1932

Abstract

Here we review the population, community, and evolutionary consequences of marine reserves. Responses at each level depend on the tendency of fisheries to target larger body sizes and the tendency for greater reserve protection with less movement within and across populations. The primary population response to reserves is survival to greater ages and sizes plus increases in the population size for harvested species, with greater response to reserves that are large relative to species' movement rates. The primary community response to reserves is an increase in total biomass and diversity, with the potential for trophic cascades and altered spatial patterning of metacommunities. The primary evolutionary response to reserves is increased genetic diversity, with the theoretical potential for protection against fisheries-induced evolution and selection for reduced movement. The potential for the combined outcome of these responses to buffer marine populations and communities against temporal environmental heterogeneity has preliminary theoretical and empirical support.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054424
2015-12-04
2024-04-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/ecolsys/46/1/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054424.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054424&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Abesamis RA, Russ GR. 2005. Density-dependent spillover from a marine reserve: long-term evidence. Ecol. Appl. 15:1798–1812 [Google Scholar]
  2. Allendorf F, England P, Luikart G, Ritchie P, Ryman N. 2008. Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23:327–37 [Google Scholar]
  3. Allison GW, Gaines SD, Lubchenco J, Possingham HP. 2003. Ensuring persistence of marine reserves: catastrophes require adopting an insurance factor. Ecol. Appl. 13:S8–24 [Google Scholar]
  4. Alonzo SH, Mangel M. 2004. The effects of size-selective fisheries on the stock dynamics of and sperm limitation in sex-changing fish. Fish. Bull. 102:1–13 [Google Scholar]
  5. Amargos FP, Sanson GG, del Castillo AJ, Fernandez AZ, Blanco FM, de la Red WA. 2010. An experiment of fish spillover from a marine reserve in Cuba. Environ. Biol. Fishes 87:363–72 [Google Scholar]
  6. Andrew NL, MacDiarmid AB. 1991. Interrelations between sea urchins and spiny lobsters in northeastern New Zealand. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 70:211–22 [Google Scholar]
  7. Anticamara JA, Zeller D, Vincent ACJ. 2010. Spatial and temporal variation of abundance, biomass and diversity within marine reserves in the Philippines. Divers. Distrib. 16:529–36 [Google Scholar]
  8. Apostolaki P, Milner-Gulland EJ, McAllister MK, Kirkwood GP. 2002. Modelling the effects of establishing a marine reserve for mobile fish species. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 59:405–15 [Google Scholar]
  9. Arkema KK, Abramson SC, Dewsbury BM. 2006. Marine ecosystem-based management: from characterization to implementation. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4:525–32 [Google Scholar]
  10. Babcock RC, Egli DP, Attwood CG. 2012. Incorporating behavioural variation in individual-based simulation models of marine reserve effectiveness. Environ. Conserv. 39:282–94 [Google Scholar]
  11. Babcock RC, Kelly S, Shears NT, Walker JW, Willis TJ. 1999. Changes in community structure in temperate marine reserves. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 189:125–34 [Google Scholar]
  12. Babcock RC, Shears NT, Alcala AC, Barrett NS, Edgar GJ. et al. 2010. Decadal trends in marine reserves reveal differential rates of change in direct and indirect effects. PNAS 107:18256–61 [Google Scholar]
  13. Ballantine B. 2014. Fifty years on: lessons from marine reserves in New Zealand and principles for a worldwide network. Biol. Conserv. 176:297–307 [Google Scholar]
  14. Barnett LAK, Baskett ML. 2015. Marine reserves can enhance ecological resilience. Ecol. Lett. In press. doi: 10.1111/ele.12524
  15. Barnett LAK, Baskett ML, Botsford LW. 2015. Quantifying the potential for marine reserves or harvest reductions to buffer temporal mismatches caused by climate change. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 72:376–89 [Google Scholar]
  16. Baskett ML. 2006. Prey size refugia and trophic cascades in marine reserves. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 328:285–93 [Google Scholar]
  17. Baskett ML. 2007. Simple fisheries and marine reserve models of interacting species: an overview and example with recruitment facilitation. CalCOFI Rep. 48:71–81 [Google Scholar]
  18. Baskett ML, Levin SA, Gaines SD, Dushoff J. 2005. Marine reserve design and the evolution of size at maturation in harvested fish. Ecol. Appl. 15:882–901 [Google Scholar]
  19. Baskett ML, Micheli F, Levin SA. 2007a. Designing marine reserves for interacting species: insights from theory. Biol. Conserv. 137:163–79 [Google Scholar]
  20. Baskett ML, Weitz JS, Levin SA. 2007b. The evolution of dispersal in reserve networks. Am. Nat. 170:59–78 [Google Scholar]
  21. Baskett ML, Yoklavich M, Love MS. 2006. Predation, competition and the recovery of overexploited fish stocks in marine reserves. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 63:1214–29 [Google Scholar]
  22. Bates AE, Barrett NS, Stuart-Smith RD, Holbrook NJ, Thompson PA, Edgar GJ. 2014. Resilience and signatures of tropicalization in protected reef fish communities. Nat. Clim. Change 4:62–67 [Google Scholar]
  23. Bellwood DR, Hughes TP, Folke C, Nyström M. 2004. Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429:827–33 [Google Scholar]
  24. Bernhardt JR, Leslie HM. 2013. Resilience to climate change in coastal marine ecosystems. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 5:371–92 [Google Scholar]
  25. Berriman JS, Kay MC, Reed DC, Rassweiler A, Goldstein DA, Wright WG. 2015. Shifts in attack behavior of an important kelp forest predator within marine reserves. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 522:193–201 [Google Scholar]
  26. Biro PA, Post JR. 2008. Rapid depletion of genotypes with fast growth and bold personality traits from harvested fish populations. PNAS 105:2919–22 [Google Scholar]
  27. Blueweiss L, Fox H, Kudzma V, Nakashima D, Peters R, Sams S. 1978. Relationships between body size and some life-history parameters. Oecologia 37:257–72 [Google Scholar]
  28. Botsford LW, Hastings A, Gaines SD. 2001. Dependence of sustainability on the configuration of marine reserves and larval dispersal distance. Ecol. Lett. 4:144–50 [Google Scholar]
  29. Botsford LW, Holland MD, Field JC, Hastings A. 2014. Cohort resonance: a significant component of fluctuations in recruitment, egg production, and catch of fished populations. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71:2158–70 [Google Scholar]
  30. Branch TA, Watson R, Fulton EA, Jennings S, McGilliard CR. et al. 2010. The trophic fingerprint of marine fisheries. Nature 468:431–35 [Google Scholar]
  31. Burfeind DD, Pitt KA, Connolly RM, Byers JE. 2013. Performance of non-native species within marine reserves. Biol. Invasions 15:17–28 [Google Scholar]
  32. Burgess SC, Nickols KJ, Griesemer CD, Barnett LA, Dedrick AG. et al. 2014. Beyond connectivity: How empirical methods can quantify population persistence to improve marine protected-area design. Ecol. Appl. 24:257–70 [Google Scholar]
  33. Carr MH, Neigel JE, Estes JA, Andelman S, Warner RR, Largier JL. 2003. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: implications for the design of coastal marine reserves. Ecol. Appl. 13:S90–107 [Google Scholar]
  34. Chan MH, Kim PS. 2014. Modelling the impact of marine reserves on a population with depensatory dynamics. Bull. Math. Biol. 76:2122–43 [Google Scholar]
  35. Chan NCS, Connolly SR, Mapstone BD. 2012. Effects of sex change on the implications of marine reserves for fisheries. Ecol. Appl. 22:778–91 [Google Scholar]
  36. Charnov E. 1993. Life History Invariants: Some Explorations of Symmetry in Evolutionary Ecology New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  37. Claudet J, Osenberg CW, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Domenici P, García-Charton JA. et al. 2008. Marine reserves: size and age do matter. Ecol. Lett. 11:481–89 [Google Scholar]
  38. Claudet J, Osenberg CW, Domenici P, Badalamenti F, Milazzo M. et al. 2010. Marine reserves: fish life history and ecological traits matter. Ecol. Appl. 20:830–39 [Google Scholar]
  39. Coelho VR, Manfrino C. 2007. Coral community decline at a remote Caribbean island: marine no-take reserves are not enough. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 17:666–85 [Google Scholar]
  40. Conover DO, Munch SB, Arnott SA. 2009. Reversal of evolutionary downsizing caused by selective harvest of large fish. Proc. R. Soc. B 276:2015–20 [Google Scholar]
  41. Côté IM, Mosqueira I, Reynolds JD. 2001. Effects of marine reserve characteristics on the protection of fish populations: a meta-analysis. J. Fish Biol. 59:178–89 [Google Scholar]
  42. de Roos AM, Boukal DS, Persson L. 2006. Evolutionary regime shifts in age and size at maturation of exploited fish stocks. Proc. R. Soc. B 273:1873–80 [Google Scholar]
  43. Diaz D, Mallol S, Parma AM, Goni R. 2011. Decadal trend in lobster reproductive output from a temperate marine protected area. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 433:149–57 [Google Scholar]
  44. Dunlop ES, Baskett ML, Heino M, Dieckmann U. 2009. Propensity of marine reserves to reduce the evolutionary effects of fishing in a migratory species. Evol. Appl. 2:371–93 [Google Scholar]
  45. Edgar GJ, Stuart-Smith RD, Willis TJ, Kininmonth S, Baker SC. et al. 2014. Global conservation outcomes depend on marine protected areas with five key features. Nature 506:216–20 [Google Scholar]
  46. Eggleston DB, Parsons DM. 2008. Disturbance-induced ‘spill-in’ of Caribbean spiny lobster to marine reserves. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 371:213–20 [Google Scholar]
  47. Enberg K, Jørgensen C, Dunlop ES, Heino M, Dieckmann U. 2009. Implications of fisheries-induced evolution for stock rebuilding and recovery. Evol. Appl. 2:394–414 [Google Scholar]
  48. Farthing C. 2014. An investigation of personality in non-reserve and reserve snapper Master's Thesis, Univ. Auckl., NZ
  49. Fidler R, Maypa A, Apistar D, White A, Turingan R. 2014. Body size shifts in Philippine reef fishes: interfamilial variation in responses to protection. Biology 3:264–80 [Google Scholar]
  50. Francis RC, Hixon MA, Clarke ME, Murawski SA, Ralston S. 2007. Ten commandments for ecosystem-based fisheries scientists. Fisheries 32:217–33 [Google Scholar]
  51. Fraschetti S, Guarnieri G, Bevilacqua S, Terlizzi A, Boero F. 2013. Protection enhances community and habitat stability: evidence from a Mediterranean marine protected area. PLOS ONE 8:e81838 [Google Scholar]
  52. Freeman DJ, MacDiarmid AB. 2009. Healthier lobsters in a marine reserve: effects of fishing on disease incidence in the spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii. Mar.. Freshw. Res. 60:140 [Google Scholar]
  53. Freeman DJ, MacDiarmid AB, Taylor RB, Davidson RJ, Grace RV. et al. 2012. Trajectories of spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii recovery in New Zealand marine reserves: Is settlement a driver?. Environ. Conserv. 39:295–304 [Google Scholar]
  54. Fryxell JM, Lynn DH, Chris PJ. 2006. Harvest reserves reduce extinction risk in an experimental microcosm. Ecol. Lett. 9:1025–31 [Google Scholar]
  55. Gaines SD, Gaylord B, Largier JL. 2003. Avoiding current oversights in marine reserve design. Ecol. Appl. 13:S32–46 [Google Scholar]
  56. Gaines SD, Lester SE, Grorud-Colvert K, Costello C, Pollnac R. 2010a. Evolving science of marine reserves: new developments and emerging research frontiers. PNAS 107:18251–55 [Google Scholar]
  57. Gaines SD, White C, Carr MH, Palumbi SR. 2010b. Designing marine reserve networks for both conservation and fisheries management. PNAS 107:18286–93 [Google Scholar]
  58. Game ET, Grantham HS, Hobday AJ, Pressey RL, Lombard AT. et al. 2009. Pelagic protected areas: the missing dimension in ocean conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 24:360–69 [Google Scholar]
  59. Gårdmark A, Jonzen N, Mangel M. 2006. Density-dependent body growth reduces the potential of marine reserves to enhance yields. J. Appl. Ecol. 43:61–69 [Google Scholar]
  60. Gaylord B, Gaines SD, Siegel DA, Carr MH. 2005. Marine reserves exploit population structure and life history in potentially improving fisheries yields. Ecol. Appl. 15:2180–91 [Google Scholar]
  61. Gell FR, Roberts CM. 2003. Benefits beyond boundaries: the fishery effects of marine reserves. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18:448–55 [Google Scholar]
  62. Gerber LR, Botsford LW, Hastings A, Possingham HP, Gaines SD. et al. 2003. Population models for marine reserve design: a retrospective and prospective synthesis. Ecol. Appl. 13:S47–64 [Google Scholar]
  63. Gerber LR, Heppell SS, Ballantyne F, Sala E. 2005. The role of dispersal and demography in determining the efficacy of marine reserves. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62:863–71 [Google Scholar]
  64. Gilby BL, Stevens T. 2014. Meta-analysis indicates habitat-specific alterations to primary producer and herbivore communities in marine protected areas. Glob. Ecol. Conserv. 2:289–99 [Google Scholar]
  65. Gouhier TC, Guichard F, Menge BA. 2013. Designing effective reserve networks for nonequilibrium metacommunities. Ecol. Appl. 23:1488–503 [Google Scholar]
  66. Grafton RQ, Kompas T, Lindenmayer D. 2005. Marine reserves with ecological uncertainty. Bull. Math. Biol. 67:957–71 [Google Scholar]
  67. Graham N, Nash K, Kool J. 2011. Coral reef recovery dynamics in a changing world. Coral Reefs 30:283–94 [Google Scholar]
  68. Grorud-Colvert K, Claudet J, Tissot BN, Caselle JE, Carr MH. et al. 2014. Marine protected area networks: assessing whether the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. PLOS ONE 9:e102298 [Google Scholar]
  69. Grüss A, Kaplan DM, Guenette S, Roberts CM, Botsford LW. 2011. Consequences of adult and juvenile movement for marine protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 144:692–702 [Google Scholar]
  70. Grüss A, Kaplan DM, Robinson J. 2014a. Evaluation of the effectiveness of marine reserves for transient spawning aggregations in data-limited situations. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71:435–49 [Google Scholar]
  71. Grüss A, Robinson J, Heppell SS, Heppell SA, Semmens BX. 2014b. Conservation and fisheries effects of spawning aggregation marine protected areas: what we know, where we should go, and what we need to get there. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71:1515–34 [Google Scholar]
  72. Guénette S, Lauck T, Clark C. 1998. Marine reserves: from Beverton and Holt to the present. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 8:251–72 [Google Scholar]
  73. Guénette S, Pitcher TJ. 1999. An age-structured model showing the benefits of marine reserves in controlling overexploitation. Fish. Res. 39:295–303 [Google Scholar]
  74. Guidetti P. 2002. The importance of experimental design in detecting the effects of protection measures on fish in Mediterranean MPAs. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 12:619–34 [Google Scholar]
  75. Guidetti P. 2007. Potential of marine reserves to cause community-wide changes beyond their boundaries. Conserv. Biol. 21:540–45 [Google Scholar]
  76. Guidetti P, Baiata P, Ballesteros E, Di Franco A, Hereu B. et al. 2014. Large-scale assessment of Mediterranean marine protected areas effects on fish assemblages. PLOS ONE 9:e91841 [Google Scholar]
  77. Hackradt CW, Garca-Charton JA, Harmelin-Vivien M, Pérez-Ruzafa Á, Le Direach L. et al. 2014. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in and around marine protected areas in the western Mediterranean Sea. PLOS ONE 9:e98206 [Google Scholar]
  78. Halpern BS, Warner RR. 2002. Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects. Ecol. Lett. 5:361–66 [Google Scholar]
  79. Hamilton SL, Caselle JE, Malone DP, Carr MH. 2010. Incorporating biogeography into evaluations of the Channel Islands marine reserve network. PNAS 107:18272–77 [Google Scholar]
  80. Hastings A, Botsford LW. 2006. Persistence of spatial populations depends on returning home. PNAS 103:6067–72 [Google Scholar]
  81. Hawkins JP, Roberts CM. 2004. Effects of fishing on sex-changing Caribbean parrotfishes. Biol. Conserv. 115:213–26 [Google Scholar]
  82. Hereu B. 2005. Movement patterns of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus in a marine reserve and an unprotected area in the NW Mediterranean. Mar. Ecol. 26:54–62 [Google Scholar]
  83. Hilborn R, Quinn TP, Schindler DE, Rogers DE. 2003. Biocomplexity and fisheries sustainability. PNAS 100:6564–68 [Google Scholar]
  84. Hixon MA, Johnson DW, Sogard SM. 2014. BOFFFFs: on the importance of conserving old-growth age structure in fishery populations. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 71:2171–85 [Google Scholar]
  85. Hutchings JA. 2005. Life history consequences of overexploitation to population recovery in Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 62:824–32 [Google Scholar]
  86. Hutchings JA, Fraser DJ. 2008. The nature of fisheries- and farming-induced evolution. Mol. Ecol. 17:294–313 [Google Scholar]
  87. Hutchings JA, Myers RA, García VB, Lucifora LO, Kuparinen A. 2012. Life-history correlates of extinction risk and recovery potential. Ecol. Appl. 22:1061–67 [Google Scholar]
  88. Ives AR, Carpenter SR. 2007. Stability and diversity of ecosystems. Science 317:58–62 [Google Scholar]
  89. Jennings S. 2000. Patterns and prediction of population recovery in marine reserves. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10:209–31 [Google Scholar]
  90. Jennings S, Pinnegar JK, Polunin NVC, Boon TW. 2001. Weak cross-species relationships between body size and trophic level belie powerful size-based trophic structuring in fish communities. J. Anim. Ecol. 70:934–44 [Google Scholar]
  91. Johnson ML, Gaines MS. 1990. Evolution of dispersal: theoretical models and empirical tests using birds and mammals. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 21:449–80 [Google Scholar]
  92. Jørgensen C, Dunlop ES, Opdal AF, Fiksen O. 2008. The evolution of spawning migrations: state dependence and fishing-induced changes. Ecology 89:3436–48 [Google Scholar]
  93. Kaplan DM, Chassot E, Grüss A, Fonteneau A. 2010. Pelagic MPAs: The devil is in the details. Trends Ecol. Evol. 25:62–63 [Google Scholar]
  94. Kappel CV. 2005. Losing pieces of the puzzle: threats to marine, estuarine, and diadromous species. Front. Ecol. Environ. 3:275–82 [Google Scholar]
  95. Karnauskas M, Huntington BE, Babcock EA, Lirman D. 2011. Pre-existing spatial patterns in fish abundances influence species-specific responses in a Caribbean marine reserve. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 432:235–46 [Google Scholar]
  96. Karpov KA, Tegner MJ, Rogers-Bennett L, Kalvass PE, Taniguchi IK. 2001. Interactions among red abalones and sea urchins in fished and reserve sites of northern California: implications of competition to management. J. Shellfish Res. 20:743–53 [Google Scholar]
  97. Kellner JB, Hastings A. 2009. A reserve paradox: Introduced heterogeneity may increase regional invasibility. Conserv. Lett. 2:115–22 [Google Scholar]
  98. Kellner JB, Litvin SY, Hastings A, Micheli F, Mumby PJ. 2010. Disentangling trophic interactions inside a Caribbean marine reserve. Ecol. Appl. 20:1979–92 [Google Scholar]
  99. Kellner JB, Nisbet RM, Gaines SD. 2008. Spillover from marine reserves related to mechanisms of population regulation. Theor. Ecol. 1:117–27 [Google Scholar]
  100. Kellner JB, Tetreault I, Gaines SD, Nisbet RM. 2007. Fishing the line near marine reserves in single and multispecies fisheries. Ecol. Appl. 17:1039–54 [Google Scholar]
  101. Kinlan BP, Gaines SD. 2003. Propagule dispersal in marine and terrestrial environments: a community perspective. Ecology 84:2007–20 [Google Scholar]
  102. Kuparinen A, Hutchings JA. 2012. Consequences of fisheries-induced evolution for population productivity and recovery potential. Proc. R. Soc. B 279:2571–79 [Google Scholar]
  103. Kuparinen A, Merilä J. 2007. Detecting and managing fisheries-induced evolution. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22:652–59 [Google Scholar]
  104. Lande R. 1988. Genetics and demography in biological conservation. Science 241:1455–60 [Google Scholar]
  105. Langebrake J, Riotte-Lambert L, Osenberg CW, De Leenheer P. 2012. Differential movement and movement bias models for marine protected areas. J. Math. Biol. 64:667–96 [Google Scholar]
  106. Lauck T, Clark CW, Mangel M, Gordon RM. 1998. Implementing the precautionary principle in fisheries management through marine reserves. Ecol. Appl. 8:S72–78 [Google Scholar]
  107. Leslie HM. 2005. A synthesis of marine conservation planning approaches. Conserv. Biol. 19:1701–13 [Google Scholar]
  108. Lester SE, Halpern BS, Grorud-Colvert K, Lubchenco J, Ruttenberg BI. et al. 2009. Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 384:33–46 [Google Scholar]
  109. Levin SA, Lubchenco J. 2008. Resilience, robustness, and marine ecosystem-based management. Bioscience 58:27–32 [Google Scholar]
  110. Lindholm J, Auster P, Valentine P. 2004. Role of a large marine protected area for conserving landscape attributes of sand habitats on Georges Bank (NW Atlantic). Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 269:61–68 [Google Scholar]
  111. Ling S, Johnson C, Frusher S, Ridgway K. 2009. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift. PNAS 106:22341–45 [Google Scholar]
  112. Lockwood DR, Hastings A, Botsford LW. 2002. The effects of dispersal patterns on marine reserves: Does the tail wag the dog?. Theor. Popul. Biol. 61:297–309 [Google Scholar]
  113. Lubchenco J, Palumbi SR, Gaines SD, Andelman S. 2003. Plugging a hole in the ocean: the emerging science of marine reserves. Ecol. Appl. 13:S3–7 [Google Scholar]
  114. Mangel M. 2000a. Irreducible uncertainties, sustainable fisheries and marine reserves. Evol. Ecol. Res. 2:547–57 [Google Scholar]
  115. Mangel M. 2000b. On the fraction of habitat allocated to marine reserves. Ecol. Lett. 3:15–22 [Google Scholar]
  116. Mangel M. 2000c. Trade-offs between fish habitat and fishing mortality and the role of reserves. Bull. Mar. Sci. 66:663–74 [Google Scholar]
  117. Mangel M, Levin PS. 2005. Regime, phase and paradigm shifts: making community ecology the basic science for fisheries. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 360:95–105 [Google Scholar]
  118. McCallum H, Gerber L, Jani A. 2005. Does infectious disease influence the efficacy of marine protected areas? A theoretical framework. J. Appl. Ecol. 42:688–98 [Google Scholar]
  119. McClanahan TR, Graham NA, Wilson SK, Letourneur Y, Fisher R. 2009. Effects of fisheries closure size, age, and history of compliance on coral reef fish communities in the western Indian Ocean. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 396:99–109 [Google Scholar]
  120. McCook LJ, Ayling T, Cappo M, Choat JH, Evans RD. et al. 2010. Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: a globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves. PNAS 107:18278–85 [Google Scholar]
  121. McGilliard CR, Punt AE, Hilborn R. 2011. Spatial structure induced by marine reserves shapes population responses to catastrophes in mathematical models. Ecol. Appl. 21:1399–409 [Google Scholar]
  122. Mellin C, Bradshaw CJA, Fordham DA, Caley MJ. 2014. Strong but opposing β-diversity–stability relationships in coral reef fish communities. Proc. R. Soc. B 281:20131993 [Google Scholar]
  123. Micheli F, Amarasekare P, Bascompte J, Gerber LR. 2004a. Including species interactions in the design and evaluation of marine reserves: some insights from a predator-prey model. Bull. Mar. Sci. 74:653–69 [Google Scholar]
  124. Micheli F, Benedetti-Cecchi L, Gambaccini S, Bertocci I, Borsini C. et al. 2005. Cascading human impacts, marine protected areas, and the structure of Mediterranean reef assemblages. Ecol. Monogr. 75:81–102 [Google Scholar]
  125. Micheli F, Halpern BS, Botsford LW, Warner RR. 2004b. Trajectories and correlates of community change in no-take marine reserves. Ecol. Appl. 14:1709–23 [Google Scholar]
  126. Micheli F, Saenz-Arroyo A, Greenley A, Vazquez L, Montes JAE. et al. 2012. Evidence that marine reserves enhance resilience to climatic impacts. PLOS ONE 7:e40832 [Google Scholar]
  127. Miethe T, Dytham C, Dieckmann U, Pitchford JW. 2010. Marine reserves and the evolutionary effects of fishing on size at maturation. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 67:412–25 [Google Scholar]
  128. Miethe T, Pitchford JW, Dytham C. 2011. Modelling the evolutionary effects of a coastal marine reserve on different ecological guilds of fish. J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 91:1369–80 [Google Scholar]
  129. Millar RB. 1992. Estimating the size-selectivity of fishing gear by conditioning on the total catch. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 87:962–68 [Google Scholar]
  130. Moffitt EA, Botsford LW, Kaplan DM, O'Farrell MR. 2009. Marine reserve networks for species that move within a home range. Ecol. Appl. 19:1835–47 [Google Scholar]
  131. Moland E, Olsen EM, Knutsen H, Garrigou P, Espeland SH. et al. 2013. Lobster and cod benefit from small-scale northern marine protected areas: inference from an empirical before-after control-impact study. Proc. R. Soc. B 280:20122679 [Google Scholar]
  132. Molloy PP, McLean IB, Côté IM. 2009. Effects of marine reserve age on fish populations: a global meta-analysis. J. Appl. Ecol. 46:743–51 [Google Scholar]
  133. Mumby PJ, Dahlgren CP, Harborne AR, Kappel CV, Micheli F. et al. 2006. Fishing, trophic cascades, and the process of grazing on coral reefs. Science 311:98–101 [Google Scholar]
  134. Mumby PJ, Harborne AR. 2010. Marine reserves enhance the recovery of corals on Caribbean reefs. PLOS ONE 5:e8657 [Google Scholar]
  135. Mumby PJ, Hastings A, Edwards HJ. 2007. Thresholds and the resilience of Caribbean coral reefs. Nature 450:98–101 [Google Scholar]
  136. Munroe DM, Klinck JM, Hofmann EE, Powell EN. 2014. A modelling study of the role of marine protected areas in metapopulation genetic connectivity in Delaware Bay oysters. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 24:645–66 [Google Scholar]
  137. Murawski SA, Brown R, Lai HL, Rago PJ, Hendrickson L. 2000. Large-scale closed areas as a fishery-management tool in temperate marine systems: the Georges Bank experience. Bull. Mar. Sci. 66:775–98 [Google Scholar]
  138. Nash KL, Welsh JQ, Graham NAJ, Bellwood DR. 2015. Home-range allometry in coral reef fishes: comparison to other vertebrates, methodological issues and management implications. Oecologia 177:73–83 [Google Scholar]
  139. Olds AD, Albert S, Maxwell PS, Pitt KA, Connolly RM. 2013. Mangrove-reef connectivity promotes the effectiveness of marine reserves across the western Pacific. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 22:1040–49 [Google Scholar]
  140. Olds AD, Pitt KA, Maxwell PS, Babcock RC, Rissik D, Connolly RM. 2014. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather. Glob. Change Biol. 20:3050–58 [Google Scholar]
  141. O'Sullivan D, Emmerson M. 2011. Marine reserve designation, trophic cascades and altered community dynamics. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 440:115–28 [Google Scholar]
  142. Page CA, Baker DM, Harvell CD, Golbuu Y, Raymundo L. et al. 2009. Influence of marine reserves on coral disease prevalence. Dis. Aquat. Org. 87:135–50 [Google Scholar]
  143. Palumbi SR. 2001. The ecology of marine protected areas. Marine Community Ecology MD Bertness, SD Gaines, ME Hay 509–30 Sunderland, MA: Sinauer [Google Scholar]
  144. Palumbi SR. 2004. Marine reserves and ocean neighborhoods: the spatial scale of marine populations and their management. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 29:31–68 [Google Scholar]
  145. Parsons DM, Morrison MA, Slater MJ. 2010. Responses to marine reserves: decreased dispersion of the sparid Pagrus auratus (snapper). Biol. Conserv. 143:2039–48 [Google Scholar]
  146. Parsons DM, Shears NT, Babcock RC, Haggitt TR. 2004. Fine-scale habitat change in a marine reserve, mapped using radio-acoustically positioned video transects. Mar. Freshw. Res. 55:257–65 [Google Scholar]
  147. Pelc RA, Warner RR, Gaines SD, Paris CB. 2010. Detecting larval export from marine reserves. PNAS 107:18266–71 [Google Scholar]
  148. Pendoley KL, Schofield G, Whittock PA, Ierodiaconou D, Hays GC. 2014. Protected species use of a coastal marine migratory corridor connecting marine protected areas. Mar. Biol. 161:1455–66 [Google Scholar]
  149. Pérez-Ruzafa A, González-Wangüemert M, Lenfant P, Marcos C, García-Charton JA. 2006. Effects of fishing protection on the genetic structure of fish populations. Biol. Conserv. 129:244–55 [Google Scholar]
  150. Petraitis PS, Dudgeon SR. 2004. Detection of alternative stable states in marine communities. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 300:343–71 [Google Scholar]
  151. Pinnegar JK, Polunin NV. 2004. Predicting indirect effects of fishing in Mediterranean rocky littoral communities using a dynamic simulation model. Ecol. Model. 172:249–67 [Google Scholar]
  152. Pinsky ML, Palumbi SR. 2014. Meta-analysis reveals lower genetic diversity in overfished populations. Mol. Ecol. 23:29–39 [Google Scholar]
  153. Polacheck T. 1990. Year around closed areas as a management tool. Nat. Resour. Model. 4:327–54 [Google Scholar]
  154. Polis GA, Sears ALW, Huxel GR, Strong DR, Maron J. 2000. When is a trophic cascade a trophic cascade?. Trends Ecol. Evol. 15:473–75 [Google Scholar]
  155. Quinn JF, Wing SR, Botsford LW. 1993. Harvest refugia in marine invertebrate fisheries: models and applications to the red sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus. Am. Zool. 33:537–50 [Google Scholar]
  156. Rassweiler A, Costello C, Siegel DA. 2012. Marine protected areas and the value of spatially optimized fishery management. PNAS 109:11884–89 [Google Scholar]
  157. Reynolds JD, Dulvy NK, Goodwin NB, Hutchings JA. 2005. Biology of extinction risk in marine fishes. Proc. R. Soc. B 272:2337–44 [Google Scholar]
  158. Rodwell LD, Barbier EB, Roberts CM, McClanahan TR. 2003. The importance of habitat quality for marine reserve fishery linkages. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 60:171–81 [Google Scholar]
  159. Rogers-Bennett L, Pearse JS. 2001. Indirect benefits of marine protected areas for juvenile abalone. Conserv. Biol. 15:642–47 [Google Scholar]
  160. Ronconi RA, Lascelles BG, Longham GM, Reid JB, Oro D. 2012. The role of seabirds in marine protected area identification, delineation, and monitoring: introduction and synthesis. Biol. Conserv. 156:1–4 [Google Scholar]
  161. Russ GR, Alcala AC. 2010. Decadal-scale rebuilding of predator biomass in Philippine marine reserves. Oecologia 163:1103–6 [Google Scholar]
  162. Russ GR, Alcala AC. 2011. Enhanced biodiversity beyond marine reserve boundaries: the cup spillith over. Ecol. Appl. 21:241–50 [Google Scholar]
  163. Salomon AK, Waller NP, McIlhagga C, Yung RL, Walters C. 2002. Modeling the trophic effects of marine protected area zoning policies: a case study. Aquat. Ecol. 36:85–95 [Google Scholar]
  164. Savina M, Condie SA, Fulton EA. 2013. The role of pre-existing disturbances in the effect of marine reserves on coastal ecosystems: a modelling approach. PLOS ONE 8:e61207 [Google Scholar]
  165. Selig ER, Bruno JF. 2010. A global analysis of the effectiveness of marine protected areas in preventing coral loss. PLOS ONE 5:e9278 [Google Scholar]
  166. Selig ER, Casey KS, Bruno JF. 2012. Temperature-driven coral decline: the role of marine protected areas. Glob. Change Biol. 18:1561–70 [Google Scholar]
  167. Shears NT, Babcock RC. 2003. Continuing trophic cascade effects after 25 years of no-take marine reserve protection. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 246:1–16 [Google Scholar]
  168. Shears NT, Kushner DJ, Katz SL, Gaines SD. 2012. Reconciling conflict between the direct and indirect effects of marine reserve protection. Environ. Conserv. 39:225–36 [Google Scholar]
  169. Sheehan EV, Stevens TF, Gall SC, Cousens SL, Attrill MJ. 2013. Recovery of a temperate reef assemblage in a marine protected area following the exclusion of towed demersal fishing. PLOS ONE 8:e83883 [Google Scholar]
  170. Shin Y, Rochet M, Jennings S, Field J, Gislason H. 2005. Using size-based indicators to evaluate the ecosystem effects of fishing. ICES J. Mar. Sci. 62:384–96 [Google Scholar]
  171. Sladek Nowlis J, Roberts CM. 1999. Fisheries benefits and optimal design of marine reserves. Fish. Bull. 97:604–16 [Google Scholar]
  172. Soykan CU, Lewison RL. 2015. Using community-level metrics to monitor the effects of marine protected areas on biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. 29:775–83 [Google Scholar]
  173. Sponaugle S, Walter KD, Grorud-Colvert K, Paddack MJ. 2012. Influence of marine reserves on reef fish recruitment in the upper Florida Keys. Coral Reefs 31:641–52 [Google Scholar]
  174. St. Mary CM, Osenberg CW, Frazer TK, Lindberg WJ. 2000. Stage structure, density dependence and the efficacy of marine reserves. Bull. Mar. Sci. 66:675–90 [Google Scholar]
  175. Stelzenmüller V, Maynou F, Martín P. 2009. Patterns of species and functional diversity around a coastal marine reserve: a fisheries perspective. Aquat. Conserv. Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst. 19:554–65 [Google Scholar]
  176. Stobart B, Warwick R, Gonzalez C, Mallol S, Diaz D. et al. 2009. Long-term and spillover effects of a marine protected area on an exploited fish community. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 384:47–60 [Google Scholar]
  177. Stobutzki IC. 2001. Marine reserves and the complexity of larval dispersal. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 10:515–18 [Google Scholar]
  178. Stoner AW, Davis MH, Booker CJ. 2012. Negative consequences of Allee effect are compounded by fishing pressure: comparison of queen conch reproduction in fishing grounds and a marine protected area. Bull. Mar. Sci. 88:89–104 [Google Scholar]
  179. Strathmann RR. 1990. Why life histories evolve differently in the sea. Am. Zool. 30:197–207 [Google Scholar]
  180. Strathmann RR, Hughes TR, Kuris AM, Lindeman KC, Morgan SG. et al. 2002. Evolution of local recruitment and its consequences for marine populations. Bull. Mar. Sci. 70:377–96 [Google Scholar]
  181. Takashina N, Mougi A. 2014. Effects of marine protected areas on overfished fishing stocks with multiple stable states. J. Theor. Biol. 341:64–70 [Google Scholar]
  182. Takashina N, Mougi A, Iwasa Y. 2012. Paradox of marine protected areas: suppression of fishing may cause species loss. Popul. Ecol. 54:475–85 [Google Scholar]
  183. Taylor BM, McIlwain JL. 2010. Beyond abundance and biomass: effects of marine protected areas on the demography of a highly exploited reef fish. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 411:243–58 [Google Scholar]
  184. Topping DT, Lowe CG, Caselle JE. 2006. Site fidelity and seasonal movement patterns of adult California sheephead Semicossyphus pulcher (Labridae): an acoustic monitoring study. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 326:257–67 [Google Scholar]
  185. Trexler JC, Travis J. 2000. Can marine protected areas restore and conserve stock attributes of reef fishes?. Bull. Mar. Sci. 66:853–73 [Google Scholar]
  186. Tsikliras AC, Polymeros K. 2014. Fish market prices drive overfishing of the ‘big ones.’. PeerJ 2:e638 [Google Scholar]
  187. Tupper MH. 2007. Spillover of commercially valuable reef fishes from marine protected areas in Guam, Micronesia. Fish. Bull. 105:527–37 [Google Scholar]
  188. Villamor A, Becerro MA. 2012. Species, trophic, and functional diversity in marine protected and non-protected areas. J. Sea Res. 73:109–116 [Google Scholar]
  189. Walsh MR, Munch SB, Chiba S, Conover DO. 2005. Maladaptive changes in multiple traits caused by fishing: impediments to population recovery. Ecol. Lett. 9:142–48 [Google Scholar]
  190. Walters C, Pauly D, Christensen V. 1999. Ecospace: prediction of mesoscale spatial patterns in trophic relationships of exploited ecosystems, with emphasis on the impacts of marine protected areas. Ecosystems 2:539–54 [Google Scholar]
  191. Wen CKC, Almany GR, Williamson DH, Pratchett MS, Mannering TD. et al. 2013. Recruitment hotspots boost the effectiveness of no-take marine reserves. Biol. Conserv. 166:124–31 [Google Scholar]
  192. White C, Costello C. 2014. Close the high seas to fishing?. PLOS Biol. 12:e1001826 [Google Scholar]
  193. White JW. 2015. Marine reserve design theory for species with ontogenetic migration. Biol. Lett. 11:20140511 [Google Scholar]
  194. White JW, Botsford LW, Baskett ML, Barnett LAK, Barr RJ, Hastings A. 2011. Linking models with monitoring data for assessing performance of no-take marine reserves. Front. Ecol. Environ. 9:390–99 [Google Scholar]
  195. White JW, Botsford LW, Hastings A, Baskett ML, Kaplan DM, Barnett LAK. 2013. Transient responses of fished populations to marine reserve establishment. Conserv. Lett. 6:180–91 [Google Scholar]
  196. White JW, Botsford LW, Hastings A, Largier JL. 2010a. Population persistence in marine reserve networks: incorporating spatial heterogeneities in larval dispersal. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 398:49–67 [Google Scholar]
  197. White JW, Botsford LW, Moffitt EA, Fischer DT. 2010b. Decision analysis for designing marine protected areas for multiple species with uncertain fishery status. Ecol. Appl. 20:1523–41 [Google Scholar]
  198. White JW, Rogers-Bennett L. 2010. Incorporating physical oceanographic proxies of recruitment into population models to improve fishery and marine protected area management. CalCOFI Rep. 51:128–49 [Google Scholar]
  199. Willis TJ, Millar RB, Babcock RC. 2003. Protection of exploited fish in temperate regions: high density and biomass of snapper Pagrus auratus (Sparidae) in northern New Zealand marine reserves. J. Appl. Ecol. 40:214–27 [Google Scholar]
  200. Wing SR, Jack L. 2013. Marine reserve networks conserve biodiversity by stabilizing communities and maintaining food web structure. Ecosphere 4:art135 [Google Scholar]
  201. Wood LJ, Fish L, Laughren J, Pauly D. 2008. Assessing progress towards global marine protection targets: shortfalls in information and action. Oryx 42:340–51 [Google Scholar]
  202. Wootton EC, Woolmer AP, Vogan CL, Pope EC, Hamilton KM, Rowley AF. 2012. Increased disease calls for a cost-benefits review of marine reserves. PLOS ONE 7:e51615 [Google Scholar]
  203. Worm B, Barbier EB, Beaumont N, Duffy JE, Folke C. et al. 2006. Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314:787–90 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054424
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-112414-054424
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error