1932

Abstract

Across development, interactions between value-based learning and memory processes promote the formation of mental models that enable flexible goal pursuit. Value cues in the environment signal information that may be useful to prioritize in memory; these prioritized memories in turn form the foundation of structured knowledge representations that guide subsequent learning. Critically, neural and cognitive component processes of learning and memory undergo marked shifts from infancy to adulthood, leading to developmental change in the construction of mental models and how they are used to guide goal-directed behavior. This review explores how changes in reciprocal interactions between value-based learning and memory influence adaptive behavior across development and highlights avenues for future research.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-050620-030227
2021-12-09
2024-06-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/devpsych/3/1/annurev-devpsych-050620-030227.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-050620-030227&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ackermann L, Hepach R, Mani N. 2020. Children learn words easier when they are interested in the category to which the word belongs. Dev. Sci. 23:3e12915
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adcock RA, Thangavel A, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Knutson B, Gabrieli JDE. 2006. Reward-motivated learning: Mesolimbic activation precedes memory formation. Neuron 50:3507–17
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Amso D, Davidow J. 2012. The development of implicit learning from infancy to adulthood: item frequencies, relations, and cognitive flexibility. Dev. Psychobiol. 54:6664–73
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Anderson JR, Schooler LJ 1991. Reflections of the environment in memory. Psychol. Sci. 2:6396–408
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Anderson JR, Schooler LJ 2000. The adaptive nature of memory. The Oxford Handbook of Memory E Tulving, FIM Craik 557–70 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Balleine BW, O'Doherty JP. 2009. Human and rodent homologies in action control: corticostriatal determinants of goal-directed and habitual action. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:148–69
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bartra O, McGuire JT, Kable JW. 2013. The valuation system: a coordinate-based meta-analysis of BOLD fMRI experiments examining neural correlates of subjective value. Neuroimage 76:412–27
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Behrens TEJ, Muller TH, Whittington JCR, Mark S, Baram AB et al. 2018. What is a cognitive map? Organizing knowledge for flexible behavior. Neuron 100:2490–509
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Biderman N, Bakkour A, Shohamy D. 2020. What are memories for? The hippocampus bridges past experience with future decisions. Trends Cogn. Sci. 24:7542–56
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Blakemore S-J, Robbins TW. 2012. Decision-making in the adolescent brain. Nat. Neurosci. 15:91184–91
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Blanco NJ, Sloutsky VM. 2020. Systematic exploration and uncertainty dominate young children's choices. Dev. Sci. 24:2e13026
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Blumenfeld RS, Ranganath C. 2007. Prefrontal cortex and long-term memory encoding: an integrative review of findings from neuropsychology and neuroimaging. Neuroscientist 13:3280–91
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bolenz F, Eppinger B. 2020. Valence bias in metacontrol of decision making in adolescents and young adults. PsyArXiv 5u9jq. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/5u9jq
    [Crossref]
  14. Bolenz F, Reiter AMF, Eppinger B. 2017. Developmental changes in learning: computational mechanisms and social influences. Front. Psychol. 8:2048
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bornstein AM, Khaw MW, Shohamy D, Daw ND. 2017. Reminders of past choices bias decisions for reward in humans. Nat. Commun. 8:15958
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bottini R, Doeller CF. 2020. Knowledge across reference frames: cognitive maps and image spaces. Trends Cogn. Sci. 24:8606–19
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Bransford JD, Johnson MK. 1972. Contextual prerequisites for understanding: some investigations of comprehension and recall. J. Verbal Learn. Verbal Behav. 11:717–26
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Brod G, Lindenberger U, Shing YL. 2017. Neural activation patterns during retrieval of schema-related memories: differences and commonalities between children and adults. Dev. Sci. 20:6e12475
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Brod G, Shing YL. 2019. A boon and a bane: comparing the effects of prior knowledge on memory across the lifespan. Dev. Psychol. 55:61326–37
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Brod G, Werkle-Bergner M, Shing YL. 2013. The influence of prior knowledge on memory: a developmental cognitive neuroscience perspective. Front. Behav. Neurosci. 7:139
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cabeza R, Ciaramelli E, Olson IR, Moscovitch M. 2008. The parietal cortex and episodic memory: an attentional account. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 9:8613–25
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Calabro FJ, Murty VP, Jalbrzikowski M, Tervo-Clemmens B, Luna B. 2019. Development of hippocampal-prefrontal cortex interactions through adolescence. Cereb. Cortex 30:31548–58
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Callaghan B, Gasser C, Silvers J, VanTieghem M, Choy T et al. 2020. Age-related increases in posterior hippocampal granularity are associated with remote detailed episodic memory in development. J. Neurosci. 41:81738–54
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cardinal RN, Parkinson JA, Hall J, Everitt BJ 2002. Emotion and motivation: the role of the amygdala, ventral striatum, and prefrontal cortex. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 26:3321–52
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Casey BJ, Heller AS, Gee DG, Cohen AO. 2019. Development of the emotional brain. Neurosci. Lett. 693:29–34
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Castel AD, Humphreys KL, Lee SS, Galván A, Balota DA, McCabe DP. 2011. The development of memory efficiency and value-directed remembering across the life span: a cross-sectional study of memory and selectivity. Dev. Psychol. 47:61553–64
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Chatham CH, Frank MJ, Badre D. 2014. Corticostriatal output gating during selection from working memory. Neuron 81:4930–42
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chatham CH, Frank MJ, Munakata Y. 2009. Pupillometric and behavioral markers of a developmental shift in the temporal dynamics of cognitive control. PNAS 106:145529–33
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Cohen AO, Matese NG, Filimontseva A, Shen X, Shi TC et al. 2019. Aversive learning strengthens episodic memory in both adolescents and adults. Learn. Mem. 26:7272–79
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Cohen AO, Nussenbaum K, Dorfman HM, Gershman SJ, Hartley CA. 2020. The rational use of causal inference to guide reinforcement learning strengthens with age. NPJ Sci. Learn. 5:16
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Cohen NJ, Squire LR. 1980. Preserved learning and retention of pattern-analyzing skill in amnesia: dissociation of knowing how and knowing that. Science 210:4466207–10
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Cole MW, Laurent P, Stocco A 2013. Rapid instructed task learning: a new window into the human brain's unique capacity for flexible cognitive control. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci 13:11–22
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Collins AGE 2018. Learning structures through reinforcement. Goal-Directed Decision Making: Computations and Neural Circuits R Morris, A Bornstein, A Shenav 105–23 San Diego, CA: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Coughlin C, Robins RW, Ghetti S. 2019. Development of episodic prospection: factors underlying improvements in middle and late childhood. Child Dev 90:41109–22
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Craik FIM, Tulving E. 1975. Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 104:3268–94
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Crone EA, Steinbeis N. 2017. Neural perspectives on cognitive control development during childhood and adolescence. Trends Cogn. Sci. 21:3205–15
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Davachi L. 2006. Item, context and relational episodic encoding in humans. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 16:6693–700
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Davidow JY, Foerde K, Galván A, Shohamy D 2016. An upside to reward sensitivity: The hippocampus supports enhanced reinforcement learning in adolescence. Neuron 92:193–99
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Daw ND, Gershman SJ, Seymour B, Dayan P, Dolan RJ 2011. Model-based influences on humans’ choices and striatal prediction errors. Neuron 69:61204–15
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Daw ND, O'Doherty JP 2014. Multiple systems for value learning. Neuroeconomics: Decision Making and the Brain PW Glimcher, E Fehr 393–410 London: Academic, 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Decker JH, Lourenco FS, Doll BB, Hartley CA 2015. Experiential reward learning outweighs instruction prior to adulthood. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 15:2310–20
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Decker JH, Otto AR, Daw ND, Hartley CA. 2016. From creatures of habit to goal-directed learners: tracking the developmental emergence of model-based reinforcement learning. Psychol. Sci. 27:6848–58
    [Google Scholar]
  43. DeMaster D, Pathman T, Lee JK, Ghetti S 2014. Structural development of the hippocampus and episodic memory: developmental differences along the anterior/posterior axis. Cereb. Cortex 24:113036–45
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Deserno L, Huys QJM, Boehme R, Buchert R, Heinze H-J et al. 2015. Ventral striatal dopamine reflects behavioral and neural signatures of model-based control during sequential decision making. PNAS 112:51595–600
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Diamond A. 1985. Development of the ability to use recall to guide action, as indicated by infants’ performance on A. Child Dev 56:4868–83
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Dickinson A. 1985. Actions and habits: the development of behavioural autonomy. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 308:113567–78
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Dienes Z, Perner J. 1999. A theory of implicit and explicit knowledge. Behav. Brain Sci. 22:5735–808
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Doll BB, Duncan KD, Simon DA, Shohamy D, Daw ND 2015. Model-based choices involve prospective neural activity. Nat. Neurosci. 18:5767–72
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Doremus-Fitzwater TL, Spear LP. 2016. Reward-centricity and attenuated aversions: an adolescent phenotype emerging from studies in laboratory animals. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 70:121–34
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Dorfman HM, Bhui R, Hughes BL, Gershman SJ. 2019. Causal inference about good and bad outcomes. Psychol. Sci. 30:4516–25
    [Google Scholar]
  51. DuBrow S, Eberts EA, Murty VP. 2019. A common mechanism underlying choice's influence on preference and memory. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 26:61958–66
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Eichenbaum H, Yonelinas AP, Ranganath C. 2007. The medial temporal lobe and recognition memory. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 30:123–52
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Eldar E, Lièvre G, Dayan P, Dolan RJ. 2020. The roles of online and offline replay in planning. eLife 9:e56911
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Ellenbogen JM, Hu PT, Payne JD, Titone D, Walker MP 2007. Human relational memory requires time and sleep. PNAS 104:187723–28
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Ellis CT, Skalaban LJ, Yates TS, Bejjanki VR, Córdova NI, Turk-Browne NB. 2021. Evidence of hippocampal learning in human infants. Curr. Biol. 31:15335864.e4
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Fandakova Y, Gruber MJ. 2021. States of curiosity and interest enhance memory differently in adolescents and in children. Dev. Sci. 24:1e13005
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Fandakova Y, Selmeczy D, Leckey S, Grimm KJ, Wendelken C et al. 2017. Changes in ventromedial prefrontal and insular cortex support the development of metamemory from childhood into adolescence. PNAS 114:297582–87
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Feldman A, Acredolo L. 1979. The effect of active versus passive exploration on memory for spatial location in children. Child Dev 50:3698–704
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Finn AS, Kalra PB, Goetz C, Leonard JA, Sheridan MA, Gabrieli JDE 2016. Developmental dissociation between the maturation of procedural memory and declarative memory. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 142:212–20
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Finn AS, Kharitonova M, Holtby N, Sheridan MA 2019. Prefrontal and hippocampal structure predict statistical learning ability in early childhood. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 31:1126–37
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Frank MC, Slemmer JA, Marcus GF, Johnson SP 2009. Information from multiple modalities helps 5-month-olds learn abstract rules. Dev. Sci. 12:4504–9
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Frank MJ, Loughry B, O'Reilly RC. 2001. Interactions between frontal cortex and basal ganglia in working memory: a computational model. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 1:2137–60
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Galván A. 2013. The teenage brain: sensitivity to rewards. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 22:288–93
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Gee DG, Gabard-Durnam L, Telzer EH, Humphreys KL, Goff B et al. 2014. Maternal buffering of human amygdala-prefrontal circuitry during childhood but not during adolescence. Psychol. Sci. 25:112067–78
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Gershman SJ, Daw ND. 2017. Reinforcement learning and episodic memory in humans and animals: an integrative framework. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 68:101–28
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Ghatala ES, Carbonari JP, Wylie HL. 1980. Attribute structure and incidental memory for words: test of a developmental hypothesis. Child Dev 51:685–90
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Ghetti S, Coughlin C. 2018. Stuck in the present? Constraints on children's episodic prospection. Trends Cogn. Sci. 22:10846–50
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Ghetti S, Fandakova Y. 2020. Neural development of memory and metamemory in childhood and adolescence: toward an integrative model of the development of episodic recollection. Annu. Rev. Dev. Psychol. 2:365–88
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Gilboa A, Marlatte H. 2017. Neurobiology of schemas and schema-mediated memory. Trends Cogn. Sci. 21:8618–31
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Glenn CR, Klein DN, Lissek S, Britton JC, Pine DS, Hajcak G. 2012. The development of fear learning and generalization in 8–13 year-olds. Dev. Psychobiol. 54:7675–84
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Glimcher PW. 2011. Understanding dopamine and reinforcement learning: the dopamine reward prediction error hypothesis. PNAS 108:Suppl. 315647–54
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Gogtay N, Giedd JN, Lusk L, Hayashi KM, Greenstein D et al. 2004. Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. PNAS 101:218174–79
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Gogtay N, Nugent TF3rd, Herman DH, Ordonez A, Greenstein D et al. 2006. Dynamic mapping of normal human hippocampal development. Hippocampus 16:8664–72
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Goldin-Meadow S, Alibali MW, Church RB 1993. Transitions in concept acquisition: using the hand to read the mind. Psychol. Rev. 100:2279–97
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Gómez RL, Edgin JO. 2015. Sleep as a window into early neural development: shifts in sleep-dependent learning effects across early childhood. Child Dev. Perspect. 9:3183–89
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Gopnik A. 2020. Childhood as a solution to explore–exploit tensions. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 375:180320190502
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Gruber MJ, Gelman BD, Ranganath C. 2014. States of curiosity modulate hippocampus-dependent learning via the dopaminergic circuit. Neuron 84:2486–96
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Gureckis TM, Markant DB. 2012. Self-directed learning: a cognitive and computational perspective. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 7:5464–81
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Haber SN, Knutson B. 2009. The reward circuit: linking primate anatomy and human imaging. Neuropsychopharmacology 35:14–26
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Hanten G, Li X, Chapman SB, Swank P, Gamino J et al. 2007. Development of verbal selective learning. Dev. Neuropsychol. 32:1585–96
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Harlow HF. 1949. The formation of learning sets. Psychol. Rev. 56:151–65
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Hartley CA, Lee FS. 2015. Sensitive periods in affective development: nonlinear maturation of fear learning. Neuropsychopharmacology 40:150–60
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Hostinar CE, Johnson AE, Gunnar MR 2015. Parent support is less effective in buffering cortisol stress reactivity for adolescents compared to children. Dev. Sci. 18:2281–97
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Hunsaker MR, Kesner RP. 2013. The operation of pattern separation and pattern completion processes associated with different attributes or domains of memory. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 37:136–58
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Insel C, Kastman EK, Glenn CR, Somerville LH 2017. Development of corticostriatal connectivity constrains goal-directed behavior during adolescence. Nat. Commun. 8:11605
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Jacobs JE, Klaczynski PA. 2002. The development of judgment and decision making during childhood and adolescence. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 11:4145–49
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Jang AI, Nassar MR, Dillon DG, Frank MJ 2019. Positive reward prediction errors during decision-making strengthen memory encoding. Nat. Hum. Behav. 3:7719–32
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Johnson EG, Nordahl CW, Ghetti S. 2018. Memory-related hippocampal activation in the sleeping toddler. PNAS 115:256500–5
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Karmiloff-Smith A. 1992. Beyond Modularity: A Developmental Perspective on Cognitive Science Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Karuza EA, Newport EL, Aslin RN, Starling SJ, Tivarus ME, Bavelier D. 2013. The neural correlates of statistical learning in a word segmentation task: an fMRI study. Brain Lang 127:146–54
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Katzman PL, Hartley CA. 2020. The value of choice facilitates subsequent memory across development. Cognition 199:104239
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Keramati M, Dezfouli A, Piray P. 2011. Speed/accuracy trade-off between the habitual and the goal-directed processes. PLOS Comput. Biol. 7:5e1002055
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Keresztes A, Bender AR, Bodammer NC, Lindenberger U, Shing YL, Werkle-Bergner M. 2017. Hippocampal maturity promotes memory distinctiveness in childhood and adolescence. PNAS 114:349212–17
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Keresztes A, Ngo CT, Lindenberger U, Werkle-Bergner M, Newcombe NS. 2018. Hippocampal maturation drives memory from generalization to specificity. Trends Cogn. Sci. 22:8676–86
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Kidd C, Hayden BY. 2015. The psychology and neuroscience of curiosity. Neuron 88:3449–60
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Kirkham NZ, Slemmer JA, Johnson SP. 2002. Visual statistical learning in infancy: evidence for a domain general learning mechanism. Cognition 83:2B35–42
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Klossek UMH, Russell J, Dickinson A 2008. The control of instrumental action following outcome devaluation in young children aged between 1 and 4 years. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 137:139–51
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Knowlton BJ, Squire LR. 1993. The learning of categories: parallel brain systems for item memory and category knowledge. Science 262:51401747–49
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Kool W, Gershman SJ, Cushman FA. 2017. Cost-benefit arbitration between multiple reinforcement-learning systems. Psychol. Sci. 28:91321–33
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Kurdziel LBF, Kent J, Spencer RMC 2018. Sleep-dependent enhancement of emotional memory in early childhood. Sci. Rep. 8:112609
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Kushnir T, Gopnik A. 2005. Young children infer causal strength from probabilities and interventions. Psychol. Sci. 16:9678–83
    [Google Scholar]
  102. LeDoux J, Daw ND. 2018. Surviving threats: neural circuit and computational implications of a new taxonomy of defensive behaviour. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 19:5269–82
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Lee JK, Ekstrom AD, Ghetti S. 2014a. Volume of hippocampal subfields and episodic memory in childhood and adolescence. Neuroimage 94:162–71
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Lee SW, Shimojo S, O'Doherty JP. 2014b. Neural computations underlying arbitration between model-based and model-free learning. Neuron 81:3687–99
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Lengyel M, Dayan P. 2008. Hippocampal contributions to control: the third way. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems889–96 Red Hook, NY: Curran Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Leotti LA, Delgado MR. 2011. The inherent reward of choice. Psychol. Sci. 22:101310–18
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Lisman JE, Grace AA. 2005. The hippocampal-VTA loop: controlling the entry of information into long-term memory. Neuron 46:5703–13
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Loewenstein G. 1994. The psychology of curiosity: a review and reinterpretation. Psychol. Bull. 116:175–98
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Luna B, Marek S, Larsen B, Tervo-Clemmens B, Chahal R. 2015. An integrative model of the maturation of cognitive control. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 38:151–70
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Mack ML, Love BC, Preston AR 2018. Building concepts one episode at a time: the hippocampus and concept formation. Neurosci. Lett. 680:31–38
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Maril A, Avital R, Reggev N, Zuckerman M, Sadeh T et al. 2011. Event congruency and episodic encoding: a developmental fMRI study. Neuropsychologia 49:113036–45
    [Google Scholar]
  112. McClelland JL, McNaughton BL, O'Reilly RC. 1995. Why there are complementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex: insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory. Psychol. Rev. 102:3419–57
    [Google Scholar]
  113. McComas J, Dulberg C, Latter J. 1997. Children's memory for locations visited: importance of movement and choice. J. Mot. Behav. 29:3223–29
    [Google Scholar]
  114. McGaugh JL, Cahill L, Roozendaal B. 1996. Involvement of the amygdala in memory storage: interaction with other brain systems. PNAS 93:2413508–14
    [Google Scholar]
  115. McNealy K, Mazziotta JC, Dapretto M. 2010. The neural basis of speech parsing in children and adults. Dev. Sci. 13:2385–406
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Metcalfe J. 2017. Learning from errors. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 68:465–89
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Meulemans T, Van der Linden M, Perruchet P. 1998. Implicit sequence learning in children. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 69:3199–221
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Miller EK, Cohen JD. 2001. An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24:167–202
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Mills KL, Goddings A-L, Herting MM, Meuwese R, Blakemore S-J et al. 2016. Structural brain development between childhood and adulthood: convergence across four longitudinal samples. Neuroimage 141:273–81
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Mishkin M, Malamut B, Bachevalier J. 1984. Memories and habits: two neural systems. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 1984:65–77
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Moser EI, Kropff E, Moser M-B. 2008. Place cells, grid cells, and the brain's spatial representation system. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 31:69–89
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Muessig L, Lasek M, Varsavsky I, Cacucci F, Wills TJ 2019. Coordinated emergence of hippocampal replay and theta sequences during post-natal development. Curr. Biol. 29:5834–40.e4
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Munakata Y. 2001. Graded representations in behavioral dissociations. Trends Cogn. Sci. 5:7309–15
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Munakata Y, Snyder HR, Chatham CH. 2012. Developing cognitive control: three key transitions. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 21:271–77
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Murty VP, Calabro F, Luna B 2016. The role of experience in adolescent cognitive development: integration of executive, memory, and mesolimbic systems. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 70:46–58
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Murty VP, DuBrow S, Davachi L 2015. The simple act of choosing influences declarative memory. J. Neurosci. 35:166255–64
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Nadel L, Samsonovich A, Ryan L, Moscovitch M 2000. Multiple trace theory of human memory: computational, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological results. Hippocampus 10:4352–68
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Ngo CT, Lin Y, Newcombe NS, Olson IR 2019a. Building up and wearing down episodic memory: mnemonic discrimination and relational binding. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 148:91463–79
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Ngo CT, Newcombe NS, Olson IR. 2018. The ontogeny of relational memory and pattern separation. Dev. Sci. 21:2e12556
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Ngo CT, Newcombe NS, Olson IR 2019b. Gain-loss framing enhances mnemonic discrimination in preschoolers. Child Dev 90:51569–78
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Nussenbaum K, Hartley CA. 2019. Reinforcement learning across development: What insights can we draw from a decade of research?. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 40:100733
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Nussenbaum K, Hartley CA. 2021. Developmental change in prefrontal cortex recruitment supports the emergence of value-guided memory. bioRxiv 2021.02.13.431073. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.13.431073
    [Crossref]
  133. Nussenbaum K, Prentis E, Hartley CA. 2020a. Memory's reflection of learned information value increases across development. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 149:101919–34
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Nussenbaum K, Scheuplein M, Phaneuf C, Evans M, Hartley CA. 2020b. Moving developmental research online: comparing in-lab and web-based studies of model-based reinforcement learning. Collabra 6:117213
    [Google Scholar]
  135. O'Connell G, Myers CE, Hopkins RO, McLaren RP, Gluck MA, Wills AJ. 2016. Amnesic patients show superior generalization in category learning. Neuropsychology 30:8915–19
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Ofen N. 2012. The development of neural correlates for memory formation. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 36:71708–17
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Ohayon MM, Carskadon MA, Guilleminault C, Vitiello MV 2004. Meta-analysis of quantitative sleep parameters from childhood to old age in healthy individuals: developing normative sleep values across the human lifespan. Sleep 27:71255–73
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Otto AR, Raio CM, Chiang A, Phelps EA, Daw ND. 2013. Working-memory capacity protects model-based learning from stress. PNAS 110:5220941–46
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Otto AR, Skatova A, Madlon-Kay S, Daw ND 2014. Cognitive control predicts use of model-based reinforcement learning. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 27:2319–33
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Paller KA, Voss JL. 2004. Memory reactivation and consolidation during sleep. Learn. Mem. 11:6664–70
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Palminteri S, Kilford EJ, Coricelli G, Blakemore S-J. 2016. The computational development of reinforcement learning during adolescence. PLOS Comput. Biol. 12:6e1004953
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Parr AC, Calabro F, Larsen B, Tervo-Clemmens B, Elliot S et al. 2021. Dopamine-related striatal neurophysiology is associated with specialization of frontostriatal reward circuitry through adolescence. Prog. Neurobiol. 201:101997
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Paulsen DJ, Hallquist MN, Geier CF, Luna B. 2015. Effects of incentives, age, and behavior on brain activation during inhibitory control: a longitudinal fMRI study. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 11:105–15
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Pine K, Messer D. 2003. The development of representations as children learn about balancing. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 21:2285–301
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Plebanek DJ, Sloutsky VM. 2017. Costs of selective attention: when children notice what adults miss. Psychol. Sci. 28:6723–32
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Potter TCS, Bryce NV, Hartley CA. 2017. Cognitive components underpinning the development of model-based learning. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 25:272–80
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Raab HA, Foord C, Ligneul R, Hartley CA 2020. Detection of environmental controllability improves across development. PsyArXiv xdt9p. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/xdt9p
    [Crossref]
  148. Raab HA, Hartley CA 2018. The development of goal-directed decision-making. Goal-Directed Decision Making: Computations and Neural Circuits R Morris, A Bornstein, A Shenav 279–308 San Diego, CA: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Ramsaran AI, Schlichting ML, Frankland PW. 2019. The ontogeny of memory persistence and specificity. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 36:100591
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Rangel A, Camerer C, Montague PR. 2008. A framework for studying the neurobiology of value-based decision making. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 9:7545–56
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Rescorla RA. 1988. Pavlovian conditioning: It's not what you think it is. Am. Psychol. 43:3151–60
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Rich AS, Gureckis TM. 2018. Exploratory choice reflects the future value of information. Decisions 5:3177–92
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Richards BA, Xia F, Santoro A, Husse J, Woodin MA et al. 2014. Patterns across multiple memories are identified over time. Nat. Neurosci. 17:7981–86
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Riggins T, Geng F, Blankenship SL, Redcay E. 2016. Hippocampal functional connectivity and episodic memory in early childhood. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 19:58–69
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Riggins T, Geng F, Botdorf M, Canada K, Cox L, Hancock GR 2018. Protracted hippocampal development is associated with age-related improvements in memory during early childhood. Neuroimage 174:127–37
    [Google Scholar]
  156. Rissman J, Wagner AD. 2012. Distributed representations in memory: insights from functional brain imaging. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 63:101–28
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Rmus M, Ritz H, Hunter LE, Bornstein AM, Shenhav A. 2019. Individual differences in model-based planning are linked to the ability to infer latent structure. bioRxiv 723072. https://doi.org/10.1101/723072
    [Crossref]
  158. Rodriguez Buritica JM, Heekeren HR, van den Bos W 2019. The computational basis of following advice in adolescents. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 180:39–54
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Rollins L, Cloude EB 2018. Development of mnemonic discrimination during childhood. Learn. Mem. 25:6294–97
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Rosenbaum GM, Grassie H, Hartley CA 2020. Valence biases in reinforcement learning shift across adolescence and modulate subsequent memory. PsyArXiv n3vsr. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/n3vsr
    [Crossref]
  161. Rosenbaum GM, Hartley CA. 2019. Developmental perspectives on risky and impulsive choice. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 374:176620180133
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Rouhani N, Niv Y. 2021. Signed and unsigned reward prediction errors dynamically enhance learning and memory. eLife 10:e61077
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Ruggeri A, Markant DB, Gureckis TM, Bretzke M, Xu F. 2019. Memory enhancements from active control of learning emerge across development. Cognition 186:82–94
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Ryan RM, Deci EL. 2000. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemp. Educ. Psychol. 25:154–67
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Saffran JR, Aslin RN, Newport EL. 1996. Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science 274:52941926–28
    [Google Scholar]
  166. Saffran JR, Kirkham NZ. 2018. Infant statistical learning. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 69:181–203
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Schacter DL, Benoit RG, Szpunar KK. 2017. Episodic future thinking: mechanisms and functions. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 17:41–50
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Schad DJ. 2014. Processing speed enhances model-based over model-free reinforcement learning in the presence of high working memory functioning. Front. Psychol. 5:1450
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Schapiro AC, Gregory E, Landau B, McCloskey M, Turk-Browne NB. 2014. The necessity of the medial temporal lobe for statistical learning. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 26:81736–47
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Schapiro AC, Rogers TT, Cordova NI, Turk-Browne NB, Botvinick MM. 2013. Neural representations of events arise from temporal community structure. Nat. Neurosci. 16:4486–92
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Schiele MA, Reinhard J, Reif A, Domschke K, Romanos M et al. 2016. Developmental aspects of fear: comparing the acquisition and generalization of conditioned fear in children and adults. Dev. Psychobiol. 58:4471–81
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Schlichting ML, Guarino KF, Schapiro AC, Turk-Browne NB, Preston AR. 2017. Hippocampal structure predicts statistical learning and associative inference abilities during development. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 29:137–51
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Schneider W, Gruber H, Gold A, Opwis K. 1993. Chess expertise and memory for chess positions in children and adults. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 56:3328–49
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Schonberg C, Marcus GF, Johnson SP 2018. The roles of item repetition and position in infants’ abstract rule learning. Infant Behav. Dev. 53:64–80
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Schuck NW, Cai MB, Wilson RC, Niv Y 2016. Human orbitofrontal cortex represents a cognitive map of state space. Neuron 91:61402–12
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Schuck NW, Niv Y. 2019. Sequential replay of nonspatial task states in the human hippocampus. Science 364:6447eaaw5181
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Schultz W, Dayan P, Montague PR 1997. A neural substrate of prediction and reward. Science 275:53061593–99
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Schulz E, Wu CM, Ruggeri A, Meder B 2019. Searching for rewards like a child means less generalization and more directed exploration. Psychol. Sci. 30:111561–72
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Shing YL, Werkle-Bergner M, Brehmer Y, Müller V, Li S-C, Lindenberger U. 2010. Episodic memory across the lifespan: the contributions of associative and strategic components. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 34:71080–91
    [Google Scholar]
  180. Shohamy D, Adcock RA. 2010. Dopamine and adaptive memory. Trends Cogn. Sci. 14:10464–72
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Shufaniya A, Arnon I. 2018. Statistical learning is not age-invariant during childhood: Performance improves with age across modality. Cogn. Sci. 42:83100–15
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Simons JS, Spiers HJ. 2003. Prefrontal and medial temporal lobe interactions in long-term memory. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4:8637–48
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Smid CR, Kool W, Hauser TU, Steinbeis N. 2020. Model-based decision-making and its metacontrol in childhood. PsyArXiv ervsb https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/ervsb
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  184. Somerville LH, Sasse SF, Garrad MC, Drysdale AT, Abi Akar N et al. 2017. Charting the expansion of strategic exploratory behavior during adolescence. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 146:2155–64
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Leonard CM, Welcome SE, Kan E, Toga AW 2004. Longitudinal mapping of cortical thickness and brain growth in normal children. J. Neurosci. 24:388223–31
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Squire LR. 2004. Memory systems of the brain: a brief history and current perspective. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 82:3171–77
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Squire LR, Dede AJO. 2015. Conscious and unconscious memory systems. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 7:3a021667
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Stangor C, McMillan D. 1992. Memory for expectancy-congruent and expectancy-incongruent information: a review of the social and social developmental literatures. Psychol. Bull. 111:142–61
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Stanton ME. 2000. Multiple memory systems, development and conditioning. Behav. Brain Res. 110:1–225–37
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Suddendorf T, Redshaw J. 2013. The development of mental scenario building and episodic foresight. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1296:135–53
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Sumner E, Li AX, Perfors A, Hayes B, Navarro D, Sarnecka BW. 2019. The exploration advantage: Children's instinct to explore allows them to find information that adults miss. PsyArXiv h437v. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/h437v
    [Crossref]
  192. Sutton RS, Barto AG. 1998. Introduction to Reinforcement Learning 135 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Tenenbaum JB, Kemp C, Griffiths TL, Goodman ND. 2011. How to grow a mind: statistics, structure, and abstraction. Science 331:60221279–85
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Tolman EC. 1948. Cognitive maps in rats and men. Psychol. Rev. 55:4189–208
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Tompary A, Zhou W, Davachi L. 2020. Schematic memories develop quickly, but are not expressed unless necessary. Sci. Rep. 10:16968
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Tonegawa S, Morrissey MD, Kitamura T. 2018. The role of engram cells in the systems consolidation of memory. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 19:8485–98
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Tse D, Langston RF, Kakeyama M, Bethus I, Spooner PA et al. 2007. Schemas and memory consolidation. Science 316:582176–82
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Tulving E, Schacter DL. 1990. Priming and human memory systems. Science 247:4940301–6
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Unger K, Ackerman L, Chatham CH, Amso D, Badre D 2016. Working memory gating mechanisms explain developmental change in rule-guided behavior. Cognition 155:8–22
    [Google Scholar]
  200. van Kesteren MTR, Ruiter DJ, Fernández G, Henson RN 2012. How schema and novelty augment memory formation. Trends Neurosci 35:4211–19
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Wang Q, Capous D, Koh JBK, Hou Y. 2014. Past and future episodic thinking in middle childhood. J. Cogn. Dev. 15:4625–43
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Werchan DM, Collins AGE, Frank MJ, Amso D. 2016. Role of prefrontal cortex in learning and generalizing hierarchical rules in 8-month-old infants. J. Neurosci. 36:4010314–22
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Wilhelm I, Rose M, Imhof KI, Rasch B, Büchel C, Born J. 2013. The sleeping child outplays the adult's capacity to convert implicit into explicit knowledge. Nat. Neurosci. 16:4391–93
    [Google Scholar]
  204. Wilson MA, McNaughton BL. 1994. Reactivation of hippocampal ensemble memories during sleep. Science 265:5172676–79
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Wilson RC, Geana A, White JM, Ludvig EA, Cohen JD 2014a. Humans use directed and random exploration to solve the explore–exploit dilemma. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 143:62074–81
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Wilson RC, Takahashi YK, Schoenbaum G, Niv Y. 2014b. Orbitofrontal cortex as a cognitive map of task space. Neuron 81:2267–79
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Wimmer GE, Shohamy D. 2012. Preference by association: how memory mechanisms in the hippocampus bias decisions. Science 338:6104270–73
    [Google Scholar]
  208. Winograd T 1975. Frame representations and the declarative/procedural controversy. Representation and Understanding DG Bobrow, A Collins 185–210 San Diego, CA: Morgan Kaufmann
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Yassa MA, Stark CEL. 2011. Pattern separation in the hippocampus. Trends Neurosci 34:10515–25
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Yonelinas AP, Ranganath C, Ekstrom AD, Wiltgen BJ. 2019. A contextual binding theory of episodic memory: systems consolidation reconsidered. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 20:6364–75
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Yonelinas AP, Ritchey M. 2015. The slow forgetting of emotional episodic memories: an emotional binding account. Trends Cogn. Sci. 19:5259–67
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Younger BA, Cohen LB. 1986. Developmental change in infants’ perception of correlations among attributes. Child Dev 57:3803–15
    [Google Scholar]
  213. Zeithamova D, Bowman CR. 2020. Generalization and the hippocampus: more than one story?. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 175:107317
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Zelazo PD, Frye D, Rapus T. 1996. An age-related dissociation between knowing rules and using them. Cogn. Dev. 11:137–63
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-050620-030227
Loading
  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error