. 2014. Associations of housing mobility interventions for children in high-poverty neighborhoods with subsequent mental disorders during adolescence. JAMA 311:937–47
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Kirk DS. 2009. A natural experiment on residential change and recidivism: lessons from Hurricane Katrina. Am. Sociol. Rev. 74:484–505
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Kling JR, Liebman JB, Katz LF 2007. Experimental analysis of neighborhood effects. Econometrica 75:83–119
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Kling JR, Ludwig J, Katz LF 2005. Neighborhood effects on crime for female and male youth: evidence from a randomized housing voucher experiment. Q. J. Econ. 120:87–130
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Kohen DE, Brooks-Gunn J, Leventhal T, Hertzman C 2002. Neighborhood income and physical and social disorder in Canada: associations with young children's competencies. Child Dev 73:1844–60
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Komro KA, Flay B, Biglan A 2011. Creating nurturing environments: a science-based framework for promoting child health and development within high-poverty neighborhoods. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 14:111–34
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Krivo LJ, Washington HM, Peterson RD, Browning CR, Calder CA, Kwan M-P 2013. Social isolation of disadvantage and advantage: the reproduction of inequality in urban space. Soc. Forces 92:141–64
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Kubrin CE, Weitzer R. 2003. New directions in social disorganization theory. J. Res. Crime Delinq. 40:374–402
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Larsen K, Merlo J. 2005. Appropriate assessment of neighborhood effects on individual health: integrating random and fixed effects in multilevel logistic regression. Am. J. Epidemiol. 161:81–88
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Lavecchia AM, Oreopoulos P, Brown RS 2019. Long-run effects from comprehensive student support: evidence from Pathways to Education NBER Work. Pap25630
  90. Lee J-S, Bowen NK. 2006. Parent involvement, cultural capital, and the achievement gap among elementary school children. Am. Educ. Res. J. 43:193–218
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Lerner RM, Johnson SK, Buckingham MH 2015. Relational developmental systems–based theories and the study of children and families: Lerner and Spanier 1978 revisited. J. Fam. Theory Rev. 7:83–104
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Lerner RM, Overton WF. 2008. Exemplifying the integrations of the relational developmental system: synthesizing theory, research, and application to promote positive development and social justice. J. Adolesc. Res. 23:245–55
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Leventhal T, Anastasio J, Dupéré V 2019. The urban world of minority and majority children. Children in Changing Worlds: Socio-Cultural and Temporal Perspectives GH Elder Jr., RD Parke 165–91 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Leventhal T, Brooks-Gunn J. 2000. The neighborhoods they live in: the effects of neighborhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes. Psychol. Bull. 126:309–37
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Leventhal T, Brooks-Gunn J. 2001. Changing neighborhoods and child well-being: understanding how children may be affected in the coming century. Adv. Life Course Res. 6:263–301
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Leventhal T, Brooks-Gunn J. 2011. Changes in neighborhood poverty from 1990 to 2000 and youth's problem behaviors. Dev. Psychol. 47:1680–98
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Leventhal T, Dupéré V, Brooks-Gunn J 2009. Neighborhood influences on adolescent development. Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, Vol. 2: Contextual Influences on Adolescent Development RM Lerner, L Steinberg 411–43 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 3rd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Leventhal T, Dupéré V, Elliott M 2018. Poverty, social inequality, and aggression. Handbook of Child and Adolescent Aggression: Emergence, Development, and Intervention T Malti, KH Rubin 268–96 New York: Guilford
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Leventhal T, Dupéré V, Shuey E 2015. Children in neighborhoods. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, ed. RM Lerner, Vol. 4: Ecological Settings and Processes in Developmental Systems MH Bornstein, T Leventhal 493–533 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 7th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Ludwig J, Duncan GJ, Genettian LA, Katz LF, Kessler RC et al. 2012. Neighborhood effects on the long-term well-being of low-income adults. Science 337:1505–10
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Luthar SS. 2003. The culture of affluence: psychological costs of material wealth. Child Dev 74:1581–93
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Luthar SS, Barkin SH. 2012. Are affluent youth truly “at risk”? Vulnerability and resilience across three diverse samples. Dev. Psychopathol. 24:429–49
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Manski CF. 2000. Economic analysis of social interactions. J. Econ. Perspect. 14:115–36 https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.14.3.115
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  104. Massey DS, Albright L, Casciano R, Derickson E, Kinsey DN 2013. Climbing Mount Laurel: The Struggle for Affordable Housing and Social Mobility in an American Suburb Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  105. Massey DS, Denton N. 1993. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  106. Massey DS, Tannen J. 2018. Suburbanization and segregation in the United States: 1970–2010. Ethn. Racial Stud. 41:1594–611
    [Google Scholar]
  107. McBride Murry V, Berkel C, Gaylord-Harden NK, Copeland-Linder N, Nation M 2011. Neighborhood poverty and adolescent development. J. Res. Adolesc 21:114–28
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Molnar BE, Goerge RM, Gilsanz P, Hill A, Subramanian SV et al. 2016. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment. Child Abuse Negl 51:41–53
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Muller C, Sampson RJ, Winter AS 2018. Environmental inequality: the social causes and consequences of lead exposure. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 44:263–82
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Nettles SM, Caughy MOB, O'Campo PJ 2008. School adjustment in the early grades: toward an integrated model of neighborhood, parental, and child processes. Rev. Educ. Res. 78:3–32
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Nielsen M, Haun D, Kärtner J, Legare CH 2017. The persistent sampling bias in developmental psychology: a call to action. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 162:31–38
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Odgers CL. 2015. Income inequality and the developing child: Is it all relative. ? Am. Psychol. 70:722–31
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Odgers CL, Caspi A, Bates CJ, Sampson RJ, Moffitt TE 2012. Systematic social observation of children's neighborhoods using Google Street View: a reliable and cost-effective method. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 53:1009–17
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Overton WF. 2015. Processes, relations, and relational–developmental systems. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, ed. RM Lerner, Vol. 1: Theory and Method WF Overton, PCM Molenaar 1–54 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 7th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Page ME, Solon G. 2003. Correlations between brothers and neighboring boys in their adult earnings: the importance of being urban. J. Labor Econ. 21:831–55
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Park S, Holloway SD. 2013. No parent left behind: predicting parental involvement in adolescents’ education within a sociodemographically diverse population. J. Educ. Res. 106:105–19
    [Google Scholar]
  117. PolicyLink 2019. Promise Neighborhoods Institute: Our Movement Oakland, CA: PolicyLink https://promiseneighborhoodsinstitute.org/about-our-movement/site-results
  118. Raudenbush SW, Sampson RJ. 1999. Ecometrics: toward a science of assessing ecological settings, with application to the systematic social observation of neighborhoods. Sociol. Methodol. 29:1–41
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Reardon SF, Bischoff K. 2011. Growth in the Residential Segregation of Families by Income, 1970–2009 New York: Russell Sage Found.
  120. Reardon SF, Bischoff K. 2016. The continuing increase in income segregation, 20072012 Work. Pap., Cent. Educ. Policy Anal., Stanford Univ Stanford, CA:
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Reardon SF, Fox L, Townsend J 2015. Neighborhood income composition by household race and income, 1990–2009. Ann. Am. Acad. Political Soc. Sci. 660:78–97
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Ross CE, Mirowsky J. 1999. Disorder and decay: the concept and measurement of perceived neighborhood disorder. Urban Aff. Rev. 34:412–32
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Rubin KH, Bukowski WM, Bowker J 2015. Children in peer groups. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, ed. RM Lerner, Vol. 4: Ecological Settings and Processes MH Bornstein, T Leventhal 1–48 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 7th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Rubinowitz LS, Rosenbaum JE. 2000. Crossing the Class and Color Lines: From Public Housing to White Suburbia Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  125. Sameroff A. 2009. The Transactional Model Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc.
  126. Sampson RJ. 2008. Moving to inequality: Neighborhood effects and experiments meet social structure. Am. J. Sociol. 114:189–231
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Sampson RJ. 2012. Great American City: Chicago and the Enduring Neighborhood Effect Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  128. Sampson RJ. 2017. Urban sustainability in an age of enduring inequalities: advancing theory and ecometrics for the 21st-century city. PNAS 114:8957–62
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Sampson RJ. 2019. Neighbourhood effects and beyond: explaining the paradoxes of inequality in the changing American metropolis. Urban Stud 56:3–32
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Sampson RJ, Morenoff JD. 1997. Ecological perspectives on the neighborhood context of urban poverty: past and present. Neighborhood Poverty, Vol. 2: Policy Implications in Studying Neighborhoods J Brooks-Gunn, GJ Duncan, JL Aber 1–22 New York: Russell Sage Found.
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Sampson RJ, Morenoff JD, Gannon-Rowley T 2002. Assessing “neighborhood effects”: social processes and new directions in research. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 28:442–78
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls FJ 1997. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science 277:918–24
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Sampson RJ, Sharkey P. 2008. Neighborhood selection and the social reproduction of concentrated racial inequality. Demography 45:1–29
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Sampson RJ, Sharkey PT, Raudenbush SW 2008. Durable effects of concentrated disadvantage on verbal ability among African-American children. PNAS 105:845–52
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Sampson RJ, Wikström P-O. 2008. The social order of violence in Chicago and Stockholm neighborhoods: a comparative inquiry. Order, Conflict, and Violence S Kalyvas, I Shapiro, T Masoud 97–119 New York: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Sastry N, Ghosh-Dastidar B, Adams J, Pebley AR 2006. The design of a multilevel survey of children, families, and communities: the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. Soc. Sci. Res. 35:1000–24
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Sharkey P. 2010. The acute effect of local homicides on children's cognitive performance. PNAS 107:11733–38
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Sharkey P. 2012. An alternative approach to addressing selection into and out of social settings: neighborhood change and African American children's economic outcomes. Sociol. Methods Res. 41:251–93
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Sharkey P, Faber JW. 2014. Where, when, why, and for whom do residential contexts matter? Moving away from the dichotomous understanding of neighborhood effects. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 40:559–79
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Sharkey P, Sampson RJ. 2010. Destination effects: residential mobility and trajectories of adolescent violence in a stratified metropolis. Criminology 48:639–72
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Sharkey P, Tirado-Strayer N, Papachristos AV, Raver CC 2012. The effect of local violence on children's attention and impulse control. Am. J. Public Health 102:2287–93
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Shaw CR, McKay HD. 1942. Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas Chicago: Chicago Univ. Press
  143. Shaw DS, Shelleby EC. 2014. Early-onset conduct problems: intersection of conduct problems and poverty. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 10:503–28
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Shonkoff JP, Garner AS, Siegel BS, Dobbins MI, Earls MF et al. 2012. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics 129:e232–46
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Shuey EA, Leventhal T. 2019. Neighborhoods and parenting. Handbook of Parenting, Vol. 2: Biology and Ecology of Parenting MH Bornstein 371–99 New York: Taylor & Francis/Psychology, 3rd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Sirgy MJ, Cornwell T. 2002. How neighborhood features affect quality of life. Soc. Indic. Res. 59:79–114
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Small ML. 2006. Neighborhood institutions as resource brokers: childcare centers, interorganizational ties, and resource access among the poor. Soc. Probl. 53:274–92
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Snyder J, Schrepferman L, McEachern A, Barner S, Johnson K, Provines J 2008. Peer deviancy training and peer coercion: dual processes associated with early-onset conduct problems. Child Dev 79:252–68
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Solon G, Page ME, Duncan GJ 2000. Correlations between neighboring children in their subsequent educational attainment. Rev. Econ. Stat. 82:383–92
    [Google Scholar]
  150. South SJ, Crowder K. 2010. Neighborhood poverty and nonmarital fertility: spatial and temporal dimensions. J. Marriage Fam. 72:89–104
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Steinberg L, Morris AS. 2001. Adolescent development. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 52:83–110
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Timberlake JM. 2007. Racial and ethnic inequality in the duration of children's exposure to neighborhood poverty and affluence. Soc. Probl. 54:319–42
    [Google Scholar]
  153. van der Meer T, Tolsma J 2014. Ethnic diversity and its effects on social cohesion. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 40:459–78
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Votruba ME, Kling JR. 2009. Effects of neighborhood characteristics on the mortality of black male youth: evidence from Gautreaux. Chicago: Soc. Sci. Med. 68:814–23
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Wacquant L. 2008. Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality Cambridge, UK: Polity
  156. Weisburd D, Groff ER, Yang S-M 2014. Understanding and controlling hot spots of crime: the importance of formal and informal social controls. Prev. Sci. 15:31–43
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Wheaton B, Clarke P. 2003. Space meets time: integrating temporal and contextual influences on mental health in early adulthood. Am. Sociol. Rev. 68:680–706
    [Google Scholar]
  158. White RMB, Nair RL, Bradley RH 2018. Theorizing the benefits and costs of adaptive cultures for development. Am. Psychol. 73:727–39
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Wickes R, Hipp JR. 2018. The spatial and temporal dynamics of neighborhood informal social control and crime. Soc. Forces 97:277–308
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Wilson WJ. 1987. The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  161. Wodtke GT, Harding DJ, Elwert F 2011. Neighborhood effects in temporal perspective: the impact of long-term exposure to concentrated disadvantage on high school graduation. Am. Sociol. Rev. 76:713–36
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Wolf S, Magnuson KA, Kimbro RT 2017. Family poverty and neighborhood poverty: links with children's school readiness before and after the Great Recession. Child. Youth Serv. Rev. 79:368–84
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Zaff JF, Donlan AE, Pufall Jones E, Lin ES, Anderson S 2016. Comprehensive community initiatives creating supportive youth systems: a theoretical rationale for creating youth-focused CCIs. Community Initiatives for Positive Youth Development JF Zaff, E Pufall Jones, AE Donlan, S Anderson 1–16 New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121318-085221
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error