The literature on effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity is huge. It is also very diverse, with different authors measuring fragmentation in different ways and, as a consequence, drawing different conclusions regarding both the magnitude and direction of its effects. Habitat fragmentation is usually defined as a landscape-scale process involving both habitat loss and the breaking apart of habitat. Results of empirical studies of habitat fragmentation are often difficult to interpret because () many researchers measure fragmentation at the patch scale, not the landscape scale and () most researchers measure fragmentation in ways that do not distinguish between habitat loss and habitat fragmentation per se, i.e., the breaking apart of habitat after controlling for habitat loss. Empirical studies to date suggest that habitat loss has large, consistently negative effects on biodiversity. Habitat fragmentation per se has much weaker effects on biodiversity that are at least as likely to be positive as negative. Therefore, to correctly interpret the influence of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity, the effects of these two components of fragmentation must be measured independently. More studies of the independent effects of habitat loss and fragmentation per se are needed to determine the factors that lead to positive versus negative effects of fragmentation per se. I suggest that the term “fragmentation” should be reserved for the breaking apart of habitat, independent of habitat loss.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Andrén H. 1994. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: a review.. Oikos 71:355–66 [Google Scholar]
  2. Atkinson WD, Shorrocks B. 1981. Competition on a divided and ephemeral resource: a simulation model.. J. Anim. Ecol. 50:461–71 [Google Scholar]
  3. Bascompte J, Solé RV. 1996. Habitat fragmentation and extinction thresholds in spatially explicit models.. J. Anim. Ecol. 65:465–73 [Google Scholar]
  4. Bascompte J, Possingham H, Roughgarden J. 2002. Patchy populations in stochastic environments: critical number of patches for persistence.. Am. Nat. 159:128–37 [Google Scholar]
  5. Bélisle M, Desrochers A, Fortin M-J. 2001. Influence of forest cover on the movements of forest birds: a homing experiment.. Ecology 82:1893–904 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bender DJ, Tischendorf L, Fahrig L. 2003. Evaluation of patch isolation metrics for predicting animal movement in binary landscapes.. Landsc. Ecol. 18:17–39 [Google Scholar]
  7. Bergin TM, Best LB, Freemark KE, Koehler KJ. 2000. Effects of landscape structure on nest predation in roadsides of a midwestern agroecosystem: a multiscale analysis.. Landsc. Ecol. 15:131–43 [Google Scholar]
  8. Best LB, Bergin TM, Freemark KE. 2001. Influence of landscape composition on bird use of rowcrop fields.. J. Wildl. Manage. 65:442–49 [Google Scholar]
  9. Boswell GP, Britton NF, Franks NR. 1998. Habitat fragmentation, percolation theory and the conservation of a keystone species.. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 265:1921–25 [Google Scholar]
  10. Boulinier T, Nichols JD, Hines JE, Sauer JR, Flather CH, Pollock KH. 2001. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales.. Ecology 82:1159–69 [Google Scholar]
  11. Bowers MA, Dooley JL. 1999. A controlled, hierarchical study of habitat fragmentation: responses at the individual, patch, and landscape scale.. Landsc. Ecol. 14:381–89 [Google Scholar]
  12. Bowman J, Cappuccino N, Fahrig L. 2002. Patch size and population density: the effect of immigration behavior.. Conserv. Ecol. 6:9 http://www.consecol.org/vol6/iss1/art9 [Google Scholar]
  13. Brennan JM, Bender DJ, Contreras TA, Fahrig L. 2002. Focal patch landscape studies for wildlife management: optimizing sampling effort across scales. In Integrating Landscape Ecology into Natural Resource Management, ed. J Liu, WW Taylor 68–91 Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Univ. Press 480 pp.
  14. Burkey TV. 1999. Extinction in fragmented habitats predicted from stochastic birth-death processes with density dependence.. J. Theor. Biol. 199:395–406 [Google Scholar]
  15. Caley MJ, Buckley KA, Jones GP. 2001. Separating ecological effects of habitat fragmentation, degradation, and loss on coral commensals.. Ecology 82:3435–48 [Google Scholar]
  16. Carlson A, Hartman G. 2001. Tropical forest fragmentation and nest predation—an experimental study in an Eastern Arc montane forest, Tanzania.. Biodivers. Conserv. 10:1077–85 [Google Scholar]
  17. Cascante A, Quesada M, Lobo JJ, Fuchs EA. 2002. Effects of dry tropical forest fragmentation on the reproductive success and genetic structure of the tree Samanea saman.. Conserv. Biol. 16:137–47 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chalfoun AD, Thompson FR, Ratnaswamy MJ. 2002. Nest predators and fragmentation: a review and meta-analysis.. Conserv. Biol. 16:306–18 [Google Scholar]
  19. Chesson PL. 1985. Coexistence of competitors in spatially and temporally varying environments: a look at the combined effects of different sorts of variability.. Theor. Popul. Biol. 28:263–87 [Google Scholar]
  20. Collinge SK, Forman RTT. 1998. A conceptual model of land conversion processes: predictions and evidence from a microlandscape experiment with grassland insects.. Oikos 82:66–84 [Google Scholar]
  21. Collingham YC, Huntley B. 2000. Impacts of habitat fragmentation and patch size upon migration rates.. Ecol. Appl. 10:131–44 [Google Scholar]
  22. Collins RJ, Barrett GW. 1997. Effects of habitat fragmentation on meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus) population dynamics in experiment landscape patches.. Landsc. Ecol. 12:63–76 [Google Scholar]
  23. Debinski DM, Holt RD. 2000. A survey and overview of habitat fragmentation experiments.. Conserv. Biol. 14:342–55 [Google Scholar]
  24. Delin AE, Andrén H. 1999. Effects of habitat fragmentation on Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) in a forest landscape.. Landsc. Ecol. 14:67–72 [Google Scholar]
  25. den Boer PJ. 1981. On the survival of populations in a heterogeneous and variable environment.. Oecologia 50:39–53 [Google Scholar]
  26. Diaz JA, Carbonell R, Virgos E, Santos T, Telleria JL. 2000. Effects of forest fragmentation on the distribution of the lizard Psammodromus algirus.. Anim. Conserv. 3:235–40 [Google Scholar]
  27. Donovan TM, Flather CH. 2002. Relationships among North American songbird trends, habitat fragmentation, and landscape occupancy.. Ecol. Appl. 12:364–74 [Google Scholar]
  28. Donovan TM, Lamberson RH. 2001. Area-sensitive distributions counteract negative effects of habitat fragmentation on breeding birds.. Ecology 82:1170–79 [Google Scholar]
  29. Donovan TM, Thompson FR, Faaborg J, Probst J. 1995. Reproductive success of migratory birds in habitat sources and sinks.. Conserv. Biol. 9:1380–95 [Google Scholar]
  30. Drolet B, Desrochers A, Fortin M-J. 1999. Effects of landscape structure on nesting songbird distribution in a harvested boreal forest.. Condor 101:699–704 [Google Scholar]
  31. Dunning JB, Danielson BJ, Pulliam HR. 1992. Ecological processes that affect populations in complex landscapes.. Oikos 65:169–75 [Google Scholar]
  32. Fahrig L. 1997. Relative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on species extinction.. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:603–10 [Google Scholar]
  33. Fahrig L. 1998. When does fragmentation of breeding habitat affect population survival?. Ecol. Model. 105:273–92 [Google Scholar]
  34. Fahrig L. 2001. How much habitat is enough?. Biol. Conserv. 100:65–74 [Google Scholar]
  35. Fahrig L. 2002. Effect of habitat fragmentation on the extinction threshold: a synthesis.. Ecol. Appl. 12:346–53 [Google Scholar]
  36. Fernandez-Juricic E. 2000. Forest fragmentation affects winter flock formation of an insectivorous guild.. Ardea 88:235–41 [Google Scholar]
  37. Findlay CS, Houlahan J. 1997. Anthropogenic correlates of species richness in southeastern Ontario wetlands.. Conserv. Biol. 11:1000–9 [Google Scholar]
  38. Flather CH, Bevers M. 2002. Patchy reaction-diffusion and population abundance: the relative importance of habitat amount and arrangement.. Am. Nat. 159:40–56 [Google Scholar]
  39. Flather CH, Bevers M, Cam E, Nichols J, Sauer J. 1999. Habitat arrangement and extinction thresholds: do forest birds conform to model predictions?. Landscape Ecology: the Science and the Action. 5th World Congr. Int. Assoc. Landsc. Ecol., Snowmass, Col 144–45
  40. Fuller DO. 2001. Forest fragmentation in Loudoun County, Virginia, USA evaluated with multitemporal Landsat imagery.. Landsc. Ecol. 16:627–42 [Google Scholar]
  41. Ganzhorn JU, Eisenbeiß B. 2001. The concept of nested species assemblages and its utility for understanding effects of habitat fragmentation.. Basic Appl. Ecol. 2:87–95 [Google Scholar]
  42. Gibbs JP. 1998. Distribution of woodland amphibians along a forest fragmentation gradient.. Landsc. Ecol. 13:263–68 [Google Scholar]
  43. Gibbs JP. 2001. Demography versus habitat fragmentation as determinants of genetic variation in wild populations. Biol. Conserv. 100:15–20 [Google Scholar]
  44. Gibbs JP, Stanton EJ. 2001. Habitat fragmentation and arthropod community change: carrion beetles, phoretic mites, and flies.. Ecol. Appl. 11:79–85 [Google Scholar]
  45. Golden DM, Crist TO. 2000. Experimental effects of habitat fragmentation on rove beetles and ants: patch area or edge?. Oikos 90:525–38 [Google Scholar]
  46. Goodman SM, Rakotondravony D. 2000. The effects of forest fragmentation and isolation on insectivorous small mammals (Lipotyphla) on the Central High Plateau of Madagascar.. J. Zool. 250:193–200 [Google Scholar]
  47. Groppe K, Steinger T, Schmid B, Baur B, Boller T. 2001. Effects of habitat fragmentation on choke disease (Epichloe bromicola) in the grass Bromus erectus.. J. Ecol. 89:247–55 [Google Scholar]
  48. Gurd DB, Nudds TD, Rivard DH. 2001. Conservation of mammals in Eastern North American wildlife reserves: How small is too small?. Conserv. Biol. 15:1355–63 [Google Scholar]
  49. Gustafson EJ. 1998. Quantifying landscape spatial pattern: What is the state of the art?. Ecosystems 1:143–56 [Google Scholar]
  50. Guthery FS, Green MC, Masters RE, DeMaso SJ, Wilson HM, Steubing FB. 2001. Land cover and bobwhite abundance on Oklahoma farms and ranches.. J. Wildl. Manage. 65:838–49 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hager HA. 1998. Area-sensitivity of reptiles and amphibians: Are there indicator species for habitat fragmentation?. EcoScience 5:139–47 [Google Scholar]
  52. Haig AR, Matthes U, Larson DW. 2000. Effects of natural habitat fragmentation on the species richness, diversity, and composition of cliff vegetation.. Can. J. Bot. 78:786–97 [Google Scholar]
  53. Haila Y. 2002. A conceptual genealogy of fragmentation research: from island biogeography to landscape ecology.. Ecol. Appl. 12:321–34 [Google Scholar]
  54. Haines-Young R, Chopping M. 1996. Quantifying landscape structure: a review of landscape indices and their application to forested landscapes.. Prog. Phys. Geogr. 20:418–45 [Google Scholar]
  55. Hanski I, Moilanen A, Gyllenberg M. 1996. Minimum viable metapopulation size.. Am. Nat. 147:527–41 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hargis CD, Bissonette JA, David JL. 1998. The behavior of landscape metrics commonly used in the study of habitat fragmentation.. Landsc. Ecol. 13:167–86 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hargis CD, Bissonette JA, Turner DL. 1999. The influence of forest fragmentation and landscape pattern on American martens.. J. Appl. Ecol. 36:157–72 [Google Scholar]
  58. Harrison S, Bruna E. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and large-scale conservation: What do we know for sure?. Ecography 22:225–32 [Google Scholar]
  59. Hartley MJ, Hunter ML. 1998. A meta-analysis of forest cover, edge effects, and artificial nest predation rates.. Conserv. Biol. 12:465–69 [Google Scholar]
  60. Hastings A. 1977. Spatial heterogeneity and the stability of predator-prey systems.. Theor. Popul. Biol. 12:37–48 [Google Scholar]
  61. Henein K, Wegner J, Merriam G. 1998. Population effects of landscape model manipulation on two behaviourally different woodland small mammals.. Oikos 81:168–86 [Google Scholar]
  62. Hill MF, Caswell H. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and extinction thresholds on fractal landscapes.. Ecol. Lett. 2:121–27 [Google Scholar]
  63. Hinsley SA, Bellamy PE, Newton I, Sparks TH. 1995. Habitat and landscape factors influencing the presence of individual breeding bird species in woodland fragments.. J. Avian. Biol. 26:94–104 [Google Scholar]
  64. Hovel KA, Lipcius RN. 2001. Habitat fragmentation in a seagrass landscape: Patch size and complexity control blue crab survival.. Ecology 82:1814–29 [Google Scholar]
  65. Huffaker CB. 1958. Experimental studies on predation: dispersion factors and predator-prey oscillations.. Hilgardia 27:343–83 [Google Scholar]
  66. Ims RA, Andreassen HP. 1999. Effects of experimental habitat fragmentation and connectivity on root vole demography.. J. Anim. Ecol. 68:839–52 [Google Scholar]
  67. Jansson G, Angelstam P. 1999. Threshold levels of habitat composition for the presence of the long-tailed tit (Aegithalos caudatus) in a boreal landscape.. Landsc. Ecol. 14:283–90 [Google Scholar]
  68. Kareiva P. 1990. Population dynamics in spatially complex environments: theory and data.. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. B 330:175–90 [Google Scholar]
  69. Kinnunen H, Jarvelainen K, Pakkala T, Tiainen J. 1996. The effect of isolation on the occurrence of farmland carabids in a fragmented landscape.. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 33:165–71 [Google Scholar]
  70. Kolozsvary MB, Swihart RK. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and the distribution of amphibians: patch and landscape correlates in farmland.. Can. J. Zool. 77:1288–99 [Google Scholar]
  71. Komonen A, Penttilae R, Lindgren M, Hanski I. 2000. Forest fragmentation truncates a food chain based on an old-growth forest bracket fungus.. Oikos 90:119–26 [Google Scholar]
  72. Kremsater L, Bunnell FL. 1999. Edge effects: theory, evidence and implications to management of western North American forests. In Forest Fragmentation: Wildlife and Management Implications, ed. JA Rochelle, LA Lehmann, J Wisniewski 117–53 Boston, MA: Brill 301 pp.
  73. Kurki S, Nikula A, Helle P, Linden H. 2000. Landscape fragmentation and forest composition effects on grouse breeding success in boreal forests.. Ecology 81:1985–97 [Google Scholar]
  74. Laakkonen J, Fisher RN, Case TJ. 2001. Effect of land cover, habitat fragmentation and ant colonies on the distribution and abundance of shrews in southern California.. J. Anim. Ecol. 70:776–88 [Google Scholar]
  75. Lande R. 1987. Extinction thresholds in demographic models of territorial populations.. Am. Nat. 130:624–35 [Google Scholar]
  76. Langlois JP, Fahrig L, Merriam G, Artsob H. 2001. Landscape structure influences continental distribution of hantavirus in deer mice.. Landsc. Ecol. 16:255–66 [Google Scholar]
  77. Laurance WF, Delamonica P, D'Angelo S, Jerozolinski A, Pohl L. et al. 2001. Rain forest fragmentation and the structure of Amazonian liana communities.. Ecology 82:105–16 [Google Scholar]
  78. Laurance WF, Lovejoy TE, Vasconcelos HL, Bruna EM, Didham RK. et al. 2002. Ecosystem decay of Amazonian forest fragments: a 22-year investigation.. Conserv. Biol. 16:605–18 [Google Scholar]
  79. Law BS, Dickman CR. 1998. The use of habitat mosaics by terrestrial vertebrate fauna: implications for conservation and management.. Biodivers. Conserv. 7:323–33 [Google Scholar]
  80. Levin SA. 1974. Dispersion and population interactions.. Am. Nat. 108:207–28 [Google Scholar]
  81. MacArthur RH, Wilson EO. 1967. The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  82. Mac Nally R, Brown GW. 2001. Reptiles and habitat fragmentation in the box-ironbark forests of central Victoria, Australia: predictions, compositional change and faunal nestedness.. Oecologia 128:116–25 [Google Scholar]
  83. Mac Nally R, Bennett AF, Horrocks G. 2000. Forecasting the impacts of habitat fragmentation.. Evaluation of species-specific predictions of the impact of habitat fragmentation on birds in the box-ironbark forests of central Victoria, Australia Biol. Conserv. 95:7–29 [Google Scholar]
  84. Magura T, Koedoeboecz V, Tothmeresz B. 2001. Effects of habitat fragmentation on carabids in forest patches.. J. Biogeogr. 28:129–38 [Google Scholar]
  85. Mahan CG, Yahner RH. 1999. Effects of forest fragmentation on behaviour patterns in the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus).. Can. J. Zool. 77:1991–97 [Google Scholar]
  86. McCoy ED, Mushinsky HR. 1999. Habitat fragmentation and the abundances of vertebrates in the Florida scrub.. Ecology 80:2526–38 [Google Scholar]
  87. McGarigal K, Cushman SA. 2002. Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation effects.. Ecol. Appl. 12:335–45 [Google Scholar]
  88. McGarigal K, McComb WC. 1995. Relationships between landscape structure and breeding birds in the Oregon Coast Range.. Ecol. Monogr. 65:235–60 [Google Scholar]
  89. McGarigal K, Cushman SA, Neel MC, Ene E. 2002. FRAGSTATS: Spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps.. Comp. software prog. Univ. Mass., Amherst. www.umass.edu/landeco/research/fragstats/fragstats.html
  90. Meyer JS, Irwin LL, Boyce MS. 1998. Influence of habitat abundance and fragmentation on northern spotted owls in western Oregon.. Wildl. Monogr. 139:1–51 [Google Scholar]
  91. Middleton J, Merriam G. 1983. Distribution of woodland species in farmland woods.. J. Appl. Ecol. 20:625–44 [Google Scholar]
  92. Miyashita T, Shinkai A, Chida T. 1998. The effects of forest fragmentation on web spider communities in urban areas.. Biol. Conserv. 86:357–64 [Google Scholar]
  93. Morato EF. 2001. Effects of forest fragmentation on solitary wasps and bees in Central Amazonia.. II. Vertical stratification Rev. Brasileira Zool. 18:737–47 [Google Scholar]
  94. Mossman CA, Waser PM. 2001. Effects of habitat fragmentation on population genetic structure in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus).. Can. J. Zool. 79:285–95 [Google Scholar]
  95. Niemelä J. 2001. Carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and habitat fragmentation: A review.. Eur. J. Entomol. 98:127–32 [Google Scholar]
  96. Pedlar JH, Fahrig L, Merriam HG. 1997. Raccoon habitat use at two spatial scales.. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:102–12 [Google Scholar]
  97. Pither J, Taylor PD. 1998. An experimental assessment of landscape connectivity.. Oikos 83:166–74 [Google Scholar]
  98. Pope SE, Fahrig L, Merriam HG. 2000. Landscape complementation and metapopulation effects on leopard frog populations.. Ecology 81:2498–508 [Google Scholar]
  99. Reddingius J, den Boer PJ. 1970. Simulation experiments illustrating stabilization of animal numbers by spreading of risk.. Oecologia 5:240–84 [Google Scholar]
  100. Renjifo LM. 1999. Composition changes in a Subandean avifauna after long-term forest fragmentation.. Conserv. Biol. 13:1124–39 [Google Scholar]
  101. Robinson SK, Thompson FR, Donovan TM, Whitehead DR, Faaborg J. 1995. Regional forest fragmentation and the nesting success of migratory birds.. Science 267:1987–90 [Google Scholar]
  102. Roff DA. 1974a. Spatial heterogeneity and the persistence of populations.. Oecologia 15:245–58 [Google Scholar]
  103. Roff DA. 1974b. The analysis of a population model demonstrating the importance of dispersal in a heterogeneous environment.. Oecologia 15:259–75 [Google Scholar]
  104. Rosenberg KV, Lowe JD, Dhondt AA. 1999. Effects of forest fragmentation on breeding tanagers: a continental perspective.. Conserv. Biol. 13:568–83 [Google Scholar]
  105. Rukke BA. 2000. Effects of habitat fragmentation: increased isolation and reduced habitat size reduces the incidence of dead wood fungi beetles in a fragmented forest landscape.. Ecography 23:492–502 [Google Scholar]
  106. Sánchez-Zapata JA, Calvo JF. 1999. Rocks and trees: habitat response of Tawny Owls Strix aluco in semiarid landscapes.. Ornis Fenn. 76:79–87 [Google Scholar]
  107. Schmiegelow FKA, Mönkkönen M. 2002. Habitat loss and fragmentation in dynamic landscapes: avian perspectives from the boreal forest.. Ecol. Appl. 12:375–89 [Google Scholar]
  108. Schumaker NH. 1996. Using landscape indices to predict habitat connectivity.. Ecology 77:1210–25 [Google Scholar]
  109. Schweiger EW, Diffendorfer JE, Holt RD, Pierotti R, Gaines MS. 2000. The interaction of habitat fragmentation, plant, and small mammal succession in an old field.. Ecol. Monogr. 70:383–400 [Google Scholar]
  110. Shmida A, Ellner S. 1984. Coexistence of plant species with similar niches.. Vegetatio 58:29–55 [Google Scholar]
  111. Slatkin M. 1974. Competition and regional coexistence.. Ecology 55:128–34 [Google Scholar]
  112. Steffan-Dewenter I, Münzenberg U, Bürger C, Thies C, Tscharntke T. 2002. Scale-dependent effects of landscape context on three pollinator guilds.. Ecology 83:1421–32 [Google Scholar]
  113. Summerville KS, Crist TO. 2001. Effects of experimental habitat fragmentation on patch use by butterflies and skippers (Lepidoptera).. Ecology 82:1360–70 [Google Scholar]
  114. Swenson JJ, Franklin J. 2000. The effects of future urban development on habitat fragmentation in the Santa Monica Mountains.. Landsc. Ecol. 15:713–30 [Google Scholar]
  115. Taylor PD, Merriam G. 1995. Habitat fragmentation and parasitism of a forest damselfly.. Landsc. Ecol. 11:181–89 [Google Scholar]
  116. Tischendorf L. 2001. Can landscape indices predict ecological processes consistently?. Landsc. Ecol. 16:235–54 [Google Scholar]
  117. Tischendorf L, Fahrig L. 2000. On the usage and measurement of landscape connectivity.. Oikos 90:7–19 [Google Scholar]
  118. Tischendorf L, Bender DJ, Fahrig L. 2003. Evaluation of patch isolation metrics in mosaic landscapes for specialist vs. generalist dispersers.. Landsc. Ecol. 18:41–50 [Google Scholar]
  119. Trzcinski MK, Fahrig L, Merriam G. 1999. Independent effects of forest cover and fragmentation on the distribution of forest breeding birds.. Ecol. Appl. 9:586–93 [Google Scholar]
  120. Tscharntke T, Steffan-Dewenter I, Kruess A, Thies C. 2002. Contribution of small habitat fragments to conservation of insect communities of grassland-cropland landscapes.. Ecol. Appl. 12:354–63 [Google Scholar]
  121. Urban D, Keitt T. 2001. Landscape connectivity: a graph-theoretic perspective.. Ecology 82:1205–18 [Google Scholar]
  122. Vallan D. 2000. Influence of forest fragmentation on amphibian diversity in the nature reserve of Ambohitantely, highland Madagascar.. Biol. Conserv. 96:31–43 [Google Scholar]
  123. Vance MD, Fahrig L, Flather CH. 2003. Relationship between minimum habitat requirements and annual reproductive rates in forest breeding birds.. Ecology. In press [Google Scholar]
  124. van den Berg LJL, Bullock JM, Clarke RT, Langston RHW, Rose RJ. 2001. Territory selection by the Dartford warbler (Sylvia undata) in Dorset, England: the role of vegetation type, habitat fragmentation and population size.. Biol. Conserv. 101:217–28 [Google Scholar]
  125. Vandermeer JH. 1973. On the regional stabilization of locally unstable predator-prey relationships.. J. Theor. Biol. 41:161–70 [Google Scholar]
  126. Venier L, Fahrig L. 1996. Habitat availability causes the species abundance-distrubution relationship.. Oikos 76:564–70 [Google Scholar]
  127. Villard M-A, Trzcinski MK, Merriam G. 1999. Fragmentation effects on forest birds: relative influence of woodland cover and configuration on landscape occupancy.. Conserv. Biol. 13:774–83 [Google Scholar]
  128. Virgós E. 2001. Role of isolation and habitat quality in shaping species abundance: a test with badgers (Meles meles L.) in a gradient of forest fragmentation.. J. Biogeogr. 28:381–89 [Google Scholar]
  129. Walters JR, Ford HA, Cooper CB. 1999. The ecological basis of sensitivity of brown treecreepers to habitat fragmentation: a preliminary assessment.. Biol. Conserv. 90:13–20 [Google Scholar]
  130. Wettstein W, Schmid B. 1999. Conservation of arthropod diversity in montane wetlands: Effect of altitude, habitat quality and habitat fragmentation on butterflies and grasshoppers.. J. Appl. Ecol. 36:363–73 [Google Scholar]
  131. Wickham JD, Jones KB, Riitters KH, Wade TG, O'Neill RV. 1999. Transitions in forest fragmentation: implications for restoration opportunities at regional scales.. Landsc. Ecol. 14:137–45 [Google Scholar]
  132. Wilcove DS, McLellan CH, Dobson AP. 1986. Habitat fragmentation in the temperate zone. In Conservation Biology, ed. ME Soulé 237–56 Sunderland, MA: Sinauer
  133. With KA, Crist TO. 1995. Critical thresholds in species' responses to landscape structure.. Ecology 76:2446–59 [Google Scholar]
  134. With KA, Gardner RH, Turner MG. 1997. Landscape connectivity and population distributions in heterogeneous environments.. Oikos 78:151–69 [Google Scholar]
  135. With KA, King AW. 1999. Dispersal success on fractal landscapes: a consequence of lacunarity thresholds.. Landsc. Ecol. 14:73–82 [Google Scholar]
  136. With KA, Pavuk DM, Worchuck JL, Oates RK, Fisher JL. 2002. Threshold effects of landscape structure on biological control in agroecosystems.. Ecol. Appl. 12:52–65 [Google Scholar]
  137. Wolff JO, Schauber EM, Edge WD. 1997. Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the behavior and demography of gray-tailed voles.. Conserv. Biol. 11:945–56 [Google Scholar]
  138. Young CH, Jarvis PJ. 2001. Measuring urban habitat fragmentation: an example from the Black Country, UK.. Landsc. Ecol. 16:643–58 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error