A regional species pool comprises all species available to colonize a focal site. The roots of the concept are imbedded in island biogeography theory, supply-side ecology, and early propagule addition experiments. The pool concept allows ecologists to examine large-scale effects—including geographic area, evolutionary age, and immigration and diversification—on the diversity, composition, and phylogenetic structure of local communities. Both theory and evidence show that pool influences are greatest when local communities are not strongly and predictably structured by species interactions (e.g., under frequent disturbance or if many species are rare). Practical and conceptual issues to consider when delineating species pools include choosing an appropriate spatial scale, whether to account for environmental filtering, whether to include the species within a fixed geographic area versus those whose geographic ranges overlap with a site, or whether to use databases or geographic data sources. Each issue is discussed in the context of 63 studies using the species pool approach. We conclude that the species pool concept has contributed greatly to our understanding of community dynamics by bridging the gap between large and small spatial scales. Future studies must compare pool characteristics with community structure across multiple regions for a more complete understanding of community assembly.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Agosta SJ, Klemens JA. 2008. Ecological fitting by phenotypically flexible genotypes: implications for species associations, community assembly and evolution. Ecol. Lett. 11:1123–34 [Google Scholar]
  2. Anacker BL, Harrison SP. 2012. Historical and ecological controls on phylogenetic diversity in Californian plant communities. Am. Nat. 180:257–69 [Google Scholar]
  3. Anderson MJ, Crist TO, Chase JM, Vellend M, Inouye BD. et al. 2011. Navigating the multiple meanings of β diversity: a roadmap for the practicing ecologist. Ecol. Lett. 14:19–28 [Google Scholar]
  4. Angermeier PL, Winston MR. 1998. Local vs. regional influences on local diversity in stream fish communities of Virginia. Ecology 79:911–27 [Google Scholar]
  5. Arita HT, Rodríguez P. 2004. Local-regional relationships and the geographical distribution of species. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 13:15–21 [Google Scholar]
  6. Belote RT, Sanders NJ, Jones RH. 2009. Disturbance alters local-regional richness relationships in Appalachian forests. Ecology 90:2940–47 [Google Scholar]
  7. Belmaker J. 2009. Species richness of resident and transient coral dwelling fish responds differentially to regional diversity. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 18:426–36 [Google Scholar]
  8. Belmaker J, Jetz W. 2012. Regional pools and environmental controls on vertebrate richness. Am. Nat. 179:512–23 [Google Scholar]
  9. Belmaker J, Ziv Y, Shashar N, Connolly S. 2008. Regional variation in the hierarchical partitioning of alpha and beta diversity in coral-dwelling fishes. Ecology 89:2829–40 [Google Scholar]
  10. Bini LM, JAF Diniz Filho, Bonfim F, Bastos RP. 2000. Local and regional species richness relationships in viperid snake assemblages from South America: unsaturated patterns at three different spatial scales. Copeia 2000:799–805 [Google Scholar]
  11. Borges PAV, Brown VK. 2004. Arthropod community structure in pastures of an island archipelago (Azores): looking for local-regional species richness patterns at fine-scales. Bull. Entomol. Res. 94:111–21 [Google Scholar]
  12. Burns J, Strauss SY. 2011. More closely related species are more ecologically similar in an experimental test. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:5302–7 [Google Scholar]
  13. Cadotte MW. 2006. Metacommunity influences on community richness at multiple spatial scales: a microcosm experiment. Ecology 87:1008–16 [Google Scholar]
  14. Caley MJ, Schluter D. 1997. The relationship between local and regional diversity. Ecology 78:70–80 [Google Scholar]
  15. Calvete C, Blanco-Aguiar JA, Virgo E, Cabezas-Díaz S, Villafuerte R. 2004. Spatial variation in helminth community structure in the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa L.): effects of definitive host density. Parasitology 129:101–13 [Google Scholar]
  16. Canning-Clode J, Bellou N, Kaufmann MJ, Wahl M. 2009. Local-regional richness relationship in fouling assemblages—effects of succession. Basic Appl. Ecol. 10:745–53 [Google Scholar]
  17. Carstensen DW, Lessard J-P, Holt BG, Borregard MK, Rahbek C. 2013. Introducing the biogeographic species pool. Ecography 36:1–9 [Google Scholar]
  18. Chase JM, Myers JA. 2011. Disentangling the importance of ecological niches from stochastic processes across scales. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 366:2351–63 [Google Scholar]
  19. Chisholm RA, Pacala SW. 2010. Niche and neutral models predict asymptotically equivalent species abundance distributions in high-diversity ecological communities. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107:15821–25 [Google Scholar]
  20. Clark JS, McLachlan JS. 2003. Stability of forest biodiversity. Nature 423:635–38 [Google Scholar]
  21. Clements FE. 1916. Plant succession: an analysis of the development of vegetation Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 242, Washington, DC
  22. Collins SL, Glenn SM, Briggs JM. 2002. Effect of local and regional processes on plant species richness in tallgrass prairie. Oikos 99:571–79 [Google Scholar]
  23. Connolly SR, Bellwood DR, Hughes TP. 2003. Indo-Pacific biodiversity of coral reefs: deviations from a mid-domain model. Ecology 84:2178–90 [Google Scholar]
  24. Cornell HV. 1985. Local and regional richness of cynipine gall wasps on California oaks. Ecology 66:1247–60 [Google Scholar]
  25. Cornell HV. 2013. Is regional species diversity bounded or unbounded?. Biol. Rev. 88:140–65 [Google Scholar]
  26. Cornell HV, Karlson R. 1996. Species richness of reef building corals determined by local and regional processes. J. Anim. Ecol. 65:233–41 [Google Scholar]
  27. Cornell HV, Karlson RH, Hughes TP. 2008. Local-regional species richness relationships are linear at very small to large scales in west-central Pacific corals. Coral Reefs 27:145–51 [Google Scholar]
  28. Dawah HA, Hawkins BA, Claridge MF. 1995. Structure of the parasitoid communities of grass-feeding chalcid wasps. J. Anim. Ecol. 64:708–20 [Google Scholar]
  29. Duncan RP, Buckley HL, Urlich SC, Stewart GH, Geritzlehner J. 1998. Small-scale species richness in forest canopy gaps: the role of niche limitation versus the size of the species pool. J. Veg. Sci. 9:455–60 [Google Scholar]
  30. Ekroos J, Kuussaari M. 2012. Landscape context affects the relationship between local and landscape species richness of butterflies in semi-natural habitats. Ecography 35:232–38 [Google Scholar]
  31. Elmendorf SC, Moore KA. 2008. Plant competition varies with community composition in an edaphically complex landscape. Ecology 88:2640–50 [Google Scholar]
  32. Findley JS, Findley MT. 2001. Global, regional, and local patterns in species richness and abundance of butterflyfishes. Ecol. Monogr. 71:69–91 [Google Scholar]
  33. Fine PVA, Mesones I, Coley PD. 2004. Herbivores promote habitat specialization by trees in Amazonian forests. Science 305:663–65 [Google Scholar]
  34. Fitzpatrick BM, Turelli M. 2006. The geography of mammalian speciation: mixed signals from phylogenies and range maps. Evolution 60:601–15 [Google Scholar]
  35. Freestone AL, Harrison S. 2006. Regional enrichment of local assemblages is robust to variation in local productivity, abiotic gradients, and heterogeneity. Ecol. Lett. 9:95–102 [Google Scholar]
  36. Freestone AL, Osman RW. 2011. Latitudinal variation in local interactions and regional enrichment shape patterns of marine community diversity. Ecology 92:208–17 [Google Scholar]
  37. Gaines S, Roughgarden J. 1985. Larval settlement rate: a leading determinant of structure in an ecological community of the marine intertidal zone. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:3707–11 [Google Scholar]
  38. Galbiati C, DeSouza O, Schoereder JH. 2005. Diversity patterns in termite communities: species-area relationship, alpha and beta diversity (Isoptera: Termitidae). Sociobiology 45:1–12 [Google Scholar]
  39. Ghalambor CK, Huey RB, Martin PR, Tewksbury JJ, Wang G. 2006. Are mountain passes higher in the tropics? Janzen's hypothesis revisited. Integr. Comp. Biol. 46:5–17 [Google Scholar]
  40. Gleason HA. 1927. Further views on the succession concept. Ecology 8:299–326 [Google Scholar]
  41. Gough L, Grace JB, Taylor KL. 1994. The relationship between species richness and community biomass: the importance of environmental variables. Oikos 70:271–79 [Google Scholar]
  42. Grace JB, Harrison S, Damschen EI. 2011. Local richness along gradients in the Siskiyou herb flora: R. H. Whittaker revisited. Ecology 92:108–20 [Google Scholar]
  43. Griffiths D. 1997. Local and regional species richness in North American lacustrine fish. J. Anim. Ecol. 66:49–56 [Google Scholar]
  44. Grönroos M, Heino J. 2012. Species richness at the guild level: effects of species pool and local environmental conditions on stream macroinvertebrate communities. J. Anim. Ecol. 81:679–91 [Google Scholar]
  45. Harper JL. 1977. Population Biology of Plants New York: Academic900
  46. Harrison S, Cornell HV, Moore KA. 2010. Spatial niches and coexistence: testing theory with tarweeds. Ecology 91:2141–50 [Google Scholar]
  47. Harrison S, Safford HD, Grace JB, Viers JH, Davies KF. 2006. Regional and local species richness in an insular environment: serpentine plants in California. Ecol. Monogr. 76:41–56 [Google Scholar]
  48. Harrison SP, Cornell HV. 2008. Toward a better understanding of regional causes of local species richness. Ecol. Lett. 11:969–79 [Google Scholar]
  49. Hawkins BA, Compton SG. 1992. African fig wasp communities: undersaturation and latitudinal gradients in species richness. J. Anim. Ecol. 61:361–72 [Google Scholar]
  50. Heino J, Muotka T, Paavola R. 2003. Determinants of macroinvertebrate diversity in headwater streams: regional and local influences. J. Anim. Ecol. 72:425–34 [Google Scholar]
  51. Hjort J. 1926. Fluctuations in the year classes of important food fishes. J. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 1:5–18 [Google Scholar]
  52. Holyoak MA, Lawler SP. 1996. Persistence of an extinction-prone predator-prey interaction through metapopulation dynamics. Ecology 77:1867–79 [Google Scholar]
  53. Hubbell SP. 2001. The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press448
  54. Hubbell SP, Foster RB. 1986. Biology, chance, and the structure of tropical rain forest tree communities. Community Ecology J Diamond, TJ Case 314–29 New York: Harper & Row [Google Scholar]
  55. Hugueny B, Paugy D. 1995. Unsaturated fish communities in African rivers. Am. Nat. 146:162–69 [Google Scholar]
  56. Hurlbert AH, Jetz W. 2010. More than “more individuals”: the nonequivalence of area and energy in the scaling of species richness. Am. Nat. 176:E50–65 [Google Scholar]
  57. Hurtt GC, Pacala SW. 1995. The consequences of recruitment limitation: reconciling chance, history and competitive differences between plants. J. Theor. Biol. 176:1–12 [Google Scholar]
  58. Kallimanis AS, Halley JM, Sgardelis SP. 2006. Scale dependence of the local-regional diversity relationship: empirical evidence from a woody plant community. J. Biol. Res. 6:221–26 [Google Scholar]
  59. Keith SA, Baird AH, Hughes TP, Madin JS, Connolly SR. 2013. Faunal breaks and species composition of Indo-Pacific corals: the role of plate tectonics, environment and habitat distribution. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 280:20130818 [Google Scholar]
  60. Kennedy R, Guégan J-F. 1996. The number of niches in intestinal helminth communities of Anguilla anguilla: Are there enough spaces for parasites?. Parasitology 113:293–302 [Google Scholar]
  61. Kraft NJB, Comita LS, Chase JM, Sanders NJ, Swenson NG. et al. 2011. Disentangling the drivers of β-diversity along latitudinal and elevational gradients. Science 333:1755–58 [Google Scholar]
  62. Krasnov BR, Stanko M, Khokhlova IS, Miklisova D, Morand S. et al. 2006. Relationships between local and regional species richness in flea communities of small mammalian hosts: saturation and spatial scale. Parasitol. Res. 98:403–13 [Google Scholar]
  63. Kristiansen T, Svenning J-C, Pedersen D, Eiserhardt WL, Grández C, Balslev H. 2011. Local and regional palm (Arecaceae) species richness patterns and their cross-scale determinants in the western Amazon. J. Ecol. 99:1001–15 [Google Scholar]
  64. Lawes MJ, Eeley HAC. 2000. Are local patterns of anthropoid primate diversity related to patterns of diversity at a larger scale?. J. Biogeogr. 27:1421–35 [Google Scholar]
  65. Lawes MJ, Eeley HAC, Piper SE. 2000. The relationship between local and regional diversity of indigenous forest fauna in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Biodivers. Conserv. 9:683–705 [Google Scholar]
  66. Lawes MJ, Obiri JAF. 2003. Canopy gaps in subtropical forest in South Africa: size of the species pool and not the number of available niches limits species richness. J. Trop. Ecol. 19:549–56 [Google Scholar]
  67. Lawton JH. 1999. Are there general laws in ecology?. Oikos 84:177–92 [Google Scholar]
  68. Lawton JH, Lewinson TM, Compton SG. 1993. Patterns of diversity for insect herbivores on bracken. Species Diversity in Ecological Communities: Historical and Geographical Perspectives RE Ricklefs, D Schluter 178–84 Chicago: Univ. Chic. Press [Google Scholar]
  69. Leibold MA, Holyoak M, Mouquet N, Amarasekare P, Chase JM. et al. 2004. The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecol. Lett. 7:601–13 [Google Scholar]
  70. Lessard J-P, Belmaker J, Myers JA, Chase JM, Rahbek C. 2012a. Inferring local ecological processes amid source pool influences. Trends Ecol. Evol. 27:11600–7 [Google Scholar]
  71. Lessard J-P, Borregaard MK, Fordyce JA, Rahbek C, Weiser MD. et al. 2012b. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 279:266–74 [Google Scholar]
  72. Marchant R, Ryan D, Metzeling L. 2006. Regional and local species diversity patterns for lotic invertebrates across multiple drainage basins in Victoria. Mar. Freshw. Res. 57:675–84 [Google Scholar]
  73. McPeek M, Brown J. 2000. Building a regional species pool: diversification of the Enallagma damselflies in eastern North America. Ecology 81:904–20 [Google Scholar]
  74. Morand S, Poulin R, Rohde K, Hayward C. 1999. Aggregation and species coexistence of ectoparasites of marine fishes. Int. J. Parasitol. 29:663–72 [Google Scholar]
  75. Mueller-Dombois D, Ellenberg H. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology New York: Wiley & Sons547
  76. Munguia P. 2004. Successional patterns on pen shell communities at local and regional scales. J. Anim. Ecol. 73:64–74 [Google Scholar]
  77. Myers JA, Harms KE. 2009. Seed arrival, ecological filters, and plant species richness: a meta-analysis. Ecol. Lett. 12:1250–60 [Google Scholar]
  78. Myers JA, Harms KE. 2011. Seed arrival and ecological filters interact to assemble high-diversity plant communities. Ecology 92:676–86 [Google Scholar]
  79. Myers JA, Chase JM, Jiménez I, Jørgensen PM, Araujo-Murakami A. et al. 2012. Beta-diversity in temperate and tropical forests reflects dissimilar mechanisms of community assembly. Ecol. Lett. 16:151–57 [Google Scholar]
  80. Oberdorff T, Hugueny B, Compin A, Belkessam D. 1998. Non-interactive fish communities in the coastal streams of north-western France. J. Anim. Ecol. 67:472–84 [Google Scholar]
  81. Pärtel M, Szava-Kovats R, Zobel M. 2011. Dark diversity: shedding light on absent species. Trends Ecol. Evol. 26:124–28 [Google Scholar]
  82. Pärtel M, Zobel M, Zobel K, van der Maarel E. 1996. The species pool and its relation to species richness evidence from Estonian plant communities. Oikos 75:111–17 [Google Scholar]
  83. Passy SI. 2009. The relationship between local and regional diatom richness is mediated by the local and regional environment. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 8:383–91 [Google Scholar]
  84. Pigot AL, Tobias JA. 2013. Species interactions constrain geographic range expansion over evolutionary time. Ecol. Lett. 16:330–38 [Google Scholar]
  85. Price TD, Kirkpatrick M. 2009. Evolutionarily stable range limits set by interspecific competition. Proc. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci. 276:1429–34 [Google Scholar]
  86. Price TD, Mohan D, Tietze DT, Hooper DM, Orme CDL, Rasmussen PC. 2011. Determinants of northern range limits along the Himalayan bird diversity gradient. Am. Nat. 178:S97–108 [Google Scholar]
  87. Qian H, Ricklefs RE. 2000. Large-scale processes and the Asian bias in diversity of temperate plants. Nature 407:180–82 [Google Scholar]
  88. Rabosky DL. 2009. Ecological limits and diversification rate: alternative paradigms to explain the variation in species richness among clades and regions. Ecol. Lett. 12:735–43 [Google Scholar]
  89. Richardson DM, Cowling R, Lamont B, van Hensbergen HJ. 1995. Coexistence of Banksia species in southwestern Australia: the role of regional and local processes. J. Veg. Sci. 6:329–42 [Google Scholar]
  90. Ricker WE. 1954. Stock and recruitment. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 11:559–623 [Google Scholar]
  91. Ricklefs RE. 1987. Community diversity: the relative roles of regional and local processes. Science 235:167–71 [Google Scholar]
  92. Ricklefs RE. 2000. The relationship between local and regional species richness in birds of the Caribbean Basin. J. Anim. Ecol. 69:1111–16 [Google Scholar]
  93. Ricklefs RE. 2008. Disintegration of the ecological community. Am. Nat. 172:741–50 [Google Scholar]
  94. Ricklefs RE. 2012. Naturalists, natural history and the nature of biodiversity. Am. Nat. 179:423–35 [Google Scholar]
  95. Ricklefs RE, Schwarzbach AE, Renner SS. 2006. Rate of lineage origin explains the diversity anomaly in the world's mangrove vegetation. Am. Nat. 168:805–10 [Google Scholar]
  96. Rivadeneira MM, Fernandez M, Navarrete SA. 2002. Latitudinal trends of species diversity in rocky intertidal herbivore assemblages: spatial scale and the relationship between local and regional species richness. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 245:123–31 [Google Scholar]
  97. Rosenzweig ML, Ziv Y. 1999. The echo pattern of species diversity: pattern and processes. Ecography 22:614–28 [Google Scholar]
  98. Roslin T. 2001. Large-scale spatial ecology of dung beetles. Ecography 24:511–24 [Google Scholar]
  99. Russell R, Wood SA, Allison G, Menge BA. 2006. Scale, environment, and trophic status: the context dependency of community saturation in rocky intertidal communities. Am. Nat. 167:E158–170 [Google Scholar]
  100. Schemske DW, Mittelbach GG, Cornell HV, Sobel JM, Roy K. 2009. Is there a latitudinal gradient in the importance of biotic interactions?. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 40:245–69 [Google Scholar]
  101. Schoener TW. 2010. The MacArthur-Wilson equilibrium model: a chronicle of what it said and how it was tested. The Theory of Island Biogeography Revisited JB Losos, RE Ricklefs 52–87 Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  102. Shipley B, Paine T, Baralolo C. 2012. Quantifying the importance of local niche-based and stochastic processes to tropical tree community assembly. Ecology 93:760–69 [Google Scholar]
  103. Shurin JB. 2000. Local and regional zooplankton species richness: a scale-independent test for saturation. Ecology 81:3062–73 [Google Scholar]
  104. Siepielski AM, McPeek MA. 2010. On the evidence for species coexistence: a critique of the coexistence program. Ecology 91:3153–64 [Google Scholar]
  105. Soares SM, Schoereder JH, DeSouza O. 2001. Processes involved in species saturation of ground-dwelling ant communities (Hymenoptera, Formicidae). Austral. Ecol. 26:187–92 [Google Scholar]
  106. Soininen J, Heino J, Kokocinski M, Muotka T. 2009. Local-regional diversity relationship varies with spatial scale in lotic diatoms. J. Biogeogr. 36:720–27 [Google Scholar]
  107. Spalding VM. 1909. Distribution and movement of desert plants Carnegie Inst. Wash., Publ. No. 113, Washington, DC
  108. Srivastava DS. 1999. Using local-regional richness plots to test for species saturation: pitfalls and potentials. J. Anim. Ecol. 68:1–16 [Google Scholar]
  109. Starzomski BM, Parker RL, Srivastava DS. 2008. Does regional species richness determine local species richness? An experimental test of saturation theory. Ecology 89:1921–30 [Google Scholar]
  110. Stendera SES, Johnson RK. 2005. Additive partitioning of aquatic invertebrate species diversity across multiple spatial scales. Freshw. Biol. 50:1360–75 [Google Scholar]
  111. Stephens PR, Wiens JJ. 2003. Explaining species richness from continents to communities: the time-for-speciation effect in emydid turtles. Am. Nat. 161:112–28 [Google Scholar]
  112. Stevens RD, Willig MR. 2002. Geographical ecology at the community level: perspectives on the diversity of New World bats. Ecology 83:545–60 [Google Scholar]
  113. Stohlgren TJ, Barnett DT, Jarnevich CS, Flather C, Kartesz C. 2008. The myth of plant species saturation. Ecol. Lett. 11:315–26 [Google Scholar]
  114. Sutherland JP. 1974. Multiple stable points in natural communities. Am. Nat. 108:859–73 [Google Scholar]
  115. Svenning J-C, Skov F. 2004. Limited filling of the potential range in European tree species. Ecol. Lett. 7:565–73 [Google Scholar]
  116. Svenning J-C, Skov F. 2010. Could the tree diversity pattern in Europe be generated by postglacial dispersal limitation?. Ecol. Lett. 10:453–60 [Google Scholar]
  117. Swenson NG, Enquist BJ, Pither J, Thompson J, Zimmerman JK. 2006. The problem and promise of scale dependency in community phylogenetics. Ecology 87:2418–24 [Google Scholar]
  118. Szava-Kovats RC, Ronk A, Pärtel M. 2013. Pattern without bias: local-regional richness relationship revisited. Ecology 94:1986–92 [Google Scholar]
  119. Terborgh JW, Faaborg J. 1980. Saturation of bird communities in the West Indies. Am. Nat. 116:178–95 [Google Scholar]
  120. Tilman D. 2004. Niche tradeoffs, neutrality, and community structure: a stochastic theory of resource competition, invasion, and community assembly. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:10854–61 [Google Scholar]
  121. Valone TJ, Hoffman CD. 2002. Effects of regional pool size on local diversity in small-scale annual plant communities. Ecol. Lett. 5:477–80 [Google Scholar]
  122. Vaughn CC. 1997. Regional patterns of mussel distributions in North American rivers. Ecography 20:107–15 [Google Scholar]
  123. Webb CO, Ackerly DD, McPeek MA, Donoghue MJ. 2002. Phylogenies and community ecology. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33:475–505 [Google Scholar]
  124. Weiher E, Freund D, Bunton T, Stefanski A, Lee T, Bentivenga S. 2011. Advances, challenges, and a developing synthesis of ecological community assembly theory. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B 366:2403–13 [Google Scholar]
  125. White EP, Hurlbert AH. 2010. The combined influence of the local environment and regional enrichment on bird species richness. Am. Nat. 175:E35–43 [Google Scholar]
  126. Wiens JJ, Pyron RA, Moen DS. 2011. Phylogenetic origins of local-scale diversity patterns and the causes of Amazonian megadiversity. Ecol. Lett. 14:643–53 [Google Scholar]
  127. Winkler H, Kampichler C. 2000. Local and regional species richness in communities of surface-dwelling grassland Collembola: indication of species saturation. Ecography 23:385–92 [Google Scholar]
  128. Witman JD, Etter RJ, Smith F. 2004. The relationship between regional and local species diversity in marine benthic communities: a global perspective. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:15664–69 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Material

Supplementary Data

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error