1932

Abstract

Human infants are altricial, born relatively helpless and dependent on parental care for an extended period of time. This protracted time to maturity is typically regarded as a necessary epiphenomenon of evolving and developing large brains. We argue that extended altriciality is itself adaptive, as a prolonged necessity for parental care allows extensive social learning to take place. Human adults possess a suite of complex social skills, such as language, empathy, morality, and theory of mind. Rather than requiring hardwired, innate knowledge of social abilities, evolution has outsourced the necessary information to parents. Critical information for species-typical development, such as species recognition, may originate from adults rather than from genes, aided by underlying perceptual biases for attending to social stimuli and capacities for statistical learning of social actions. We draw on extensive comparative findings to illustrate that, across species, altriciality functions as an adaptation for social learning from caregivers.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-051820-121446
2020-12-15
2024-06-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/devpsych/2/1/annurev-devpsych-051820-121446.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-051820-121446&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abney DH, Smith LB, Yu C 2017. It's time: quantifying the relevant time scales for joint attention. Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society G Gunzelmann, A Howes, T Tenbrink, E Davelaar 1489–94 Austin, TX: Cogn. Sci. Soc.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Adolph KE, Tamis-LeMonda CS. 2014. The costs and benefits of development: the transition from crawling to walking. Child Dev. Perspect. 8:4187–92
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Albert RR, Schwade JA, Goldstein MH 2017. The social functions of babbling: acoustic and contextual characteristics that facilitate maternal responsiveness. Dev. Sci. 18:2e12641
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Alberts JR, Brunjes PC. 1978. Ontogeny of thermal and olfactory determinants of huddling in the rat. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 92:5897–906
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Alberts JR, Cramer CP. 1988. Ecology and experience: sources of means and meaning of developmental change. Developmental Psychobiology and Behavioral Ecology EM Blass 1–39 New York: Plenum
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Alberts JR, May B. 1984. Nonnutritive, thermotactile induction of filial huddling in rat pups. Dev. Psychobiol. 17:2161–81
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baldwin DA, Baird JA, Saylor MM, Clark MA 2001. Infants parse dynamic action. Child Dev 72:3708–17
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Batki A, Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, Connellan J, Ahluwalia J 2000. Is there an innate gaze module? Evidence from human neonates. Infant Behav. Dev. 23:223–29
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Baumrind D. 1971. Current patterns of parental authority. Dev. Psychol. 4:11–103
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bayer HM, Glimcher PW. 2005. Midbrain dopamine neurons encode a quantitative reward prediction error signal. Neuron 47:129–41
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ben Mocha Y, Mundry R, Pika S 2019. Joint attention skills in wild Arabian babblers (Turdoides squamiceps): a consequence of cooperative breeding. ? Proc. R. Soc. B 286:20190147
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Benitez VL, Saffran JR. 2018. Predictable events enhance word learning in toddlers. Curr. Biol. 17:102787–93.e4
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Bhatt RS, Bertin E, Hayden A, Reed A 2005. Face processing in infancy: developmental changes in the use of different kinds of relational information. Child Dev 76:169–81
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Blake R. 1993. Cats perceive biological motion. Psychol. Sci. 4:154–57
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Bogin B, Varea C. 2017. Evolution of human life history. Evolution of Nervous Systems, Vol. 4 J Kaas 37–50 Oxford, UK: Elsevier. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Bornstein MH, Manian N. 2013. Maternal responsiveness and sensitivity reconsidered: Some is more. Dev. Psychopathol. 25:4957–71
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Brandone AC, Stout W, Moty K 2020. Triadic interactions support infants’ emerging understanding of intentional actions. Dev. Sci. 23:21–14
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bretherton I. 2013. Revisiting Mary Ainsworth's conceptualization and assessments of maternal sensitivity-insensitivity. Attach. Hum. Dev. 15:460–84
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Calkins SD. 2015. Seeing infant development through a biopsychosocial lens. Handbook of Infant Biopsychosocial Development SD Calkins 3–10 New York: Guilford
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Carouso-Peck S, Goldstein MH. 2019. Female social feedback reveals non-imitative mechanisms of vocal learning in zebra finches. Curr. Biol. 29:4631–36
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Chen Y, Matheson LE, Sakata JT 2016. Mechanisms underlying the social enhancement of vocal learning in songbirds. PNAS 113:246641–46
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Colombelli-Negrel D, Hauber ME, Robertson J, Sulloway FJ, Hoi H et al. 2012. Embryonic learning of vocal passwords in superb fairy-wrens reveals intruder cuckoo nestlings. Curr. Biol. 22:2155–60
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cooper RP, Aslin RN. 1990. Preference for infant‐directed speech in the first month after birth. Child Dev 61:51584–95
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Crivello C, Phillips S, Poulin-Dubois D 2018. Selective social learning in infancy: looking for mechanisms. Dev. Sci. 21:e12592
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Deák GO, Krasno AM, Triesch J, Lewis J, Sepeta L 2014. Watch the hands: Infants can learn to follow gaze by seeing adults manipulate objects. Dev. Sci. 17:2270–81
    [Google Scholar]
  26. DeCasper AJ, Fifer WP. 1980. Of human bonding: Newborns prefer their mothers’ voices. Science 208:44481174–76
    [Google Scholar]
  27. DeCasper AJ, Spence MJ. 1986. Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns’ perception of speech sounds. Infant Behav. Dev. 9:133–50
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Dunsworth HM, Warrener AG, Deacon T, Ellison PT, Pontzer H 2012. Metabolic hypothesis for human altriciality. PNAS 109:3815212–16
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Easterbrooks MA, Kisilevsky BS, Hains SMJ, Muir DW 1999. Faceness or complexity: evidence from newborn visual tracking of facelike stimuli. Infant Behav. Dev. 22:17–35
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Elmlinger SL, Schwade JA, Goldstein MH 2019. The ecology of prelinguistic vocal learning: Parents simplify the structure of their speech in response to babbling. J. Child Lang. 46:5998–1011
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Fantz RL. 1961. The origin of form perception. Sci. Am. 204:566–72
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Farroni T, Csibra G, Simion F, Johnson MH 2002. Eye contact detection in humans from birth. PNAS 99:149602–5
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Fernald A, Taeschner T, Dunn J, Papousek M, de Boysson-Bardies B, Fukui I 1989. A cross-language study of prosodic modifications in mothers’ and fathers’ speech to preverbal infants. J. Child Lang. 16:3477–501
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Fernandez AA, Knörnschild M. 2020. Pup directed vocalizations of adult females and males in a vocal learning bat. Front. Ecol. Evol. 8:00265
    [Google Scholar]
  35. French RM, Mermillod M, Quinn PC, Chauvin A, Mareschal D 2002. The importance of starting blurry: simulating improved basic-level category learning in infants due to weak visual acuity. Proceedings of the 24th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society WD Gray, CD Schunn 1–7 Austin, TX: Cogn. Sci. Soc.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Ghazanfar AA, Liao DA. 2017. Constraints and flexibility during vocal development: insights from marmoset monkeys. Curr. Opin. Behav. Sci. 21:27–32
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Goldberg AE. 2008. Universal Grammar? Or prerequisites for natural language. ? Behav. Brain Sci. 31:5522–23
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Goldstein MH, King AP, West MJ 2003. Social interaction shapes babbling: testing parallels between birdsong and speech. PNAS 100:138030–35
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Goldstein MH, Schwade JA. 2008. Social feedback to infants’ babbling facilitates rapid phonological learning. Psychol. Sci. 19:5515–23
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Goldstein MH, Schwade JA, Bornstein MH 2009. The value of vocalizing: Five-month-old infants associate their own noncry vocalizations with responses from caregivers. Child Dev 80:3636–44
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gottlieb G. 1971. Development of Species Recognition in Birds: An Inquiry into the Prenatal Determinants of Perception Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Gottlieb G, Tomlinson WT, Radell PL 1989. Developmental intersensory interference: Premature visual experience suppresses auditory learning in ducklings. Infant Behav. Dev. 12:11–12
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Graf Estes K, Evans JL, Alibali MW, Saffran JR 2007. Can infants map meaning to newly segmented words? Statistical segmentation and word learning. Psychol. Sci. 18:3254–60
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Greenough WT, Black JE, Wallace CS 1987. Experience and brain development. Child Dev 58:3539–59
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Gultekin YB, Hage SR. 2017. Limiting parental feedback disrupts vocal development in marmoset monkeys. Nat. Commun. 8:14046
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hailman JP. 1969. How an instinct is learned. Sci. Am. 221:698–108
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Hamlin JK, Wynn K, Bloom P 2007. Social evaluation by preverbal infants. Nature 450:557–59
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Humphrey T. 1970. The development of human fetal activity and its relation to postnatal behavior. Adv. Child Dev. Behav. 5:1–57
    [Google Scholar]
  49. James W. 1890. The Principles of Psychology, Vol. 1 New York: Cosimo
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Johnson MH, Dziurawiec S, Ellis HD, Morton J 1991. Newborns’ preferential tracking of face‐like stimuli and its subsequent decline. Cognition 40:1–19
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Johnston TD, Gottlieb G. 1981. Visual preferences of imprinted ducklings are altered by the maternal call. J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 95:5663–75
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Jones DN, Dekker RWRJ, Roselaar CS 1995. The Megapodes Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Jones SS. 1996. Imitation or exploration? Young infants’ matching of adults’ oral gestures. Child Dev 67:51952–69
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Jones SS. 2006. Exploration or imitation? The effect of music on 4-week-old infants’ tongue protrusions. Infant Behav. Dev. 29:126–30
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Kaplan PS, Goldstein MH, Huckeby ER, Owren MJ 1995. Dishabituation of visual attention by infant- versus adult-directed speech: effects of frequency modulation and spectral composition. Infant Behav. Dev. 18:209–23
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Kellman PJ, Arterberry ME. 2006. Infant visual perception. Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 2: Cognition, Perception, and Language D Kuhn, RS Siegler 109–60 Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. , 6th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Kelly DJ, Liu S, Lee K, Quinn PC, Pascalis O et al. 2009. Development of the other-race effect during infancy: evidence toward universality. ? J. Exp. Child Psychol. 104:1105–14
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Kelly DJ, Quinn PC, Slater AM, Lee K, Ge L, Pascalis O 2007. The other-race effect develops during infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing. Psychol. Sci. 18:121084–89
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Kenny PA, Turkewitz G. 1986. Effects of unusually early visual stimulation on the development of homing behavior in the rat pup. Dev. Psychobiol. 19:57–66
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Kidd C, Piantadosi ST, Aslin RN 2012. The Goldilocks effect: Human infants allocate attention to visual sequences that are neither too simple nor too complex. PLOS ONE 7:5e36399
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Kidd C, Piantadosi ST, Aslin RN 2014. The Goldilocks effect in infant auditory attention. Child Dev 85:51795–804
    [Google Scholar]
  62. King AP, West MJ. 1983. Epigenesis of cowbird song—a joint endeavour of males and females. Nature 305:5936704–6
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Kinney DK, Kagan J. 1976. Infant attention to auditory discrepancy. Child Dev 47:1155–64
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kisilevsky BS, Hains SM, Brown CA, Lee CT, Cowperthwaite B et al. 2009. Fetal sensitivity to properties of maternal speech and language. Infant Behav. Dev. 32:159–71
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Koenig MA, Clément F, Harris PL 2004. Trust in testimony: children's use of true and false statements. Psychol. Sci. 15:10694–98
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Krasotkina A, Götz A, Höhle B, Schwarzer G 2018. Perceptual narrowing in speech and face recognition: evidence for intra-individual cross-domain relations. Front. Psychol. 9:1711
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Kretch KS, Franchak JM, Adolph KE 2013. Crawling and walking infants see the world differently. Child Dev 85:41503–18
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Kuhl PK, Meltzoff AN. 1982. The bimodal perception of speech in infancy. Science 218:45771138–41
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Kuhl PK, Stevens E, Hayashi A, Deguchi T, Kiritani S, Iverson P 2006. Infants show a facilitation effect for native language phonetic perception between 6 and 12 months. Dev. Sci. 9:2F13–21
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Lehrman DS. 1970. Semantic and conceptual issues in the nature–nurture problem. Development and Evolution of Behavior DS Lehrman 17–52 San Francisco: Freeman
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Leleu A, Rekow D, Poncet F, Schaal B, Durand K et al. 2019. Maternal odor shapes rapid face categorization in the infant brain. Dev. Sci. 23:267–11
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Lewkowicz DJ, Ghazanfar AA. 2009. The emergence of multisensory systems through perceptual narrowing. Trends Cogn. Sci. 13:11470–78
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Liberman Z, Kinzler KD, Woodward AL 2014. Friends or foes: Infants use shared evaluations to infer others’ social relationships. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 143:3966–71
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Lickliter RE, Gottlieb G. 1985. Social interaction with siblings is necessary for visual imprinting of species-specific maternal preferences in ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos). J. Comp. Psychol. 99:4371–79
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Liu HM, Kuhl PK, Tsao FM 2003. An association between mothers’ speech clarity and infants’ speech discrimination skills. Dev. Sci. 6:3F1–10
    [Google Scholar]
  76. MacWhinney B. 2015. Language development. Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science, Vol. 2: Cognitive Processes LS Liben, U Müller, RM Lerner 296–338 New York: Wiley. , 7th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Mariette MM, Buchanan KL. 2016. Prenatal acoustic communication programs offspring for high posthatching temperatures in a songbird. Science 353:6301812–14
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Meltzoff AN, Moore MK. 1977. Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science 198:431275–78
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Moon C. 2017. Prenatal experience with the maternal voice. Early Vocal Contact and Preterm Infant Brain M Filippa, P Kuhn, B Westrup 25–37 Cham, Switz: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Moon C, Lagercrantz H, Kuhl PK 2013. Language experienced in utero affects vowel perception after birth: a two‐country study. Acta Paediatr 102:2156–60
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Morton J, Johnson MH. 1991. CONSPEC and CONLERN: a two‐process theory of infant face recognition. Psychol. Rev. 98:164–81
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Moulin-Frier C, Nguyen SM, Oudeyer P 2014. Self-organization of early vocal development in infants and machines: the role of intrinsic motivation. Front. Psychol. 4:1006
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Oudeyer P, Kaplan F, Hafner VV 2007. Intrinsic motivation systems for autonomous mental development. IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 11:2265–86
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Papeo L, Goupil N, Soto-Faraco S 2019. Visual search for people among people. Psychol. Sci. 30:101483–96
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Pascalis O, de Haan M, Nelson CA 2002. Is face processing species-specific during the first year of life. ? Science 296:1321–23
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Pascalis O, Scott LS, Kelly DJ, Shannon RW, Nicholson E et al. 2005. Plasticity of face processing in infancy. PNAS 102:145297–300
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Pika S, Bugnyar T. 2011. The use of referential gestures in ravens (Corvus corax) in the wild. Nat. Commun. 2:560
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Pipp-Siegel S, Biringen Z. 1998. Assessing the quality of relationships between parents and children: the emotional availability scales. Volta Rev 100:5237–49
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Ronca AE, Abel RA, Alberts JR 1996. Perinatal stimulation and adaptation of the neonate. Acta Paediatr 85:8–15
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Ronca AE, Fritzsch B, Bruce LL, Alberts JR 2008. Orbital spaceflight during pregnancy shapes function of mammalian vestibular system. Behav. Neurosci. 122:1224–32
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Ruffman T, Taumeopeau M, Perkins C 2011. Statistical learning as a basis for social understanding in children. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 30:187–104
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Saffran JR, Aslin RN, Newport EL 1996. Statistical learning by 8-month-old infants. Science 274:1926–28
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Saffran JR, Werker JF, Werner LA 2006. The infant's auditory world: hearing, speech, and the beginnings of language. Handbook of Child Psychology, Vol. 2: Cognition, Perception and Language R Siegler, D Kuhn 58–108 New York: Wiley. , 6th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Santolin C, Saffran JR. 2018. Constraints on statistical learning across species. Trends Cogn. Sci. 22:152–63
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Schel AM, Townsend SW, Machanda Z, Zuberbühler K, Slocombe KE 2013. Chimpanzee alarm call production meets key criteria for intentionality. PLOS ONE 8:10e76674
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Seyfarth RM, Cheney DL. 1986. Vocal development in vervet monkeys. Anim. Behav. 34:1640–58
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Simion F, Cassia VM, Turati C, Valenza E 2001. The origins of face perception: specific versus non-specific mechanisms. Infant Child Dev 10:59–65
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Simion F, Regolin L, Bulf H 2008. A predisposition for biological motion in the newborn baby. PNAS 105:2809–13
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Skinner D. 1981. Selection by consequences. Science 213:4507501–4
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Smith NA, Trainor LJ. 2008. Infant-directed speech is modulated by infant feedback. Infancy 13:4410–20
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Spelke ES, Cortelyou A. 1981. Perceptual aspects of social knowing: looking and listening in infancy. Infant Social Cognition ME Lamb, LR Sherrod 61–83 Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Spelke ES, Kinzler KD. 2007. Core knowledge. Dev. Sci. 10:89–96
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Suanda SH, Barnhart M, Smith LB, Yu C 2019. The signal in the noise: the visual ecology of parents’ object naming. Infancy 24:3455–76
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Takahashi DY, Fenley AR, Teramoto Y, Narayanan DZ, Borjon JI et al. 2015. The developmental dynamics of marmoset monkey vocal production. Science 349:6249730–34
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Takahashi DY, Narayanan DZ, Ghazanfar AA 2013. Coupled oscillator dynamics of vocal turn-taking in monkeys. Curr. Biol. 23:212162–68
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Tamis-LeMonda CS, Kuchirko Y, Luo R, Escobar K, Bornstein MH 2017. Power in methods: language to infants in structured and naturalistic contexts. Dev. Sci. 20:6e12456
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Thiessen ED, Hill EA, Saffran JR 2005. Infant-directed speech facilitates word segmentation. Infancy 7:153–71
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Thomsen L, Frankenhuis WE, Ingold-Smith M, Carey S 2011. Big and mighty: Preverbal infants mentally represent social dominance. Science 331:6016477–80
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Thornton A, McAuliffe K. 2006. Teaching in wild meerkats. Science 313:5784227–29
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Tinbergen TN, Perdeck A. 1951. On the stimulus situation releasing the begging response in the newly hatched herring gull chick (Larus argentatus argentatus Pont.). Behaviour 3:11–39
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Townsend SW, Koski SE, Byrne RW, Slocombe KE, Bickel B et al. 2016. Exorcising Grice's ghost: an empirical approach to studying intentional communication in animals. Biol. Rev. 92:31427–33
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Tummeltshammer KS, Kirkham NZ. 2013. Learning to look: Probabilistic variation and noise guide infants’ eye movements. Dev. Sci. 16:5760–71
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Tummeltshammer KS, Wu R, Sobel DM, Kirkham NZ 2014. Infants track the reliability of potential informants. Psychol. Sci. 25:91730–38
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Uomini N, Fairlie J, Gray RD, Griesser M 2020. Extended parenting and the evolution of cognition. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 375:20190495
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Vallortigara G, Regolin L, Marconato F 2005. Visually inexperienced chicks exhibit spontaneous preference for biological motion patterns. PLOS ONE 3:7e208
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Vestner T, Gray KLH, Cook R 2020. Why are social interactions found quickly in visual search tasks. ? Cognition 200:104270
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Vouloumanos A, Curtin S. 2014. Foundational tuning: how infants’ attention to speech predicts language development. Cogn. Sci. 38:81675–86
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Vouloumanos A, Hauser M, Werker J, Martin A 2010. The tuning of human neonates’ preference for speech. Child Dev 81:2517–27
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Vouloumanos A, Werker JF. 2007. Listening to language at birth: evidence for a bias for speech in neonates. Dev. Sci. 10:2159–64
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Walton GE, Bower NJA, Bower TGR 1992. Recognition of familiar faces by newborns. Infant Behav. Dev. 15:2265–69
    [Google Scholar]
  121. West MJ, King AP. 1988. Female visual displays affect the development of male song in the cowbird. Nature 334:6179244–46
    [Google Scholar]
  122. West MJ, King AP. 2008. Deconstructing innate illusions: reflections on nature-nurture-niche from an unlikely source. Philos. Psychol. 21:3383–95
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Whiten A, Byrne RW. 1988. Tactical deception in primates. Behav. Brain Sci. 11:233–73
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Woodward AL. 1998. Infants selectively encode the goal object of an actor's reach. Cognition 69:1–34
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Xiao WS, Quinn PC, Pascalis O, Lee K 2014. Own- and other-race face scanning in infants: implications for perceptual narrowing. Dev. Psychobiol. 56:2262–73
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-051820-121446
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-051820-121446
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error