1932

Abstract

Biologically based senescence processes and cumulative opportunities for experience collectively give rise to profound changes in cognition in later adulthood, the trajectories of which vary considerably across individuals. This review focuses on how cognitive aging is shaped by engagement—defined as the ongoing investment of personal resources (e.g., time, attention) to activities, social networks, and experiences—through the adult life span. We review evidence for the effects of different forms of engagement on cognitive aging and consider plausible mechanistic pathways for such effects. Working within an ecological framework, we consider “design solutions” for lifestyle engagement to shape adult cognitive development given the necessary trade-offs endemic to goal-directed systems (e.g., current needs versus long-term preparation, flexibility versus robustness, exploration versus exploitation). Given the limited evidence for broad-based effects of skill training on late-life cognitive health, we argue that a promising paradigm for successful cognitive aging will be to probe synergistic effects of engagement on cognitive aging. Recent developments in personal technology offer promise for innovation in intervention and in measurement.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121020-030017
2022-12-09
2024-04-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/devpsych/4/1/annurev-devpsych-121020-030017.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121020-030017&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Aartsen MJ, Cheval B, Sieber S, Van der Linden BW, Gabriel R et al. 2019. Advantaged socioeconomic conditions in childhood are associated with higher cognitive functioning but stronger cognitive decline in older age. PNAS 116:5478–86
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Abadie M, Gavard E, Guillaume F 2021. Verbatim and gist memory in aging. Psychol. Aging 36:891–901
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Ackerman PL, Heggestad ED. 1997. Intelligence, personality, and interests: evidence for overlapping traits. Psychol. Bull. 121:219–45
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Agrigoroaei S, Lachman ME. 2011. Cognitive functioning in midlife and old age: combined effects of psychosocial and behavioral factors. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 66B:Suppl. 1i130–40
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Altschul DM, Deary IJ. 2020. Playing analog games is associated with reduced declines in cognitive function: a 68-year longitudinal cohort study. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 75:474–82
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Alzheimer's Assoc 2017. 2017 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures. Alzheimer's Dement. 13:325–73
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Amieva H, Jacqmin-Gadda H, Orgogozo JM, Le Carret N, Helmer C et al. 2005. The 9 year cognitive decline before dementia of the Alzheimer type: a prospective population-based study. Brain 128:1093–101
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Amieva H, Stoykova R, Matharan F, Helmer C, Antonucci TC, Dartigues JF. 2010. What aspects of social network are protective for dementia? Not the quantity but the quality of social interactions is protective up to 15 years later. Psychosom. Med. 72:905–11
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Andel R, Finkel D, Pedersen NL. 2016. Effects of preretirement work complexity and postretirement leisure activity on cognitive aging. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 71:849–56
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Andel R, Silverstein M, Kåreholt I. 2014. The role of midlife occupational complexity and leisure activity in late-life cognition. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 70:314–21
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Anderson ND, Damianakis T, Kröger E, Wagner LM, Dawson DR et al. 2014. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research. Psychol. Bull. 140:1505–43
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Anguera JA, Boccanfuso J, Rintoul JL, Al-Hashimi O, Faraji F et al. 2013. Videogame training enhances cognitive control in older adults. Nature 501:97–101
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Antoniou M. 2019. The advantages of bilingualism debate. Annu. Rev. Linguist. 5:395–415
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Armbruster DJ, Ueltzhöffer K, Basten U, Fiebach CJ. 2012. Prefrontal cortical mechanisms underlying individual differences in cognitive flexibility and stability. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 24:2385–99
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Au J, Sheehan E, Tsai N, Duncan GJ, Buschkuehl M, Jaeggi SM. 2015. Improving fluid intelligence with training on working memory: a meta-analysis. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 22:366–77
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Baek J, Chong SC. 2020. Ensemble perception and focused attention: two different modes of visual processing to cope with limited capacity. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 27:602–6
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Baer LH, Tabri N, Blair M, Bye D, Li KZH, Pushkar D. 2013. Longitudinal associations of need for cognition, cognitive activity, and depressive symptomatology with cognitive function in recent retirees. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 68:655–64
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Bailey PE, Ebner NC, Stine-Morrow EAL. 2021. Introduction to the special issue on prosociality in adult development and aging: advancing theory within a multilevel framework. Psychol. Aging 36:1–9
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Ball K, Berch DB, Helmers KF, Jobe JB, Leveck MD et al. 2002. Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults. JAMA 288:2271–81
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Baltes PB. 1997. On the incomplete architecture of human ontogeny: selection, optimization, and compensation as foundation of developmental theory. Am. Psychol. 52:366–80
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Baltes PB, Baltes MM 1990. Psychological perspectives on successful aging: the model of selective optimization with compensation. Successful Aging PB Baltes, MM Baltes 1–34 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Baltes PB, Lindenberger U, Staudinger UM 1998. Life-span theory in developmental psychology. Handbook of Child Psychology: Theoretical Models of Human Development RM Lerner 1029–143 New York: John Wiley & Sons. , 5th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Band GP, Basak C, Slagter HA, Voss MW. 2016. Effects of game and game-like training on neurocognitive plasticity. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 10:123
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Banducci SE, Daugherty AM, Biggan JR, Cooke GE, Voss M et al. 2017. Active experiencing training improves episodic memory recall in older adults. Front. Aging Neurosci. 9:9
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Barbey AK. 2018. Network neuroscience theory of human intelligence. Trends Cogn. Sci. 22:8–20
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Barulli D, Stern Y. 2013. Efficiency, capacity, compensation, maintenance, plasticity: emerging concepts in cognitive reserve. Trends Cogn. Sci. 17:502–9
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Bavishi A, Slade MD, Levy BR. 2016. A chapter a day: association of book reading and longevity. Soc. Sci. Med. 164:44–48
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Bennett DA, Schneider JA, Tang Y, Arnold SE, Wilson RS. 2006. The effect of social networks on the relation between Alzheimer's disease pathology and level of cognitive function in old people: a longitudinal cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 5:406–12
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Berggren R, Nilsson J, Brehmer Y, Schmiedek F, Lövdén M. 2020. Foreign language learning in older age does not improve memory or intelligence: evidence from a randomized controlled study. Psychol. Aging 35:212–19
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Bialystok E. 2021. Bilingualism: pathway to cognitive reserve. Trends Cogn. Sci. 25:355–64
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Freedman M. 2007. Bilingualism as a protection against the onset of symptoms of dementia. Neuropsycholgia 45:459–64
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Bialystok E, Craik FIM, Klein R, Viswanathan M. 2004. Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task. Psychol. Aging 19:290–303
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Bielak AA, Anstey KJ, Christensen H, Windsor TD. 2012. Activity engagement is related to level, but not change in cognitive ability across adulthood. Psychol. Aging 27:219–28
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Bielak AA, Gerstorf D, Anstey KJ, Luszcz MA. 2014. Longitudinal associations between activity and cognition vary by age, activity type, and cognitive domain. Psychol. Aging 29:863–72
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Bielak AA, Mogle J, Sliwinski MJ. 2018. What did you do today? Variability in daily activities is related to variability in daily cognitive performance. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 74:764–71
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Bobadilla-Suarez S, Love BC. 2018. Fast or frugal, but not both: decision heuristics under time pressure. J. Exp. Psychol. Learn. Mem. Cogn. 44:24–33
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Bonnechère B, Langley C, Sahakian BJ. 2020. The use of commercial computerised cognitive games in older adults: a meta-analysis. Sci. Rep. 10:15276
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Bonsang E, Adam S, Perelman S 2012. Does retirement affect cognitive functioning?. J. Health Econ. 31:490–501
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Bonsang E, Skirbekk V, Staudinger UM. 2017. As you sow, so shall you reap: gender-role attitudes and late-life cognition. Psychol. Sci. 28:1201–13
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Brandtstädter J, Rothermund K, Kranz D, Kühn W. 2010. Final decentrations: personal goals, rationality perspectives, and the awareness of life's finitude. Eur. Psychol. 15:152–63
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Braver TS, West R 2008. Working memory, executive control, and aging. Handbook of Aging and Cognition FIM Craik, TA Salthouse 311–72 New York: Psychol. Press. , 3rd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Bronfenbrenner U, Ceci SJ. 1994. Nature-nurture reconceptualized in developmental perspective: a bioecological model. Psychol. Rev. 10:568–86
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Brown CL, Robitaille A, Zelinski EM, Dixon RA, Hofer SM, Piccinin AM. 2016. Cognitive activity mediates the association between social activity and cognitive performance: a longitudinal study. Psychol. Aging 31:831–46
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Brown-Schmidt S. 2009. The role of executive function in perspective taking during online language comprehension. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 16:893–900
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Brydges CR, Carlson MC, Andrews RM, Rebok GW, Bielak AA. 2021. Using cognitive intraindividual variability to measure intervention effectiveness: results from the Baltimore Experience Corps Trial. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 76:661–70
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Buchanan R. 1992. Wicked problems in design thinking. Des. Issues 8:5–21
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Cabeza R, Albert M, Belleville S, Craik FIM, Duarte A et al. 2018. Maintenance, reserve and compensation: the cognitive neuroscience of healthy ageing. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 19:701–10
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Cacioppo JT, Cacioppo S, Capitano JP, Cole SW. 2015. The neuroendocrinology of social isolation. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 66:733–67
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Cacioppo JT, Hawkley LC. 2009. Perceived social isolation and cognition. Trends Cogn. Sci. 13:447–54
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Cacioppo JT, Petty RE, Feinstein JA, Jarvis W, Blair G 1996. Dispositional differences in cognitive motivation: the life and times of individuals varying in need for cognition. Psychol. Bull. 119:197–253
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Carlson MC, Parisi JM, Xia J, Xue Q-L, Rebok GW et al. 2011. Lifestyle activities and memory: Variety may be the spice of life. The Women's Health and Aging Study II. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 18:286–94
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Carstensen LL. 2006. The influence of a sense of time on human development. Science 312:1913–15
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Carstensen LL. 2021. Socioemotional selectivity theory: the role of perceived endings in human motivation. Gerontologist 61:1188–96
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Celidoni M, Bianco CD, Weber G. 2017. Retirement and cognitive decline: a longitudinal analysis using SHARE data. J. Health Econ. 56:113–25
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Cerino ES, Hooker K, Goodrich E, Dodge HH. 2020. Personality moderates intervention effects on cognitive function: a 6-week conversation-based intervention. Gerontologist 60:958–67
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Chai LR, Mattar MG, Blank IA, Fedorenko E, Bassett DS. 2016. Functional network dynamics of the language system. Cereb. Cortex 26:4148–59
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Chang Y-H, Wu I-C, Hsiung CA. 2021. Reading activity prevents long-term decline in cognitive function in older people: evidence from a 14-year longitudinal study. Int. Psychogeriatr. 33:163–74
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Charles ST. 2010. Strength and vulnerability integration. Psychol. Bull. 136:1068–91
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Chen G, Kang B, Lindsey J, Druckmann S, Li N. 2021. Modularity and robustness of frontal cortical networks. Cell 184:3717–30
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Clancy SM, Hoyer WJ. 1994. Age and skill in visual search. Dev. Psychol. 30:545–52
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Corrêa JC, Ávila MPW, Lucchetti ALG, Lucchetti G. 2022. Altruism, volunteering and cognitive performance among older adults: a 2-year longitudinal study. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry Neurol. 35:66–77
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Crimmins E. 2015. Lifespan and healthspan: past, present, and promise. Gerontologist 55:901–11
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Csikszentmihalyi M, Abuhamdeh S, Nakamura J 2005. Flow. Handbook of Competence and Motivation AJ Elliot, CS Dweck 598–608 New York: Guilford Press
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Dajani DR, Uddin LQ. 2015. Demystifying cognitive flexibility: implications for clinical and developmental neuroscience. Trends Neurosci. 38:571–78
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Damasio AR. 2003. Feelings of emotion and the self. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 100:253–61
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Daneman M, Merikle PM. 1996. Working memory and language comprehension: a meta-analysis. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 3:422–33
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Dannefer D. 2003. Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: cross-fertilizing age and social science theory. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 58:S327–37
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Dannefer D. 2020. Systemic and reflexive: foundations of cumulative dis/advantage and life-course processes. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 75:1249–63
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Dannefer D, Feldman K. 2017. Age integration, age segregation, and Generation X: life-course perspectives. Generations 41:20–26
    [Google Scholar]
  70. de la Fuente J, Davies G, Grotzinger AD, Tucker-Drob EM, Deary IJ. 2021. A general dimension of genetic sharing across diverse cognitive traits inferred from molecular data. Nat. Hum. Behav. 5:49–58
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Deary IJ. 2008. Why do intelligent people live longer?. Nature 13:175–76
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Deary IJ. 2012. Intelligence. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 63:453–82
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Deary IJ, Hill WD, Gale CR. 2021. Intelligence, health and death. Nat. Hum. Behav. 5:416–30
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Deary IJ, Penke L, Johnson W. 2010a. The neuroscience of human intelligence differences. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 11:201–11
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Deary IJ, Weiss A, Batty GD. 2010b. Intelligence and personality as predictors of illness and death: how researchers in differential psychology and chronic disease epidemiology are collaborating to understand and address health inequalities. Psychol. Sci. Public Interest 11:53–79
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Dekhtyar S, Wang HX, Fratiglioni L, Herlitz A. 2016. Childhood school performance, education and occupational complexity: a life-course study of dementia in the Kungsholmen Project. Int. J. Epidemiol. 45:1207–15
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Del Giudice E, Crespi BJ. 2018. Basic functional trade-offs in cognition: an integrative framework. Cognition 179:56–70
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Dennett DC. 2017. From Bacteria to Bach and Back: The Evolution of Minds New York: WW Norton & Co.
  79. DeYoung CG, Shamosh NA, Green AE, Braver TS, Gray JR. 2009. Intellect as distinct from openness: differences revealed by fMRI of working memory. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 97:883–92
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Draganski B, Gaser C, Kempermann G, Kuhn HG, Winkler J et al. 2006. Temporal and spatial dynamics of brain structure changes during extensive learning. J. Neurosci. 26:6314–17
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Düzel E, Bunzeck N, Guitart-Masip M, Düzel S. 2010. NOvelty-related Motivation of Anticipation and exploration by Dopamine (NOMAD): implications for healthy aging. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 34:660–69
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Eismann M, Verbeij T, Henkens K. 2019. Older workers’ plans for activities in retirement: the role of opportunities, spousal support, and time perception. Psychol. Aging 34:738–49
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Erickson KI, Liu-Ambrose T 2015. Exercise, cognition, and health. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging KW Schaie, SL Willis 187–201 London: Academic. , 8th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Ericsson KA, Krampe RT, Tesch-Römer C. 1993. The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychol. Rev. 100:363–406
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Evans GW, Schamberg MA. 2009. Childhood poverty, chronic stress, and adult working memory. PNAS 106:6545–49
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Evans IE, Martyr A, Collins R, Brayne C, Clare L 2019. Social isolation and cognitive function in later life: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Alzheimer's Dis. 70:S119–44
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Fabrigoule C, Letenneur L, Dartigues JF, Zarrouk M, Commenges D et al. 1995. Social and leisure activities and risk of dementia: a prospective longitudinal study. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 43:485–90
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Fancourt D, Steptoe A. 2018. Cultural engagement predicts changes in cognitive function in older adults over a 10 year period: findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sci. Rep. 8:10226
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Fancourt D, Steptoe A, Cadar D. 2018. Cultural engagement and cognitive reserve: museum attendance and dementia incidence over a 10-year period. Br. J. Psychiatry 213:661–63
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Festini SB, McDonough IM, Park DC. 2016. The busier the better: greater busyness is associated with better cognition. Front. Aging Neurosci. 8:98
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Fisher GG, Stachowski A, Infurna FJ, Faul JD, Grosch J, Tetrick LE. 2014. Mental work demands, retirement, and longitudinal trajectories of cognitive functioning. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 19:231–42
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Fissler P, Küster OC, Laptinskaya D, Loy LS, Von Arnim CA, Kolassa IT. 2018. Jigsaw puzzling taps multiple cognitive abilities and is a potential protective factor for cognitive aging. Front. Aging Neurosci. 10:299
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Fjell AM, Walhovd KB. 2020. How age-related changes in the brain affect cognition. The Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive Aging: A Life Course Perspective AK Thomas, AH Gutchess 47–61 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Fratiglioni L, Marseglia A, Dekhtyar S. 2020. Ageing without dementia: Can stimulating psychosocial and lifestyle experiences make a difference?. Lancet Neurol. 19:533–43
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Fratiglioni L, Paillard-Borg S, Winblad B. 2004. An active and socially integrated lifestyle in late life might protect against dementia. Lancet Neurol. 3:343–53
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Fratiglioni L, Wang H-X, Ericsson K, Maytan M, Winblad B. 2000. Influence of social network on occurrence of dementia: a community-based longitudinal study. Lancet N. Am. Ed. 355:1315–19
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Freedland KE, King AC, Ambrosius WT, Mayo-Wilson E, Mohr DC et al. 2019. The selection of comparators for randomized controlled trials of health-related behavioral interventions: recommendations of an NIH expert panel. J. Clin. Epidemiol. 110:74–81
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Freund AM. 2020. The bucket list effect: why leisure goals are often deferred until retirement. Am. Psychol. 75:499–510
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Friedland RP, Fritsch T, Smyth KA, Koss E, Lerner AJ et al. 2001. Patients with Alzheimer's disease have reduced activities in midlife compared with healthy control-group members. PNAS 98:3440–45
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Fritsch T, McClendon MJ, Smyth KA, Lerner AJ, Friedland RP, Larsen JD. 2007. Cognitive functioning in healthy aging: the role of reserve and lifestyle factors early in life. Gerontologist 47:307–22
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Ghisletta P, Lindenberger U. 2003. Age-based structural dynamics between perceptual speed and knowledge in the Berlin Aging Study: direct evidence for ability dedifferentiation in old age. Psychol. Aging 18:696–713
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Gonzales E, Matz-Costa C, Morrow-Howell N. 2015. Increasing opportunities for the productive engagement of older adults: a response to population aging. Gerontologist 55:252–61
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Gothe NP, Fanning J, Awick E, Chung D, Wójcicki TR et al. 2014. Executive function processes predict mobility outcomes in older adults. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 62:285–90
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Gottfredson LS. 1997. Why g matters: the complexity of everyday life. Intelligence 24:79–132
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Gottlieb G. 1991. Experiential canalization of behavioral development: theory. Dev. Psychol. 27:4–13
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Gow AJ, Avlund K, Mortensen EL. 2014. Leisure activity associated with cognitive ability level, but not cognitive change. Front. Psychol. 5:1176
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Gow AJ, Corley J, Starr JM, Deary IJ. 2012. Reverse causation in activity-cognition ability associations: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936. Psychol. Aging 27:250–55
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Gow AJ, Pattie A, Deary IJ. 2017. Lifecourse activity participation from early, mid, and later adulthood as determinants of cognitive aging: the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 72:25–37
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Grassi M, Meneghetti C, Toffalini E, Borella E. 2017. Auditory and cognitive performance in elderly musicians and nonmusicians. PLOS ONE 12:e0187881
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Gray N, Yoon JS, Charness N, Boot WR, Roque NA et al. 2022. Relative effectiveness of general versus specific cognitive training for aging adults. Psychol. Aging 37:220–21
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Grover DR, Hertzog C. 1991. Relationships between intellectual control beliefs and psychometric intelligence in adulthood. J. Gerontol. 46:P109–15
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Gruber-Baldini AL, Schaie KW, Willis SL. 1995. Similarity in married couples: a longitudinal study of mental abilities and rigidity-flexibility. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 69:191–203
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Guiney H, Machado L. 2018. Volunteering in the community: potential benefits for cognitive aging. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 73:399–408
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Güllich A, Macnamara BN, Hambrick DZ. 2022. What makes a champion? Early multidisciplinary practice, not early specialization, predicts world-class performance. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 17:6–29
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Hale JM, Bijlsma MJ, Lorenti A. 2021. Does postponing retirement affect cognitive function? A counterfactual experiment to disentangle life course risk factors. SSM Popul. Health 15:100855
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Hambrick DZ, Salthouse TA, Meinz EJ. 1999. Predictors of crossword puzzle proficiency and moderators of age-cognition relations. J. Exp. Psychol. Gen. 128:131–64
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Hamm JM, Heckhausen J, Shane J, Lachman ME. 2020. Risk of cognitive declines with retirement: Who declines and why?. Psychol. Aging 35:449–57
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Han SH, Roberts JS, Mutchler JE, Burr JA. 2020. Volunteering, polygenic risk for Alzheimer's disease, and cognitive functioning among older adults. Soc. Sci. Med. 253:112970
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Hanna-Pladdy B, Gajewski B. 2012. Recent and past musical activity predicts cognitive aging variability: direct comparison with general lifestyle activities. Front. Hum. Neurosci. 6:378–86
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Harris CB, Barnier AJ, Sutton J, Keil PG, Dixon RA. 2017.. “ Going episodic”: collaborative inhibition and facilitation when long-married couples remember together. Memory 25:1148–59
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Hassing LB. 2020. Gender differences in the association between leisure activity in adulthood and cognitive function in old age: a prospective longitudinal population-based study. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 75:111–20
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Hasson U, Egidi G, Marelli M, Willems RM. 2018. Grounding the neurobiology of language in first principles: the necessity of non-language-centric explanations for language comprehension. Cognition 180:135–57
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Hertwig R, Woike JK, Schupp J. 2021. Age differences in deliberate ignorance. Psychol. Aging 36:407–14
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Hertzog C, Cooper BP, Fisk AD. 1996. Aging and individual differences in the development of skilled memory search performance. Psychol. Aging 11:497–520
    [Google Scholar]
  125. Hertzog C, Kramer AF, Wilson RS, Lindenberger U. 2008. Enrichment effects on adult cognitive development: can the functional capacity of older adults be preserved and enhanced?. Psychol. Sci. Public Interest 9:1–65
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Hess TM. 2014. Selective engagement of cognitive resources: motivational influences on older adults' cognitive functioning. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 9:388–407
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Hess TM, Emery L, Neupert SD. 2012. Longitudinal relationships between resources, motivation, and functioning. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 67:299–308
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Hess TM, Freund AM, Tobler PN. 2021. Effort mobilization and healthy aging. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 76:S135–44
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Hess TM, Growney CM, O'Brien EL, Neupert SD, Sherwood A. 2018. The role of cognitive costs, attitudes about aging, and intrinsic motivation in predicting engagement in everyday activities. Psychol. Aging 33:953–64
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Hess TM, Neupert SD, Lothary AF. 2022. Aging attitudes and changes in the costs of cognitive engagement in older adults over five years. Psychol. Aging 37:456–68
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Hilger K, Ekman M, Fiebach CJ, Basten U. 2017. Intelligence is associated with the modular structure of intrinsic brain networks. Sci. Rep. 7:16088
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Hills TT, Todd PM, Lazer D, Redish AD, Couzin ID, Group CSR. 2015. Exploration versus exploitation in space, mind, and society. Trends Cogn. Sci. 18:46–54
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Hogan MJ, Staff RT, Bunting BP, Deary IJ, Whalley LJ. 2012. Openness to experience and activity engagement facilitate the maintenance of verbal ability in older adults. Psychol. Aging 27:849–54
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Hooker K. 2015. Toward a new synthesis for development in adulthood. Res. Hum. Dev. 12:229–36
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Hultsch DF, Hertzog C, Small BJ, Dixon RA. 1999. Use it or lose it: engaged lifestyle as a buffer of cognitive decline in aging?. Psychol. Aging 14:245–63
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Hülür G. 2022. Structural and functional aspects of social relationships and episodic memory: between-person and within-person associations in middle-aged and older adults. Gerontology 68:86–97
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Hülür G, Ram N, Willis SL, Schaie KW, Gerstorf D. 2019. Cohort differences in cognitive aging: the role of perceived work environment. Psychol. Aging 34:1040–54
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Hülür G, Siebert JS, Wahl H-W. 2020. The role of perceived work environment and work activities in midlife cognitive change. Dev. Psychol. 56:2345–57
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Hyun J, Katz MJ, Lipton RB, Sliwinski MJ. 2021. Mentally challenging occupations are associated with more rapid cognitive decline at later stages of cognitive aging. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 76:671–80
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Ihle A, Fagot D, Vallet F, Ballhausen N, Mella N et al. 2019. Cross-lagged relation of leisure activity participation to Trail Making Test performance 6 years later: differential patterns in old age and very old age. Neuropsychology 33:234–44
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Ihle A, Oris M, Baeriswyl M, Zuber S, Cullati S et al. 2021. The longitudinal relation between social reserve and smaller subsequent decline in executive functioning in old age is mediated via cognitive reserve. Int. Psychogeriatr. 33:5461–67
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Infurna FJ, Okun MA, Grimm KJ. 2016. Volunteering is associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 64:2263–69
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Ishtiak-Ahmed K, Hansen ÅM, Garde AH, Mortensen EL, Gyntelberg F et al. 2018. Social relations at work and incident dementia: 29-years’ follow-up of the Copenhagen male study. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 60:12–18
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Jackson JJ, Hill PL, Payne BR, Parisi JM, Stine-Morrow EA. 2020. Linking openness to cognitive ability in older adulthood: the role of activity diversity. Aging Ment. Health 24:71079–87
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Jackson JJ, Hill PL, Payne BR, Roberts BW, Stine-Morrow EAL. 2012. Can an old dog learn (and want to experience) new tricks? Cognitive training increases openness to experience in older adults. Psychol. Aging 27:286–92
    [Google Scholar]
  146. James BD, Wilson RS, Barnes LL, Bennett DA. 2011. Late-life social activity and cognitive decline in old age. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 17:998–1005
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Jefferson AL, Gibbons LE, Rentz DM, Carvalho JO, Manly J et al. 2011. A life course model of cognitive activities, socioeconomic status, education, reading ability, and cognition. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 59:1403–11
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Johnson AT. 2019. Biology for Engineers Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. , 2nd ed..
  149. Jopp DS, Hertzog C. 2007. Activities, self-referent memory beliefs, and cognitive performance: evidence for direct and mediated relationships. Psychol. Aging 22:811–25
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Kail BL, Carr DC. 2020. More than selection effects: volunteering is associated with benefits in cognitive functioning. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 75:1741–46
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Karp A, Paillard-Borg S, Wang HX, Silverstein M, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. 2006. Mental, physical and social components in leisure activities equally contribute to decrease dementia risk. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 21:65–73
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Kitano H. 2004. Biological robustness. Nat. Rev. Genet. 5:826–37
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Krampe RT, Charness N 2018. Aging and expertise. The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance KA Ericsson, RR Hoffman, A Kozbelt, AM Williams 835–56 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Kremen WS, Beck A, Elman JA, Gustavson DE, Reynolds CA et al. 2019. Influence of young adult cognitive ability and additional education on later-life cognition. PNAS 116:2021–26
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Kuhn TS. 1970. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press
  156. Kuncel NR, Hezlett SA, Ones DS. 2004. Academic performance, career potential, creativity, and job performance: can one construct predict them all?. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 86:148–61
    [Google Scholar]
  157. Lachman ME, Agrigoroaei S. 2010. Promoting functional health in midlife and old age: Long-term protective effects of control beliefs, social support, and physical exercise. PLOS ONE 5:e13297
    [Google Scholar]
  158. Lachman ME, Agrigoroaei S. 2012. Low perceived control as a risk factor for episodic memory: the mediational role of anxiety and task interference. Mem. Cogn. 40:287–96
    [Google Scholar]
  159. Lachman ME, Agrigoroaei S, Murphy C, Tun PA. 2010. Frequent cognitive activity compensates for education differences in episodic memory. Am. J. Geriatr. Psychiatry 18:4–10
    [Google Scholar]
  160. Landau SM, Marks SM, Mormino EC, Rabinovici GD, Oh H et al. 2012. Association of lifetime cognitive engagement and low β-amyloid deposition. Arch. Neurol. 69:623–29
    [Google Scholar]
  161. Lane AP, Windsor TD, Andel R, Luszcz MA. 2017. Is occupational complexity associated with cognitive performance or decline? Results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Gerontology 63:550–59
    [Google Scholar]
  162. Lee S, Charles ST, Almeida DM. 2021. Change is good for the brain: activity diversity and cognitive functioning across adulthood. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 76:61036–48
    [Google Scholar]
  163. Lee T, Lipnicki DM, Crawford JD, Henry JD, Trollor JN et al. 2014. Leisure activity, health, and medical correlates of neurocognitive performance among monozygotic twins: the Older Australian Twins Study. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 69:514–22
    [Google Scholar]
  164. Lee YJ, Gonzales E, Andel R 2022. Multifaceted demands of work and cognitive functioning: Findings from the Health and Retirement Study. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 77:351–61
    [Google Scholar]
  165. Levy B. 2022. Breaking the Age Code New York: HarperCollins
  166. Lewis NA, Hill PL. 2021. Sense of purpose promotes resilience to cognitive deficits attributable to depressive symptoms. Front. Psychol. 12:2517
    [Google Scholar]
  167. Lewis NA, Turiano NA, Payne BR, Hill PL. 2017. Purpose in life and cognitive functioning in adulthood. Aging Neuropsychol. Cogn. 24:662–71
    [Google Scholar]
  168. Liedtka J. 2018. Why design thinking works. Harvard Bus. Rev. 96:72–79
    [Google Scholar]
  169. Lindenberger U, Lövdén M. 2019. Brain plasticity in human lifespan development: the exploration-selection-refinement model. Annu. Rev. Dev. Psychol. 1:197–222
    [Google Scholar]
  170. Liu Y, Lachman ME. 2020. Education and cognition in middle age and later life: the mediating role of physical and cognitive activity. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 75:e93–104
    [Google Scholar]
  171. Livingston G, Huntley J, Sommerlad A, Ames D, Ballard C et al. 2020. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet N. Am. Ed. 396:413–46
    [Google Scholar]
  172. Lövdén M, Bäckman L, Lindenberger U, Schaeffer S, Schmiedek F. 2010. A theoretical framework for the study of adult cognitive plasticity. Psychol. Bull. 136:659–76
    [Google Scholar]
  173. Lövdén M, Fratiglioni L, Glymour MM, Lindenberger U, Tucker-Drob EM. 2020. Education and cognitive functioning across the life span. Psychol. Sci. Public Interest 21:6–41
    [Google Scholar]
  174. Lövdén M, Ghisletta P, Lindenberger U. 2005. Social participation attenuates declines in perceptual speed in old and very old age. Psychol. Aging 20:423–34
    [Google Scholar]
  175. Luchetti M, Terracciano A, Stephan Y, Sutin AR. 2016. Personality and cognitive decline in older adults: data from a longitudinal sample and meta-analysis. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 71:591–601
    [Google Scholar]
  176. Maguire EA, Gadian DG, Johnsrude IS, Good CD, Ashburner J et al. 2000. Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. PNAS 97:4398–403
    [Google Scholar]
  177. Mansor NS, Chow CM, Halaki M. 2020. Cognitive effects of video games in older adults and their moderators: a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. Aging Ment. Health 24:841–56
    [Google Scholar]
  178. Mar RA, Oatley K. 2008. The function of fiction is the abstraction and simulation of social experience. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 3:173–92
    [Google Scholar]
  179. Mazzonna F, Peracchi F. 2012. Ageing, cognitive abilities and retirement. Eur. Econ. Rev. 56:691–710
    [Google Scholar]
  180. McDonough IM, Haber S, Bischof GN, Park DC. 2015. The Synapse Project: Engagement in mentally challenging activities enhances neural efficiency. Restor. Neurol. Neurosci. 33:865–82
    [Google Scholar]
  181. Mitchell MB, Cimino CR, Benitez A, Brown CL, Gibbons LE et al. 2012. Cognitively stimulating activities: effects on cognition across four studies with up to 21 years of longitudinal data. J. Aging Res. 2012:461592
    [Google Scholar]
  182. Mol SE, Bus AG. 2011. To read or not to read: a meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early childhood. Psychol. Bull. 137:267–96
    [Google Scholar]
  183. Moreau D. 2022. How malleable are cognitive abilities? A critical perspective on popular brief interventions. Am. Psychol. 77:409–23
    [Google Scholar]
  184. Moreau D, Conway ARA. 2014. The case for an ecological approach to cognitive training. Trends Cogn. Sci. 18:334–36
    [Google Scholar]
  185. Morris TP, Ai M, Chaddock-Heyman L, McAuley E, Hillman CH, Kramer AF. 2021. Relationships between enriching early-life experiences and cognitive function later in life are mediated by educational attainment. J. Cogn. Enhanc. 5:449–58
    [Google Scholar]
  186. Mosca I, Wright RE. 2018. Effect of retirement on cognition: evidence from the Irish marriage bar. Demography 55:1317–41
    [Google Scholar]
  187. Mosing MA, Madison G, Pedersen NL, Ullén F. 2016. Investigating cognitive transfer within the framework of music practice: genetic pleiotropy rather than causality. Dev. Sci. 19:504–12
    [Google Scholar]
  188. Newson RS, Kemps EB. 2005. General lifestyle activities as a predictor of current cognition and cognitive change in older adults: a cross-sectional and longitudinal examination. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 60B:113–20
    [Google Scholar]
  189. Noh SR, Stine-Morrow EAL. 2009. Age differences in tracking characters during narrative comprehension. Mem. Cogn. 37:769–78
    [Google Scholar]
  190. Noice H, Noice T. 2006. What studies of actors and acting can tell us about memory and cognitive functioning. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 15:14–18
    [Google Scholar]
  191. Noice H, Noice T, Kennedy C. 2000. Effects of enactment by professional actors at encoding and retrieval. Memory 8:353–63
    [Google Scholar]
  192. Noice T, Noice H, Kramer AF. 2014. Participatory arts for older adults: a review of benefits and challenges. Gerontologist 54:741–53
    [Google Scholar]
  193. Nolte J, Löckenhoff CE, Reyna VF. 2022. The influence of verbatim versus gist formatting on younger and older adults’ information acquisition and decision making. Psychol. Aging 37:197–209
    [Google Scholar]
  194. Nyberg L, Magnussen F, Lundquist A, Baaré W, Bartrés-Faz D et al. 2021. Educational attainment does not influence brain aging. PNAS 118:e2101644118
    [Google Scholar]
  195. Parisi JM, Gross AL, Marsiske M, Willis SL, Rebok GW. 2017. Control beliefs and cognition over a 10-year period: findings from the ACTIVE trial. Psychol. Aging 32:69–75
    [Google Scholar]
  196. Park DC, Huang C-M. 2010. Culture wires the brain: a cognitive neuroscience perspective. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 5:391–400
    [Google Scholar]
  197. Park DC, Lodi-Smith J, Drew L, Haber S, Hebrank A et al. 2014. The impact of sustained engagement on cognitive function in older adults: the Synapse Project. Psychol. Sci. 25:103–12
    [Google Scholar]
  198. Payne BR, Gao X, Noh SR, Anderson CJ, Stine-Morrow EAL. 2012a. The effects of print exposure on sentence processing and memory in older adults: evidence for efficiency and reserve. Aging Neuropsychol. Cogn. 19:122–49
    [Google Scholar]
  199. Payne BR, Jackson JJ, Hill PL, Gao X, Roberts BW, Stine-Morrow EAL. 2012b. Memory self-efficacy predicts responsiveness to inductive reasoning training in older adults. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 67B:27–35
    [Google Scholar]
  200. Payne BR, Jackson JJ, Noh SR, Stine-Morrow EAL. 2011. In the zone: flow state and cognition in older adults. Psychol. Aging 26:738–43
    [Google Scholar]
  201. Pillai JA, Hall CB, Dickson DW, Buschke H, Lipton RB, Verghese J. 2011. Association of crossword puzzle participation with memory decline in persons who develop dementia. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 17:1006–13
    [Google Scholar]
  202. Pinker S. 2010. The cognitive niche: coevolution of intelligence, sociality, and language. PNAS 107:8993–99
    [Google Scholar]
  203. Prakash RS, Voss MW, Erickson KI, Kramer AF. 2015. Physical activity and cognitive vitality. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 66:769–97
    [Google Scholar]
  204. Prebble SC, Addis DR, Tippett LJ. 2013. Autobiographical memory and sense of self. Psychol. Bull. 139:815–40
    [Google Scholar]
  205. Raab M, Gigerenzer G. 2015. The power of simplicity: a fast-and-frugal heuristics approach to performance science. Front. Psychol. 6:1672
    [Google Scholar]
  206. Raposo S, Hogan CL, Barnes JT, Chemudupati T, Carstensen LL. 2021. Leveraging goals to incentivize healthful behaviors across adulthood. Psychol. Aging 36:57–68
    [Google Scholar]
  207. Rebok GW, Ball K, Guey LT, Jones RN, Kim H-Y et al. 2014. Ten-year effects of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly cognitive training trial on cognition and everyday functioning in older adults. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 62:16–24
    [Google Scholar]
  208. Ricks TR, Turley-Ames KJ, Wiley J 2007. Effects of working memory capacity on mental set due to domain knowledge. Mem. Cogn. 35:1456–62
    [Google Scholar]
  209. Rieckmann A, Nyberg L. 2020. Cognitive aging: the role of neurotransmitter systems. The Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive Aging: A Life Course Perspective AK Thomas, AH Gutchess 82–100 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  210. Riediger M, Li S-C, Lindenberger U 2006. Selection, optimization, and compensation as developmental mechanisms of adaptive resource allocation: review and preview. Handbook of the Psychology of Aging JE Birren, KW Schaie 289–313 London: Academic. , 6th ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  211. Riley MW, Riley JW Jr. 1994. Age integration and the lives of older people. Gerontologist 34:110–15
    [Google Scholar]
  212. Roberts BW, Caspi A, Moffitt TE. 2003. Work experiences and personality development in young adulthood. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 84:582–93
    [Google Scholar]
  213. Roberts RO, Cha RH, Mielke MM, Geda YE, Boeve BF et al. 2015. Risk and protective factors for cognitive impairment in persons aged 85 years and older. Neurology 84:1854–61
    [Google Scholar]
  214. Rohwedder S, Willis RJ. 2010. Mental retirement. J. Econ. Perspect. 24:119–38
    [Google Scholar]
  215. Rouse HJ, Jin Y, Hülür G, Huo M, Bugos JA et al. 2021. Association between music engagement and episodic memory among middle-aged and older adults: a national cross-sectional analysis. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 77:558–66
    [Google Scholar]
  216. Rowe JW, Kahn RL. 1987. Human aging: usual and successful. Science 237:143–49
    [Google Scholar]
  217. Rowe JW, Kahn RL. 1997. Successful aging. Gerontologist 37:433–40
    [Google Scholar]
  218. Rowe JW, Kahn RL. 2015. Successful aging 2.0: conceptual expansions for the 21st century. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 70:593–96
    [Google Scholar]
  219. Ryan L, Hay M, Huentelman MJ, Duarte A, Rundek T et al. 2019. Precision aging: applying precision medicine to the field of cognitive aging. Front. Aging Neurosci. 11:128
    [Google Scholar]
  220. Ryff CD, Heller AS, Schaefer SM, Van Reekum C, Davidson RJ. 2016. Purposeful engagement, healthy aging, and the brain. Curr. Behav. Neurosci. Rep. 3:318–27
    [Google Scholar]
  221. Sala G, Gobet F. 2016. Do the benefits of chess instruction transfer to academic and cognitive skills? A meta-analysis. Educ. Res. Rev. 18:46–57
    [Google Scholar]
  222. Sala G, Gobet F. 2017. When the music's over. Does music skill transfer to children's and young adolescents' cognitive and academic skills? A meta-analysis. Educ. Res. Rev. 20:55–67
    [Google Scholar]
  223. Sala G, Tatlidil KS, Gobet F. 2018. Video game training does not enhance cognitive ability: a comprehensive meta-analytic investigation. Psychol. Bull. 144:111–39
    [Google Scholar]
  224. Salthouse TA. 1996. The processing-speed theory of adult age differences in cognition. Psychol. Rev. 103:403–28
    [Google Scholar]
  225. Salthouse TA. 2006. Mental exercise and mental aging: evaluating the validity of the “use it or lose it” hypothesis. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 1:68–87
    [Google Scholar]
  226. Salthouse TA. 2012. Consequences of age-related declines. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 63:201–26
    [Google Scholar]
  227. Salthouse TA. 2019. Trajectories of normal cognitive aging. Psychol. Aging 34:17–23
    [Google Scholar]
  228. Savi AO, Marsman M, van der Maas HL, Maris GK 2019. The wiring of intelligence. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 14:1034–61
    [Google Scholar]
  229. Scarmeas N, Albert SM, Manly JJ, Stern Y. 2006. Education and rates of cognitive decline in incident Alzheimer's disease. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 77:308–16
    [Google Scholar]
  230. Scarr S, McCartney K. 1983. How people make their own environments: a theory of genotype → environment effects. Child Dev. 54:424–35
    [Google Scholar]
  231. Schooler C, Mulatu MS, Oates G. 1999. The continuing effects of substantively complex work on the intellectual functioning of older workers. Psychol. Aging 14:483–506
    [Google Scholar]
  232. Seeman TE, Miller-Martinez DM, Stein Merkin S, Lachman ME, Tun PA, Karlamangla AS. 2011. Histories of social engagement and adult cognition: Midlife in the U.S. study. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 66B:Suppl. 1i141–52
    [Google Scholar]
  233. Sharifian N, Kraal AZ, Zaheed AB, Sol K, Zahodne LB 2020. Longitudinal associations between contact frequency with friends and with family, activity engagement, and cognitive functioning. J. Int. Neuropsychol. Soc. 26:8815–24
    [Google Scholar]
  234. Shin SH, Park S, Wright C, D'astous VA, Kim G 2021. The role of polygenic score and cognitive activity in cognitive functioning among older adults. Gerontologist 61:3319–29
    [Google Scholar]
  235. Shklovsky V. 1919. Art, as Device, transl. A Berlina, 2015, in Poet. Today 36:151–74 (from Russian)
    [Google Scholar]
  236. Shors TJ. 2014. The adult brain makes new neurons, and effortful learning keeps them alive. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 23:311–18
    [Google Scholar]
  237. Simons DJ, Boot WR, Charness N, Gathercole SE, Chabris CF et al. 2016. Do “brain training” programs work?. Psychol. Sci. Public Interest 17:103–86
    [Google Scholar]
  238. Singh S, Germine LT. 2021. Technology meets tradition: a hybrid model for implementing digital tools in neuropsychology. Int. Rev. Psychiatry 33:382–93
    [Google Scholar]
  239. Small BJ, Dixon RA, McArdle JJ, Grimm KJ. 2012. Do changes in lifestyle engagement moderate cognitive declines in normal aging? Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. Neuropsychology 26:144–55
    [Google Scholar]
  240. Smart EL, Gow AJ, Deary IJ. 2014. Occupational complexity and lifetime cognitive abilities. Neurology 83:2285–91
    [Google Scholar]
  241. Smith ET, Bartlett JC, Krawczyk DC, Basak C. 2021. Are the advantages of chess expertise on visuo-spatial working-memory capacity domain specific or domain general?. Mem. Cogn. 49:1600–16
    [Google Scholar]
  242. Snowdon DA, Kemper SJ, Mortimer JA, Greiner LH, Wekstein DR, Marksebery WR. 1996. Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's in late life. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 275:528–32
    [Google Scholar]
  243. Sörman DE, Ljungberg JK, Rönnlund M. 2018. Reading habits among older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. Front. Psychol. 9:1872
    [Google Scholar]
  244. Sörman DE, Sundström A, Rönnlund M, Adolfsson R, Nilsson LG. 2014. Leisure activity in old age and risk of dementia: A 15-year prospective study. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 69:493–501
    [Google Scholar]
  245. Soubelet A, Salthouse TA. 2011. Personality–cognition relations across adulthood. Dev. Psychol. 47:303–10
    [Google Scholar]
  246. Speer NK, Reynolds JR, Swallow KM, Zacks JM. 2009. Reading stories activated neural representations of visual and motor experiences. Psychol. Sci. 20:989–99
    [Google Scholar]
  247. Spreng RN, Turner GR. 2019. The shifting architecture of cognition and brain function in older adulthood. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 14:523–42
    [Google Scholar]
  248. Spreng RN, Turner GR. 2021. From exploration to exploitation: a shifting mental mode in late life development. Trends Cogn. Sci. 25:1058–71
    [Google Scholar]
  249. Stanovich KE, West RL, Harrison MR. 1995. Knowledge growth and maintenance across the life span: the role of print exposure. Dev. Psychol. 31:811–26
    [Google Scholar]
  250. Staudinger UM, Yu Y-L, Cheng B. 2020. Novel information processing at work across time is associated with cognitive change in later life: a 14-year longitudinal study. Psychol. Aging 35:793–805
    [Google Scholar]
  251. Stern Y. 2012. Cognitive reserve in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurol 11:1006–12
    [Google Scholar]
  252. Stieger M, Lachman ME. 2021. Increases in cognitive activity reduce aging-related declines in executive functioning. Front. Psychiatry 12:708974
    [Google Scholar]
  253. Stine-Morrow EAL. 2007. The Dumbledore Hypothesis of cognitive aging. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 16:289–93
    [Google Scholar]
  254. Stine-Morrow EAL, McCall GS, Ng S, Llano D, Barbey AK. 2022. The effects of sustained literacy engagement on cognition and sentence processing among older adults. Front. Psychol. 13:923795
    [Google Scholar]
  255. Stine-Morrow EAL, Miller LMS, Gagne DD, Hertzog C. 2008. Self-regulated reading in adulthood. Psychol. Aging 23:131–53
    [Google Scholar]
  256. Stine-Morrow EAL, Payne BR, Gao X, Roberts B, Kramer AF et al. 2014. Training versus engagement as paths to cognitive optimization with aging. Psychol. Aging 29:891–906
    [Google Scholar]
  257. Stine-Morrow EAL, Radvansky GA 2017. Discourse processing and development through the adult lifespan. The Routledge Handbook of Discourse Processes MF Schober, DN Rapp, A Britt 247–68 New York: Routledge. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  258. Stine-Morrow EAL, Worm TW, Barbey AK, Morrow DG 2021. The potential for socially integrated and engaged lifestyles to support cognitive health with aging: precursor and pathways. Multiple Pathways of Cognitive Aging: Motivational and Contextual Influences G Sedek, TM Hess, DR Touron 276–308 New York: Oxford Univ. Press
    [Google Scholar]
  259. Strong JV, Midden A. 2020. Cognitive differences between older adult instrumental musicians: benefits of continuing to play. Psychol. Music 48:67–83
    [Google Scholar]
  260. Sundström A, Westerlund O, Mousavi-Nasab H, Adolfsson R, Nilsson L-G. 2014. The relationship between marital and parental status and the risk of dementia. Int. Psychogeriatr. 26:749–57
    [Google Scholar]
  261. Sutcliffe R, Du K, Ruffman T. 2020. Music making and neuropsychological aging: a review. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 113:479–91
    [Google Scholar]
  262. Sutin AR, Luchetti M, Stephan Y, Terracciano A 2020. Meaning in life and risk of cognitive impairment: a 9-year prospective study in 14 countries. Arch. Gerontol. Geriatr. 88:104033
    [Google Scholar]
  263. Sutin AR, Luchetti M, Terracciano A. 2021. Sense of purpose in life and healthier cognitive aging. Trends Cogn. Sci. 25:917–19
    [Google Scholar]
  264. Todd PM, Hills TT. 2020. Foraging in mind. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 29:309–15
    [Google Scholar]
  265. Tooby J, DeVore I 1987. The reconstruction of hominid behavioral evolution through strategic modeling. The Evolution of Human Behavior: Primate Models WG Kinzey 183–237 Albany, NY: SUNY Press
    [Google Scholar]
  266. Toril P, Reales JM, Ballesteros S. 2014. Video game training enhances cognition of older adults: a meta-analytic study. Psychol. Aging 29:706–16
    [Google Scholar]
  267. Tse DC, Nakamura J, Csikszentmihalyi M. 2020. Beyond challenge-seeking and skill-building: toward the lifespan developmental perspective on flow theory. J. Posit. Psychol. 15:171–82
    [Google Scholar]
  268. Tucker-Drob EM. 2019. Cognitive aging and dementia: a life-span perspective. Annu. Rev. Dev. Psychol. 1:177–96
    [Google Scholar]
  269. Tucker-Drob EM, Brandmaier AM, Lindenberger U 2019. Coupled cognitive changes in adulthood: a meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull 145:273301
    [Google Scholar]
  270. Tucker-Drob EM, de la Fuente J, Köhncke Y, Brandmaier AM, Nyberg L, Lindenberger U 2022. A strong dependency between changes in fluid and crystallized abilities in human cognitive aging. Sci. Adv 8:eabj2422
    [Google Scholar]
  271. Urban-Wojcik EJ, Lee S, Grupe DW, Quinlan L, Gresham L et al. 2022. Diversity of daily activities is associated with greater hippocampal volume. Cogn. Affect. Behav. Neurosci. 22:75–87
    [Google Scholar]
  272. van der Maas HLJ, Dolan CV, Grasman RPPP, Wicherts JM, Huizenga HM, Raijmakers MEJ. 2006. A dynamical model of general intelligence: The positive manifold of intelligence by mutualism. Psychol. Rev. 113:842–61
    [Google Scholar]
  273. van der Maas HLJ, Kan KJ, Marsman M, Stevenson CE. 2017. Network models for cognitive development and intelligence. J. Intell. 5:16
    [Google Scholar]
  274. Van Dyke JA, Johns CL. 2012. Memory interference as a determinant of language comprehension. Lang. Linguist. Comp. 6:193–211
    [Google Scholar]
  275. Vaughan L, Erickson KI, Espeland MA, Smith JC, Tindle HA, Rapp SR. 2014. Concurrent and longitudinal relationships between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and brain volume in older adult women. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 69:826–36
    [Google Scholar]
  276. Vélez-Coto M, Andel R, Pérez-García M, Caracuel A. 2021. Complexity of work with people: associations with cognitive functioning and change after retirement. Psychol. Aging 36:143–57
    [Google Scholar]
  277. Verghese J, Lipton RB, Katz MJ, Hall CB, Derby CA et al. 2003. Leisure activities and risk of dementia in the elderly. N. Engl. J. Med. 348:2508–16
    [Google Scholar]
  278. von Stumm S, Ackerman PL. 2013. Investment and intellect: a review and meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull. 139:841–69
    [Google Scholar]
  279. von Stumm S, d'Apice K. 2022. From genome-wide to environment-wide: capturing the environome. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 17:30–40
    [Google Scholar]
  280. Waddington CH. 1942. Canalization of development and the inheritance of acquired characters. Nature 150:563–65
    [Google Scholar]
  281. Wang H-X, Jin Y, Hendrie HC, Liang C, Yang L et al. 2013. Late life leisure activities and risk of cognitive decline. J. Gerontol. Ser. A 68:205–13
    [Google Scholar]
  282. Wang H-X, Karp A, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. 2002. Late-life engagement in social and leisure activities is associated with a decreased risk of dementia: a longitudinal study from the Kungsholmen Project. Am. J. Epidemiol. 155:1081–87
    [Google Scholar]
  283. Wang H-X, MacDonald SW, Dekhtyar S, Fratiglioni L. 2017. Association of lifelong exposure to cognitive reserve-enhancing factors with dementia risk: a community-based cohort study. PLOS Med. 14:e1002251
    [Google Scholar]
  284. West RL, Bagwell DK, Dark-Freudeman A. 2008. Self-efficacy and memory ageing: the impact of a memory intervention based on self-efficacy. Aging Neuropsychol. Cogn. 15:302–29
    [Google Scholar]
  285. Whillock SR, Meade ML, Hutchison KA, Tsosie MD. 2020. Collaborative inhibition in same-age and mixed-age dyads. Psychol. Aging 35:963–73
    [Google Scholar]
  286. Wiley J. 1998. Expertise as mental set: the effects of domain knowledge in creative problem solving. Mem. Cogn. 26:716–30
    [Google Scholar]
  287. Wilson RS, Barnes LL, Aggarwal NT, Boyle PA, Hebert LE et al. 2010. Cognitive activity and the cognitive morbidity of Alzheimer disease. Neurology 75:990–96
    [Google Scholar]
  288. Wilson RS, Bennett DA, Beckett LA, Morrris MC, Gilley DW et al. 1999. Cognitive activity in older persons from a geographically defined population. J. Gerontol. Ser. B 54B:P155–60
    [Google Scholar]
  289. Wilson RS, Bennett DA, Bienias JL, Aggarwal NT, Mendes de Leon CF et al. 2002. Cognitive activity and incident AD in a population-based sample of older persons. Neurology 59:1910–14
    [Google Scholar]
  290. Wilson RS, Boyle PA, Yu L, Barnes LL, Schneider JA, Bennett DA. 2013. Life-span cognitive activity, neuropathologic burden, and cognitive aging. Neurology 81:314–21
    [Google Scholar]
  291. Wilson RS, Krueger KR, Arnold SE, Schneider JA, Kelly JF et al. 2007. Loneliness and risk of Alzheimer disease. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 64:234–40
    [Google Scholar]
  292. Windsor TD, Gerstorf D, Pearson E, Ryan LH, Anstey KJ. 2014. Positive and negative social exchanges and cognitive aging in young-old adults: differential associations across family, friend, and spouse domains. Psychol. Aging 29:28–43
    [Google Scholar]
  293. Wirth M, Villeneuve S, La Joie R, Marks SM, Jagust WJ 2014. Gene–environment interactions: lifetime cognitive activity, APOE genotype, and beta-amyloid burden. J. Neurosci. 34:8612–17
    [Google Scholar]
  294. Worm T, Stine-Morrow EA. 2021. May the flow be with you: age differences in the influence of social motives and context on the experience of activity engagement. J. Adult Dev. 28:265–75
    [Google Scholar]
  295. Wu R, Rebok GW, Lin F. 2016. A novel theoretical life course framework for triggering cognitive development across the lifespan. Hum. Dev. 59:342–65
    [Google Scholar]
  296. Wu R, Zhao J, Cheung C, Natsuaki MN, Rebok GW, Strickland-Hughes CM. 2021. Learning as an important privilege: a life span perspective with implications for successful aging. Hum. Dev. 65:51–64
    [Google Scholar]
  297. Yin D, Kaiser M. 2021. Understanding neural flexibility from a multifaceted definition. NeuroImage 235:118027
    [Google Scholar]
  298. Yoon SO, Stine-Morrow EAL. 2019. Evidence of preserved audience design with aging in interactive conversation. Psychol. Aging 34:613–23
    [Google Scholar]
  299. Zahodne LB, Ajrouch KJ, Sharifian N, Antonucci TC. 2019. Social relations and age-related change in memory. Psychol. Aging 34:751–65
    [Google Scholar]
  300. Zendel BR, Alain C 2012. Musicians experience less age-related decline in central auditory processing. Psychol. Aging 27:410–17
    [Google Scholar]
  301. Zhang Y, Fu S, Ding D, Lutz MW, Zeng Y, Yao Y. 2021. Leisure activities, APOE ε4, and cognitive decline: a longitudinal cohort study. Front. Aging Neurosci. 13:736201
    [Google Scholar]
  302. Zhaoyang R, Scott SB, Martire LM, Sliwinski MJ. 2021. Daily social interactions related to daily performance on mobile cognitive tests among older adults. PLOS ONE 16:e0256583
    [Google Scholar]
  303. Ziegler M, Cengia A, Mussel P, Gerstorf D. 2015. Openness as a buffer against cognitive decline: the Openness-Fluid-Crystallized-Intelligence (OFCI) model applied to late adulthood. Psychol. Aging 30:573–88
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121020-030017
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-devpsych-121020-030017
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error