▪ Abstract 

Local habitat and biological diversity of streams and rivers are strongly influenced by landform and land use within the surrounding valley at multiple scales. However, empirical associations between land use and stream response only varyingly succeed in implicating pathways of influence. This is the case for a number of reasons, including () covariation of anthropogenic and natural gradients in the landscape; () the existence of multiple, scale-dependent mechanisms; () nonlinear responses; and () the difficulties of separating present-day from historical influences. Further research is needed that examines responses to land use under different management strategies and that employs response variables that have greater diagnostic value than many of the aggregated measures in current use.

In every respect, the valley rules the stream.

     H.B.N. Hynes (1975)


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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