species of the mid-low intertidal areas are powerful ecological engineers that are highly valued where they are native. Elsewhere, they overgrow native salt marsh and open intertidal mudflats, diminish biota, increase costs of managing wildlife, and interfere with human uses of estuaries. Huge efforts have been mounted to kill some populations of invading . All large invasions are by (2 = 7 = 70) or (2 = 6 = 62) or hybrids between the hexaploid species (2 = 6). Hybridization is a recurrent theme in ; the allododecaploid (2 = 12 = 120) and the hybrid swarm in San Francisco Bay arose through the introductions of into the range of native species. The ancient hybrid also hybridized with native species. Hybridization promotes the evolution of highly invasive populations and hampers control efforts. Whether , native and not, would protect the shore as sea levels rise depends upon unimpeded areas for upward marsh growth and sufficient sediment, conditions that are often not satisfied.


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