We are witnessing a global, but unplanned, evolutionary experiment with the biodiversity of the planet. Anthropogenic disturbances such as habitat degradation and climate change result in evolutionary mismatch between the environments to which species are adapted and those in which they now exist. The impacts of unmanaged evolution are pervasive, but approaches to address them have received little attention. We review the evolutionary challenges of managing populations in the Anthropocene and introduce the concept of prescriptive evolution, which considers how evolutionary processes may be leveraged to proactively promote wise management. We advocate the planned management of evolutionary processes and explore the advantages of evolutionary interventions to preserve and sustain biodiversity. We show how an evolutionary perspective to conserving biodiversity is fundamental to effective management. Finally, we advocate building frameworks for decision-making, monitoring, and implementation at the boundary between management and evolutionary science to enhance conservation outcomes.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Aitken SN, Whitlock MC. 2013. Assisted gene flow to facilitate local adaptation to climate change. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 44:367–88 [Google Scholar]
  2. Avise JC. 2008. The history, purview, and future of conservation genetics. See Carroll & Fox 2008 5–15
  3. Bailey MM, Lachapelle KA, Kinnison MT. 2010. Ontogenetic selection on hatchery salmon in the wild: natural selection on artificial phenotypes. Evol. Appl. 3:340–51 [Google Scholar]
  4. Beebee TJC. 2013. Effects of road mortality and mitigation measures on amphibian populations. Conserv. Biol. 27:657–68 [Google Scholar]
  5. Behm JE, Ives AR, Boughman JW. 2010. Breakdown in postmating isolation and the collapse of a species pair through hybridization. Am. Nat. 175:11–26 [Google Scholar]
  6. Bell G, Gonzalez A. 2009. Evolutionary rescue can prevent extinction following environmental change. Ecol. Lett. 12:942–48 [Google Scholar]
  7. Borovics A, Matyas C. 2013. Decline of genetic diversity of sessile oak at the retracting (xeric) limits. Ann. Forest Sci. 70:835–44 [Google Scholar]
  8. Brookes G, Barfoot P. 2013. Key environmental impacts of global genetically modified (GM) crop use 1996–2011. GM Crops Food 4:109–19 [Google Scholar]
  9. Bull JJ, Wichman HA. 2001. Applied evolution. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 32:183–217 [Google Scholar]
  10. Carlsson NOL, Sarnelle O, Strayer DL. 2009. Native predators and exotic prey—an acquired taste?. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7:525–32 [Google Scholar]
  11. Carroll SP. 2011. Conciliation biology: the eco-evolutionary management of permanently invaded biotic systems. Evol. Appl. 4:184–99 [Google Scholar]
  12. Carroll SP, Fox CW. 2008. Conservation Biology: Evolution in Action Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press380
  13. Carroll SP, Jørgensen PS, Kinnison MT, Bergstrom CT, Denison RF. et al. 2014. Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges. Science. In press. doi: 10.1126/science.1245993
  14. Carroll SP, Loye JE, Dingle H, Mathieson M, Famula TR, Zalucki MP. 2005. And the beak shall inherit—evolution in response to invasion. Ecol. Lett. 8:944–51 [Google Scholar]
  15. Chevin L-M, Gallet R, Gomulkiewicz R, Holt RD, Fellous S. 2013. Phenotypic plasticity in evolutionary rescue experiments. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 368:161020120089 [Google Scholar]
  16. Chevin L-M, Lande R, Mace GM. 2010. Adaptation, plasticity, and extinction in a changing environment: towards a predictive theory. PLOS Biol. 8:e1000357 [Google Scholar]
  17. Chiron F, Chargé R, Julliard R, Jiguet F, Muratet A. 2014. Pesticide doses, landscape structure and their relative effects on farmland birds. Agriculture, Ecosyst. Environ. 185:153–60 [Google Scholar]
  18. Coles SL, Riegl BM. 2013. Thermal tolerances of reef corals in the Gulf: a review of the potential for increasing coral survival and adaptation to climate change through assisted translocation. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 72:323–32 [Google Scholar]
  19. Cook CN, Mascia MB, Schwartz MW, Possingham HP, Fuller RA. 2013. Achieving conservation science that bridges the knowledge-action boundary. Conserv. Biol. 27:669–78 [Google Scholar]
  20. Cothran RD, Brown JM, Relyea RA. 2013. Proximity to agriculture is correlated with pesticide tolerance: evidence for the evolution of amphibian resistance to modern pesticides. Evol. Appl. 6:832–41 [Google Scholar]
  21. Darimont CT, Carlson SM, Kinnison MT, Paquet PC, Reimchen TE, Wilmers CC. 2009. Human predators outpace other agents of trait change in the wild. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:952–54 [Google Scholar]
  22. Dawson TP, Jackson ST, House JI, Prentice IC, Mace GM. 2011. Beyond predictions: biodiversity conservation in a changing climate. Science 332:53–58 [Google Scholar]
  23. De Laender F, Melian CJ, Bindler R, Van den Brink PJ, Daam M. et al. 2014. The contribution of intra- and interspecific tolerance variability to biodiversity changes along toxicity gradients. Ecol. Lett. 17:72–81 [Google Scholar]
  24. Deck A, Muir A, Strauss S. 2013. Transgenerational soil-mediated differences between plants experienced or naive to a grass invasion. Ecol. Evol. 3:3663–71 [Google Scholar]
  25. Devictor V, Mouillot D, Meynard C, Jiguet F, Thuiller W, Mouquet N. 2010. Spatial mismatch and congruence between taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity: the need for integrative conservation strategies in a changing world. Ecol. Lett. 13:1030–40 [Google Scholar]
  26. Dlugosch KM, Parker IM. 2008. Founding events in species invasions: genetic variation, adaptive evolution, and the role of multiple introductions. Mol. Ecol. 17:431–49 [Google Scholar]
  27. Dormontt EE, Lowe AJ, Prentis PJ. 2011. Is rapid adaptive evolution important in successful invasions?. Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology: The Legacy of Charles Elton DM Richardson 175–33 Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell [Google Scholar]
  28. Dornier A, Cheptou PO. 2012. Determinants of extinction in fragmented plant populations: Crepis sancta (asteraceae) in urban environments. Oecologia 169:703–12 [Google Scholar]
  29. Ettinger AK, HilleRisLambers J. 2013. Climate isn't everything: competitive interactions and variation by life stage will also affect range shifts in a warming world. Am. J. Bot. 100:1344–55 [Google Scholar]
  30. Faith DP, Magallon S, Hendry AP, Conti E, Yahara T, Donoghue MJ. 2010. Evosystem services: an evolutionary perspective on the links between biodiversity and human well-being. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 2:66–74 [Google Scholar]
  31. Faith DP, Reid CAM, Hunter J. 2004. Integrating phylogenetic diversity, complementarity, and endemism for conservation assessment. Conserv. Biol. 18:255–61 [Google Scholar]
  32. Felker-Quinn E, Schweitzer JA, Bailey JK. 2013. Meta-analysis reveals evolution in invasive plant species but little support for Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability (EICA). Ecol. Evol. 3:739–51 [Google Scholar]
  33. Frankham R. 2002. Introduction to Conservation Genetics Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  34. Fuller TL, Thomassen HA, Peralvo M, Buermann W, Mila B. et al. 2013. Intraspecific morphological and genetic variation of common species predicts ranges of threatened ones. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 280:176020130423 [Google Scholar]
  35. Garcia-Gonzalez C, Campo D, Pola IG, Garcia-Vazquez E. 2012. Rural road networks as barriers to gene flow for amphibians: species-dependent mitigation by traffic calming. Landsc. Urban Plan. 104:171–80 [Google Scholar]
  36. Geiger F, Bengtsson J, Berendse F, Weisser WW, Emmerson M. et al. 2010. Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and biological control potential on European farmland. Basic Appl. Ecol. 11:97–105 [Google Scholar]
  37. Ghalambor CK, McKay JK, Carroll SP, Reznick DN. 2007. Adaptive versus non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity and the potential for adaptation to new environments. Funct. Ecol. 21:394–407 [Google Scholar]
  38. Gienapp P, Leimu R, Merila J. 2007. Responses to climate change in avian migration time—microevolution versus phenotypic plasticity. Climate Res. 35:25–35 [Google Scholar]
  39. Gregory R, Failing L, Harstone M, Long G, McDaniels T, Ohlson D. 2012. Structural Decision Making: A Practical Guide to Environmental Management Choices Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell
  40. Griffin AS, Evans CS, Blumstein DT. 2001. Learning specificity in acquired predator recognition. Anim. Behav. 62:577–89 [Google Scholar]
  41. Grube A, Donaldson D, Kiely T, Wu L. 2011. Pesticides industry sales and usage: 2006 and 2007 Market Estimates US Environ. Prot. Agency, Washington, DC. http://www.epa.gov/opp00001/pestsales/07pestsales/market_estimates2007.pdf
  42. Guha S, Rosenfeld JA, Malhotra AK, Lee AT, Gregersen PK. et al. 2012. Implications for health and disease in the genetic signature of the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Genome Biol. 13:R2 [Google Scholar]
  43. Guisan A, Tingley R, Baumgartner JB, Naujokaitis-Lewis I, Sutcliffe PR. et al. 2013. Predicting species distributions for conservation decisions. Ecol. Lett. 16:1424–35 [Google Scholar]
  44. Hedrick PW. 1995. Gene flow and genetic restoration—the florida panther as a case study. Conserv. Biol. 9:996–1007 [Google Scholar]
  45. Hendry AP, Farrugia TJ, Kinnison MT. 2008. Human influences on rates of phenotypic change in wild animal populations. Mol. Ecol. 17:20–29 [Google Scholar]
  46. Hendry AP, Grant PR, Grant BR, Ford HA, Brewer MJ, Podos J. 2006. Possible human impacts on adaptive radiation: beak size bimodality in Darwin's finches. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 273:1887–94 [Google Scholar]
  47. Hendry AP, Kinnison MT, Heino M, Day T, Smith TB. et al. 2011. Evolutionary principles and their practical application. Evol. Appl. 4:159–83 [Google Scholar]
  48. Hoffmann M, Hilton-Taylor C, Angulo A, Bohm M, Brooks TM. et al. 2010. The impact of conservation on the status of the world's vertebrates. Science 330:1503–9 [Google Scholar]
  49. Holderegger R, Di Giulio M. 2010. The genetic effects of roads: a review of empirical evidence. Basic Appl. Ecol. 11:522–31 [Google Scholar]
  50. Holt RD, Barfield M, Gomulkiewicz R. 2005. Theories of niche conservatism and evolution—could exotic species be potential tests?. Species Invasions: Insights into Ecology, Evolution, Biogeography DF Sax, JJ Stachowicz, SD Gaines 259–90 Sunderland, MA: Sinauer [Google Scholar]
  51. Hufbauer RA, Rutschmann A, Serrate B, de Conchard HV, Facon B. 2013. Role of propagule pressure in colonization success: disentangling the relative importance of demographic, genetic and habitat effects. J. Evol. Biol. 26:1691–99 [Google Scholar]
  52. Jansen M, Coors A, Stoks R, De Meester L. 2011. Evolutionary ecotoxicology of pesticide resistance: a case study in Daphnia. Ecotoxicology 20:543–51 [Google Scholar]
  53. Johnson JR, Ryan ME, Micheletti SJ, Shaffer HB. 2013. Short pond hydroperiod decreases fitness of nonnative hybrid salamanders in California. Anim. Conserv. 16:556–65 [Google Scholar]
  54. Kaarlejarvi E, Eskelinen A, Olofsson J. 2013. Herbivory prevents positive responses of lowland plants to warmer and more fertile conditions at high altitudes. Funct. Ecol. 27:1244–53 [Google Scholar]
  55. Keller SR, Sowell DR, Neiman M, Wolfe LM, Taylor DR. 2009. Adaptation and colonization history affect the evolution of clines in two introduced species. New Phytol. 183:678–90 [Google Scholar]
  56. Kettlewell HBD. 1956. A resume of investigations on the evolution of melanism in the lepidoptera. Proc. R. Soc. Ser. B-Biol. Sci. 145:297–303 [Google Scholar]
  57. Kharas H. 2010. The emerging middle class in developing countries OECD Dev. Cent. Work. Pap. No 285
  58. Kiesecker JM, Blaustein AR. 1997. Population differences in responses of red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) to introduced bullfrogs. Ecology 78:1752–60 [Google Scholar]
  59. Kinnison MT, Hairston NG. 2007. Eco-evolutionary conservation biology: contemporary evolution and the dynamics of persistence. Funct. Ecol. 21:444–54 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kinnison MT, Hendry AP. 2001. The pace of modern life II: from rates of contemporary microevolution to pattern and process. Genetica 112:145–64 [Google Scholar]
  61. Lagator M, Vogwill T, Colegrave N, Neve P. 2013. Herbicide cycling has diverse effects on evolution of resistance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Evol. Appl. 6:197–206 [Google Scholar]
  62. Lande R. 1988. Genetics and demography in biological conservation. Science 241:1455–60 [Google Scholar]
  63. Lankau RA. 2012. Coevolution between invasive and native plants driven by chemical competition and soil biota. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109:11240–45 [Google Scholar]
  64. Larigauderie A, Mooney HA. 2010. The intergovernmental science-policy platform on biodiversity and ecosystem services: moving a step closer to an IPCC-like mechanism for biodiversity. Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain. 2:9–14 [Google Scholar]
  65. Lau JA, Puliafico KP, Kopshever JA, Steltzer H, Jarvis EP. et al. 2008. Inference of allelopathy is complicated by effects of activated carbon on plant growth. New Phytol. 178:412–23 [Google Scholar]
  66. Lawler JJ, Aukema JE, Grant JB, Halpern BS, Kareiva P. et al. 2006. Conservation science: a 20-year report card. Front. Ecol. Environ. 4:473–80 [Google Scholar]
  67. Leger EA, Espeland EK. 2010. Coevolution between native and invasive plant competitors: implications for invasive species management. Evol. Appl. 3:169–78 [Google Scholar]
  68. Leopold A. 1918. Mixing trout in western waters. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 47:101–2 [Google Scholar]
  69. Leopold A. 1970. Sand County Almanac Random House Digital, Inc.
  70. Losos JB, Arnold SJ, Bejerano G, Brodie E III, Hibbett D. et al. 2013. Evolutionary biology for the 21st century. PLOS Biol. 11:e1001466 [Google Scholar]
  71. Lucek K, Sivasundar A, Seehausen O. 2014. Disentangling the role of phenotypic plasticity and genetic divergence in contemporary ecotype formation during a biological invasion. Evolution 682619–32
  72. Mace GM, Purvis A. 2008. Evolutionary biology and practical conservation: bridging a widening gap. Mol. Ecol. 17:9–19 [Google Scholar]
  73. McLachlan JS, Hellmann JJ, Schwartz MW. 2007. A framework for debate of assisted migration in an era of climate change. Conserv. Biol. 21:297–302 [Google Scholar]
  74. McMahon SM, Harrison SP, Armbruster WS, Bartlein PJ, Beale CM. et al. 2011. Improving assessment and modelling of climate change impacts on global terrestrial biodiversity. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26:249–59 [Google Scholar]
  75. Millenn. Ecosyst. Assess 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being. Washington, DC: Island
  76. Monosson E. 2013. Evolution in a Toxic World: How Life Responds to Chemical Threats Washington, DC: Island
  77. Moritz C, Agudo R. 2013. The future of species under climate change: resilience or decline?. Science 341:504–8 [Google Scholar]
  78. Natl. Res. Counc 2013. Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change. Anticipating Surprises. Philadelphia: Natl. Res. Counc. Natl. Acad.
  79. Newhouse AE, Polin-McGuigan LD, Baier KA, Valletta KER, Rottmann WH. et al. 2014. Transgenic American chestnuts show enhanced blight resistance and transmit the trait to T1 progeny. Plant Sci. In press. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2014.04.004
  80. O'Neill CM, Morgan C, Kirby J, Tschoep H, Deng PX. et al. 2008. Six new recombinant inbred populations for the study of quantitative traits in Arabidopsis thaliana. Theor. Appl. Genet. 116:623–34 [Google Scholar]
  81. Olsen EM, Heupel MR, Simpfendorfer CA, Moland E. 2012. Harvest selection on Atlantic cod behavioral traits: implications for spatial management. Ecol. Evol. 2:1549–62 [Google Scholar]
  82. Ouborg N, Pertoldi C, Loeschcke V, Bijlsma RK, Hedrick PW. 2010. Conservation genetics in transition to conservation genomics. Trends Genet. 26:177–87 [Google Scholar]
  83. Palkovacs EP, Wasserman BA, Kinnison MT. 2011. Eco-evolutionary trophic dynamics: loss of top predators drives trophic evolution and ecology of prey. PLOS One 6:4e18879 [Google Scholar]
  84. Pauly D. 1995. Anecdotes and the shifting baseline syndrome of fisheries. Trends Ecol. Evol. 10:430 [Google Scholar]
  85. Pelletier F, Garant D, Hendry A. 2009. Eco-evolutionary dynamics. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 364:1483–89 [Google Scholar]
  86. Pleasants JM, Oberhauser KS. 2013. Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population. Insect Conserv. Divers. 6:135–44 [Google Scholar]
  87. Possingham H, Kinnison M. 2010. Is conservation too conservative. Decis. Point 36:2–3 [Google Scholar]
  88. Prentis PJ, Wilson JRU, Dormontt EE, Richardson DM, Lowe AJ. 2008. Adaptive evolution in invasive species. Trends Plant Sci. 13:288–94 [Google Scholar]
  89. Pujolar JM, Jacobsen MW, Frydenberg J, Als TD, Larsen PF. et al. 2013. A resource of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms generated by RAD tag sequencing in the critically endangered European eel. Mol. Ecol. Resour. 13:706–14 [Google Scholar]
  90. Reed TE, Waples RS, Schindler DE, Hard JJ, Kinnison MT. 2010. Phenotypic plasticity and population viability: the importance of environmental predictability. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 277:3391–400 [Google Scholar]
  91. Rhymer JM. 2008. Hybridization, introgression, and the evolutionary management of threatened species. See Carroll & Fox 2008 130–40 [Google Scholar]
  92. Riley SPD, Pollinger JP, Sauvajot RM, York EC, Bromley C. et al. 2006. A southern California freeway is a physical and social barrier to gene flow in carnivores. Mol. Ecol. 15:1733–41 [Google Scholar]
  93. Roush RT. 1998. Two-toxin strategies for management of insecticidal transgenic crops: Can pyramiding succeed where pesticide mixtures have not?. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. B-Biol. Sci. 353:1777–86 [Google Scholar]
  94. Schlaepfer MA, Sherman PW, Blossey B, Runge MC. 2005. Introduced species as evolutionary traps. Ecol. Lett. 8:241–46 [Google Scholar]
  95. Schlaepfer MA, Sherman PW, Runge MC. 2010. Decision making, environmental change, and population persistence. Evolutionary Behavioral Ecology DF Westneat, CW Fox 506–15 Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  96. Schlichting C, Pigliucci M. 1998. Phenotypic Evolution: A Reaction Norm Perspective Sunderland, MA: Sinauer
  97. Schreiber SG, Ding C, Hamann A, Hacke UG, Thomas BR, Brouard JS. 2013. Frost hardiness vs. growth performance in trembling aspen: an experimental test of assisted migration. J. Appl. Ecol. 50:939–49 [Google Scholar]
  98. Seehausen O. 2007. Evolution and ecological theory—chance, historical contingency and ecological determinism jointly determine the rate of adaptive radiation. Heredity 99:361–63 [Google Scholar]
  99. Seehausen O, Takimoto G, Roy D, Jokela J. 2008. Speciation reversal and biodiversity dynamics with hybridization in changing environments. Mol. Ecol. 17:30–44 [Google Scholar]
  100. Seehausen O, van Alphen JJM, Witte F. 1997. Cichlid fish diversity threatened by eutrophication that curbs sexual selection. Science 277:1808–11 [Google Scholar]
  101. Sexton JP, Strauss SY, Rice KJ. 2011. Gene flow increases fitness at the warm edge of a species' range. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:11704–9 [Google Scholar]
  102. Sgro CM, Lowe AJ, Hoffmann AA. 2011. Building evolutionary resilience for conserving biodiversity under climate change. Evol. Appl. 4:326–37 [Google Scholar]
  103. Shenoy K, Crowley PH. 2011. Endocrine disruption of male mating signals: ecological and evolutionary implications. Funct. Ecol. 25:433–48 [Google Scholar]
  104. Siepielski AM, Gotanda KM, Morrissey MB, Diamond SE, DiBattista JD, Carlson SM. 2013. The spatial patterns of directional phenotypic selection. Ecol. Lett. 16:1382–92 [Google Scholar]
  105. Simberloff D. 2009. The role of propagule pressure in biological invasions. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 40:81–102 [Google Scholar]
  106. Smith TB, Bernatchez L. 2008. Evolutionary change in human-altered environments. Mol. Ecol. 17:1 [Google Scholar]
  107. Smith TB, Bruford MW, Wayne RK. 1993. The preservation of process: the missing element of conservation programs. Biodivers. Lett. 1:164–67 [Google Scholar]
  108. Smith TB, Grether G. 2008. The importance of conserving evolutionary process. See Carroll & Fox 2008 85–98
  109. Smith TB, Wayne RK. 1996. Molecular Genetic Approaches in Conservation New York: Oxford Univ. Press
  110. Smyser TJ, Johnson SA, Page LK, Hudson CM, Rhodes OE. 2013. Use of experimental translocations of allegheny woodrat to decipher causal agents of decline. Conserv. Biol. 27:752–62 [Google Scholar]
  111. Snyder NFR, Derrickson SR, Beissinger SR, Wiley JW, Smith TB, Woone WD. 1997. Limitations of captive breeding: reply to Hutchins, Wiese, and Willis. Conserv. Biol. 11:3–5 [Google Scholar]
  112. Soule ME, Orians GH. 2001. Conservation biology research: its challenges and contexts. Conservation Biology: Research Priorities for the Next Decade ME Soulé, GH Orians 271–86 Washington, DC: Island [Google Scholar]
  113. Staddon P, Lindo Z, Crittenden PD, Gilbert F, Gonzalez A. 2010. Connectivity, non-random extinction and ecosystem function in experimental metacommunities. Ecol. Lett. 13:543–52 [Google Scholar]
  114. Stockwell CA, Hendry AP, Kinnison MT. 2003. Contemporary evolution meets conservation biology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 18:94–101 [Google Scholar]
  115. Tabashnik BE, Brevault T, Carriere Y. 2013. Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres. Nat. Biotechnol. 31:510–21 [Google Scholar]
  116. Tabashnik BE, Mota-Sanchez D, Whalon ME, Hollingworth RM, Carriere Y. 2014. Defining terms for proactive management of resistance to Bt crops and pesticides. J. Econ. Entomol. 107:496–507 [Google Scholar]
  117. Thomas L, Bell JJ. 2013. Testing the consistency of connectivity patterns for a widely dispersing marine species. Heredity 111:345–54 [Google Scholar]
  118. Thomassen HA, Fuller T, Buermann W, Mila B, Kieswetter CM. et al. 2011. Mapping evolutionary process: a multi-taxa approach to conservation prioritization. Evol. Appl. 4:397–413 [Google Scholar]
  119. Tymchuk WV, O'Reilly P, Bittman J, MacDonald D, Schulte P. 2010. Conservation genomics of Atlantic salmon: variation in gene expression between and within regions of the Bay of Fundy. Mol. Ecol. 19:1842–59 [Google Scholar]
  120. Vandergast AG, Bohonak AJ, Hathaway SA, Boys J, Fisher RN. 2008. Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern California?. Biol. Conserv. 141:1648–64 [Google Scholar]
  121. Vitt P, Havens K, Kramer AT, Sollenberger D, Yates E. 2010. Assisted migration of plants: changes in latitudes, changes in attitudes. Biol. Conserv. 143:18–27 [Google Scholar]
  122. Vourc'h G, Martin JL, Duncan P, Escarre J, Clausen TP. 2001. Defensive adaptations of Thuja plicata to ungulate browsing: a comparative study between mainland and island populations. Oecologia 126:84–93 [Google Scholar]
  123. Wake DB, Vredenburg VT. 2008. Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:11466–73 [Google Scholar]
  124. Wang ZH. 2010. The dynamics of ecosystem restoration: theoretical considerations on the basis of species richness. Plant Ecol. 209:205–17 [Google Scholar]
  125. Warmuth V, Manica A, Eriksson A, Barker G, Bower M. 2013. Autosomal genetic diversity in non-breed horses from eastern Eurasia provides insights into historical population movements. Anim. Genet. 44:53–61 [Google Scholar]
  126. Williams SE, Shoo LP, Isaac JL, Hoffmann AA, Langham G. 2008. Towards an integrated framework for assessing the vulnerability of species to climate change. PLOS Biol. 6:2621–26 [Google Scholar]
  127. Wilson L, Downes S, Khan M, Whitehouse M, Baker G. et al. 2013. IPM in the transgenic era: a review of the challenges from emerging pests in Australian cotton system. Crop Pasture Sci. 64:737–49 [Google Scholar]
  128. Xu CY, Julien MH, Fatemi M, Girod C, Van Klinken RD. et al. 2010. Phenotypic divergence during the invasion of Phyla canescens in Australia and France: evidence for selection-driven evolution. Ecol. Lett. 13:32–44 [Google Scholar]
  129. Zamora L, Clavero M, Garcia-Berthou E. 2005. Habitat use and feeding ecology of chub Squalius cephalus (L.) in Lake Banyoles (NE Spain). J. Fish Biol. 67:294–94 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error