1932

Abstract

Cognitive flexibility, or the ability to mentally switch between tasks according to changing environmental demands, supports optimal life outcomes, making it an important executive function to study across development. Here we review the literature examining the development of cognitive flexibility, with an emphasis on studies using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The neuroimaging literature suggests that key brain regions important for cognitive flexibility include the inferior frontal junction and regions within the midcingulo-insular network, including the insular and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. We further discuss challenges surrounding studying cognitive flexibility during neurodevelopment, including inconsistent terminology, the diversity of fMRI task paradigms, difficulties with isolating cognitive flexibility from other executive functions, and accounting for developmental changes in cognitive strategy. Future directions include assessing how developmental changes in brain network dynamics enable cognitive flexibility and examining potential modulators of cognitive flexibility including physical activity and bilingualism.

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2023-12-11
2024-04-25
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