1932

Abstract

Scholars from across the social sciences, biological sciences, and humanities have long emphasized the role of human morality in supporting cooperation. How does morality arise in human development? One possibility is that morality is acquired through years of socialization and active learning. Alternatively, morality may instead be based on a “moral core”: primitive abilities that emerge in infancy to make sense of morally relevant behaviors. Here, we review evidence that infants and toddlers understand a variety of morally relevant behaviors and readily evaluate agents who engage in them. These abilities appear to be rooted in the goals and intentions driving agents’ morally relevant behaviors and are sensitive to group membership. This evidence is consistent with a moral core, which may support later social and moral development and ultimately be leveraged for human cooperation.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121020-023312
2022-12-09
2024-06-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/devpsych/4/1/annurev-devpsych-121020-023312.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121020-023312&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Alexander JM. 2007. The Structural Evolution of Morality Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aslin RN. 2007. What's in a look?. Dev. Sci. 10:148–53
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Atari M, Haidt J, Graham J, Koleva S, Stevens ST, Dehghani M. 2022. Morality beyond the WEIRD: how the nomological network of morality varies across cultures. PsyArXiv https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/q6c9r
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Augustine ME, Stifter CA. 2015. Temperament, parenting, and moral development: specificity of behavior and context. Soc. Dev. 24:2285–303
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Axelrod R. 1984. The Evolution of Cooperation New York: Basic Books
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bandura A 2014. Social cognitive theory of moral thought and action. Handbook of Moral Behavior and Development, Vol. 1 Theory WM Kurtines, JL Gerwitz 45–103 New York: Psychol. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Benton DT, Lapan C. 2022. Moral masters or moral apprentices? A connectionist account of sociomoral evaluation in preverbal infants. Cogn. Dev. 62:101164
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bian L, Sloane S, Baillargeon R. 2018. Infants expect ingroup support to override fairness when resources are limited. PNAS 115:112705–10
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Brown DE. 1991. Human Universals Philadelphia, PA: Temple Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Buon M, Jacob P, Margules S, Brunet I, Dutat M et al. 2014. Friend or foe? Early social evaluation of human interactions. PLOS ONE 9:2e88612
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Burns MP, Sommerville J. 2014. “I pick you”: the impact of fairness and race on infants’ selection of social partners. Front. Psychol. 5:93
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Buyukozer Dawkins M, Sloane S, Baillargeon R 2019. Do infants in the first year of life expect equal resource allocations?. Front. Psychol. 10:116
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Carey S. 2009. The Origin of Concepts Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Chae JJK, Song H. 2018. Negativity bias in infants’ expectations about agents’ dispositions. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 36:4620–33
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Colombo J, Mitchell DW. 2009. Infant visual habituation. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 92:2225–34
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Cosmides L, Tooby J 1992. Cognitive adaptations for social exchange. The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture JH Barkow, L Cosmides, J Tooby 163–228 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cowell JM, Decety J. 2015. Precursors to morality in development as a complex interplay between neural, socioenvironmental, and behavioral facets. PNAS 112:4112657–62
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Curry OS, Mullins DA, Whitehouse H. 2019. Is it good to cooperate? Testing the theory of morality-as-cooperation in 60 societies. Curr. Anthropol. 60:147–69
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Cushman F, Young L, Hauser M. 2006. The role of conscious reasoning and intuition in moral judgment: testing three principles of harm. Psychol. Sci. 17:121082–89
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Dahl A. 2016. Mothers’ insistence when prohibiting infants from harming others in everyday interactions. Front. Psychol. 7:1448
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Dahl A. 2018. New beginnings: an interactionist and constructivist approach to early moral development. Hum. Dev. 61:4–5232–47
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Dahl A, Campos JJ. 2013. Domain differences in early social interactions. Child Dev. 84:3817–25
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Darwin C. 1871. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex New York: Appleton & Co.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. DesChamps TD, Eason AE, Sommerville JA. 2016. Infants associate praise and admonishment with fair and unfair individuals. Infancy 21:4478–504
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Duncan BL. 1976. Differential social perception and attribution of intergroup violence: testing the lower limits of stereotyping of Blacks. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 34:4590–98
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Dunfield K, Kuhlmeier VA, O'Connell L, Kelley E 2011. Examining the diversity of prosocial behavior: helping, sharing, and comforting in infancy. Infancy 16:3227–47
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Dunn J. 2014. Moral development in early childhood and social interaction in the family. See Killen & Smetana 2014 135–59
  28. Enright EA, Gweon H, Sommerville JA. 2017. ‘To the victor go the spoils’: infants expect resources to align with dominance structures. Cognition 164:8–21
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Fawcett C, Liszkowski U. 2012. Infants anticipate others’ social preferences. Infant Child Dev. 21:3239–49
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Fehr E, Fischbacher U. 2003. The nature of human altruism. Nature 425:6960785–91
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Fehr E, Gächter S. 2002. Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature 415:6868137–40
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Feilhauer J, Cima M, Benjamins C, Muris P. 2013. Knowing right from wrong, but just not always feeling it: relations among callous-unemotional traits, psychopathological symptoms, and cognitive and affective morality judgments in 8- to 12-year-old boys. Child Psychiatry Hum. Dev. 44:6709–16
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Frick PJ, White SF. 2008. Research review: the importance of callous-unemotional traits for developmental models of aggressive and antisocial behavior. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 49:4359–75
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Geraci A. 2020a. How do toddlers evaluate defensive actions toward third parties?. Infancy 25:6910–26
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Geraci A. 2020b. How evaluation of protective third-party interventions and the relationship context interact at 21 months. Eur. J. Dev. Psychol. 17:4556–77
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Geraci A, Simion F. 2021. Evaluation of prosocial actions performed by dynamic shapes at 17 months of age. Eur. J. Dev. Psychol. In press. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2021.1957823
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Geraci A, Simion F, Surian L. 2022. Infants’ intention-based evaluations of distributive actions. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 220:105429
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Geraci A, Surian L. 2011. The developmental roots of fairness: infants’ reactions to equal and unequal distributions of resources. Dev. Sci. 14:51012–20
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Gintis H, Henrich J, Bowles S, Boyd R, Fehr E. 2008. Strong reciprocity and the roots of human morality. Soc. Justice Res. 21:2241–53
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Graham J, Nosek BA, Haidt J, Iyer R, Koleva S, Ditto PH. 2011. Mapping the moral domain. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 101:2366–85
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gredebäck G, Kaduk K, Bakker M, Gottwald J, Ekberg T et al. 2015. The neuropsychology of infants’ pro-social preferences. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 12:106–13
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Greene J, Haidt J. 2002. How (and where) does moral judgment work?. Trends Cogn. Sci. 6:12517–23
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Grusec JE, Chaparro MP, Johnston M, Sherman A. 2014. The development of moral behavior from a socialization perspective. See Killen & Smetana 2014 113–34
  44. Gweon H. 2021. Inferential social learning: cognitive foundations of human social learning and teaching. Trends Cogn. Sci. 25:10896–910
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hamlin JK. 2013a. Failed attempts to help and harm: intention versus outcome in preverbal infants’ social evaluations. Cognition 128:3451–74
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hamlin JK. 2013b. Moral judgment and action in preverbal infants and toddlers: evidence for an innate moral core. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 22:3186–93
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Hamlin JK. 2015. The case for social evaluation in preverbal infants: gazing toward one's goal drives infants’ preferences for Helpers over Hinderers in the hill paradigm. Front. Psychol. 5:1563
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hamlin JK, Mahajan N, Liberman Z, Wynn K. 2013a. Not like me = bad: Infants prefer those who harm dissimilar others. Psychol. Sci. 24:4589–94
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Hamlin JK, Ullman T, Tenenbaum J, Goodman N, Baker C. 2013b. The mentalistic basis of core social cognition: experiments in preverbal infants and a computational model. Dev. Sci. 16:2209–26
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hamlin JK, Wynn K. 2011. Young infants prefer prosocial to antisocial others. Cogn. Dev. 26:130–39
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Hamlin JK, Wynn K, Bloom P. 2007. Social evaluation by preverbal infants. Nature 450:7169557–59
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Hamlin JK, Wynn K, Bloom P. 2010. Three-month-olds show a negativity bias in their social evaluations. Dev. Sci. 13:6923–29
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Hamlin JK, Wynn K, Bloom P, Mahajan N. 2011. How infants and toddlers react to antisocial others. PNAS 108:5019931–36
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Hawkes K. 2014. Primate sociality to human cooperation. Hum. Nat. 25:128–48
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Heider F. 1958. The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations New York: Psychol. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Henrich N, Henrich JP. 2007. Why Humans Cooperate: A Cultural and Evolutionary Explanation New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Holvoet C, Arciszewski T, Scola C, Picard D. 2018. Infants’ visual preferences for prosocial behavior and other-race characters at 6 months: an eye-tracking study. SAGE Open 8:2 https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018784993
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  58. Hood BM, Willen JD, Driver J. 1998. Adult's eyes trigger shifts of visual attention in human infants. Psychol. Sci. 9:2131–34
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Hrdy SB. 1999. Mother Nature: A History of Mothers, Infants, and Natural Selection New York: Pantheon
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Hrdy SB. 2009. Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Jin K, Baillargeon R 2017. Infants possess an abstract expectation of ingroup support. PNAS 114:318199–204
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Jordan JJ, McAuliffe K, Warneken F. 2014. Development of in-group favoritism in children's third-party punishment of selfishness. PNAS 111:3512710–15
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Joyce R. 2007. The Evolution of Morality Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Kanakogi Y, Inoue Y, Matsuda G, Butler D, Hiraki K, Myowa-Yamakoshi M. 2017. Preverbal infants affirm third-party interventions that protect victims from aggressors. Nat. Hum. Behav. 1:237
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Kanakogi Y, Okumura Y, Inoue Y, Kitazaki M, Itakura S. 2013. Rudimentary sympathy in preverbal infants: preference for others in distress. PLOS ONE 8:6e65292
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Katz LD 2000. Evolutionary Origins of Morality: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives Bowling Green, OH: Impr. Acad.
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Killen M, Smetana G, eds. 2014. Handbook of Moral Development New York: Psychol. Press. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Kochanska G. 2002. Mutually responsive orientation between mothers and their young children: a context for the early development of conscience. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 11:6191–95
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Köster M, Itakura S, Omori M, Kärtner J. 2019. From understanding others’ needs to prosocial action: motor and social abilities promote infants’ helping. Dev. Sci. 22:6e12804
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Köster M, Ohmer X, Nguyen TD, Kärtner J. 2016. Infants understand others’ needs. Psychol. Sci. 27:4542–48
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Kuczynski L, Knafo A. 2014. Innovation and continuity in socialization, internalization, and acculturation. See Killen & Smetana 2014 93–112
  72. Kuhlmeier V, Wynn K, Bloom P. 2003. Attribution of dispositional states by 12-month-olds. Psychol. Sci. 14:5402–8
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Lee W, Kim EY, Song H. 2020. Do infants expect others to be helpful?. Br. J. Dev. Psychol. 38:3478–90
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Lee Y, Yun JE, Kim EY, Song H. 2015. The development of infants’ sensitivity to behavioral intentions when inferring others’ social preferences. PLOS ONE 10:9e0135588
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Liberman Z, Woodward AL, Kinzler KD. 2017. The origins of social categorization. Trends Cogn. Sci. 21:7556–68
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Loheide-Niesmann L, de Lijster J, Hall R, van Bakel H, Cima M. 2021. Toddlers’ preference for prosocial versus antisocial agents: no associations with empathy or attachment security. Soc. Dev. 30:2410–27
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Lucca K, Pospisil J, Sommerville JA. 2018. Fairness informs social decision making in infancy. PLOS ONE 13:2e0192848
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Malle BF. 1999. How people explain behavior: a new theoretical framework. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 3:123–48
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Margoni F, Surian L. 2016. Explaining the U-shaped development of intent-based moral judgments. Front. Psychol. 7:219
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Margoni F, Surian L. 2018. Infants’ evaluation of prosocial and antisocial agents: a meta-analysis. Dev. Psychol. 54:81445–55
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Margoni F, Surian L. 2020. Conceptual continuity in the development of intent-based moral judgment. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 194:104812
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Martin JW, Leddy K, Young L, McAuliffe K 2021. An earlier role for intent in children's partner choice versus punishment. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 151:3597–612
    [Google Scholar]
  83. McNamara RA, Willard AK, Norenzayan A, Henrich J. 2019. Weighing outcome vs. intent across societies: how cultural models of mind shape moral reasoning. Cognition 182:95–108
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Meristo M, Strid K, Surian L. 2016. Preverbal infants’ ability to encode the outcome of distributive actions. Infancy 21:3353–72
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Molenberghs P, Gapp J, Wang B, Louis WR, Decety J. 2016. Increased moral sensitivity for outgroup perpetrators harming ingroup members. Cereb. Cortex 26:1225–33
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Nobes G, Panagiotaki G, Pawson C. 2009. The influence of negligence, intention, and outcome on children's moral judgments. J. Exp. Child. Psychol. 104:4382–97
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Piaget J. 1932. The Moral Judgment of the Child. London: Routledge & K. Paul
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Powell LJ. 2019. Imitation: neither instinct nor gadget, but a cultural starting point?. Behav. Brain Sci. 42:e180
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Powell LJ, Spelke ES. 2018. Third-party preferences for imitators in preverbal infants. Open Mind 2:261–71
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Pun A, Ferera M, Diesendruck G, Hamlin JK, Baron AS. 2018. Foundations of infants’ social group evaluations. Dev. Sci. 21:3e12586
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Rottman J, Young L 2015. Mechanisms of moral development. The Moral Brain: A Multidisciplinary Perspective J Decety, T Wheatley 123–42 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Salvadori E, Blazsekova T, Volein A, Karap Z, Tatone D et al. 2015. Probing the strength of infants’ preference for helpers over hinderers: two replication attempts of Hamlin and Wynn 2011. PLOS ONE 10:11e0140570
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Saxe R. 2016. Moral status of accidents. PNAS 113:174555–57
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Scarf D, Imuta K, Colombo M, Hayne H. 2012a. Golden Rule or valence matching? Methodological problems in Hamlin et al. PNAS 109:22E1426
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Scarf D, Imuta K, Colombo M, Hayne H. 2012b. Social evaluation or simple association? Simple associations may explain moral reasoning in infants. PLOS ONE 7:8e42698
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Schlingloff L, Csibra G, Tatone D. 2020. Do 15-month-old infants prefer helpers? A replication of Hamlin et al. 2007. R. Soc. Open Sci. 7:4191795
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Schmidt MFH, Sommerville JA. 2011. Fairness expectations and altruistic sharing in 15-month-old human infants. PLOS ONE 6:10e23223
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Scola C, Holvoet C, Arciszewski T, Picard D. 2015. Further evidence for infants’ preference for prosocial over antisocial behaviors. Infancy 20:6684–92
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Singh L. 2020. Bilingual infants are more sensitive to morally relevant social behavior than monolingual infants. J. Cogn. Dev. 21:5631–50
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Sloane S, Baillargeon R, Premack D. 2012. Do infants have a sense of fairness?. Psychol. Sci. 23:2196–204
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Smetana JG. 1989. Adolescents’ and parents’ reasoning about actual family conflict. Child Dev. 60:51052–67
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Smetana JG 2006. Social-cognitive domain theory: consistencies and variations in children's moral and social judgments. Handbook of Moral Development M Killen, G Smetana 119–53 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. , 1st ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Smetana JG, Jambon M, Ball C. 2014. The social domain approach to children's moral and social judgments. See Killen & Smetana 2014 23–45
  104. Smetana JG, Rote WM, Jambon M, Tasopoulos-Chan M, Villalobos M, Comer J. 2012. Developmental changes and individual differences in young children's moral judgments. Child Dev. 83:2683–96
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Sommerville JA, Schmidt MFH, Yun J, Burns M 2013. The development of fairness expectations and prosocial behavior in the second year of life. Infancy 18:140–66
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Sommerville JA, Woodward AL. 2005. Pulling out the intentional structure of action: the relation between action processing and action production in infancy. Cognition 95:11–30
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Spelke ES 2022. What Babies Know. Vol. 1: Core Knowledge and Composition Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Spelke ES, Kinzler KD. 2007. Core knowledge. Dev. Sci. 10:189–96
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Sterelny K, Joyce R, Calcott B, Fraser B, eds. 2013. Cooperation and Its Evolution Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Tafreshi D, Thompson JJ, Racine TP. 2014. An analysis of the conceptual foundations of the infant preferential looking paradigm. Hum. Dev. 57:4222–40
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Tan E, Hamlin JK. 2022a. Infants’ neural responses to helping and hindering scenarios. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 54:101095
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Tan E, Hamlin JK. 2022b. Mechanisms of social evaluation in infancy: a preregistered exploration of infants’ eye-movement and pupillary responses to prosocial and antisocial events. Infancy 27:2255–76
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Tan E, Mikami AY, Hamlin JK. 2018. Do infant sociomoral evaluation and action studies predict preschool social and behavioral adjustment?. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 176:39–54
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Ting F, Dawkins MB, Stavans M, Baillargeon R 2019. Principles and concepts in early moral cognition. The Social Brain: A Developmental Perspective J Decety 41–65 Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Tomasello M, Carpenter M. 2007. Shared intentionality. Dev. Sci. 10:1121–25
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Trivers RL. 1971. The evolution of reciprocal altruism. Q. Rev. Biol. 46:135–57
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Turiel E. 1983. The Development of Social Knowledge: Morality and Convention Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Turiel E. 2014. Epistemology, development, and social opposition. See Killen & Smetana 2014 3–22
  119. Vaish A, Grossmann T, Woodward A. 2008. Not all emotions are created equal: the negativity bias in social-emotional development. Psychol. Bull. 134:3383–403
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Vaish A, Tomasello M. 2014. The early ontogeny of human cooperation and morality. See Killen & Smetana 2014 279–98
  121. Van de Vondervoort JW, Aknin LB, Kushnir T, Slevinsky J, Hamlin JK. 2018. Selectivity in toddlers’ behavioral and emotional reactions to prosocial and antisocial others. Dev. Psychol. 54:11–14
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Van de Vondervoort JW, Hamlin JK. 2017. Preschoolers’ social and moral judgments of third-party helpers and hinderers align with infants’ social evaluations. J. Exp. Child Psychol. 164:136–51
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Van de Vondervoort JW, Hamlin JK. 2018. Preschoolers focus on others’ intentions when forming sociomoral judgments. Front. Psychol. 9:1851
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Vaporova E, Zmyj N. 2020. Social evaluation and imitation of prosocial and antisocial agents in infants, children, and adults. PLOS ONE 15:9e0235595
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Warneken F, Tomasello M. 2006. Altruistic helping in human infants and young chimpanzees. Science 311:57651301–3
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Woo BM, Spelke ES 2020. How to help best: infants’ changing understanding of multistep actions informs their evaluations of helping. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society S Denison, M Mack, Y Xu, BC Armstrong 384–90 Austin, TX: Cogn. Sci. Soc.
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Woo BM, Spelke ES. 2022a. Eight-month-old infants’ social evaluations of agents who act on false beliefs Paper presented at the 44th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society Toronto: July 28
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Woo BM, Spelke ES. 2022b. Infants and toddlers leverage their understanding of action goals to evaluate agents who help others. PsyArXiv https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mtprn
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  129. Woo BM, Spelke ES. 2022c. Toddlers’ social evaluations of agents who act on false beliefs. Dev. Sci. In press. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.13314
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  130. Woo BM, Steckler CM, Le DT, Hamlin JK. 2017. Social evaluation of intentional, truly accidental, and negligently accidental helpers and harmers by 10-month-old infants. Cognition 168:154–63
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Yoo HN, Smetana JG. 2022. Associations among child temperament, parenting, and young children's moral and conventional understanding: the moderating role of self-regulation. Soc. Dev. 31:619–38
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Young L, Cushman F, Hauser M, Saxe R. 2007. The neural basis of the interaction between theory of mind and moral judgment. PNAS 104:208235–40
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Ziv T, Sommerville JA. 2017. Developmental differences in infants’ fairness expectations from 6 to 15 months of age. Child Dev. 88:61930–51
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Ziv T, Whiteman JD, Sommerville JA. 2021. Toddlers’ interventions toward fair and unfair individuals. Cognition 214:104781
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121020-023312
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121020-023312
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error