1932

Abstract

Aquatic environments experiencing low-oxygen conditions have been described as hypoxic, suboxic, or anoxic zones; oxygen minimum zones; and, in the popular media, the misnomer “dead zones.” This review aims to elucidate important aspects underlying oxygen depletion in diverse coastal systems and provides a synthesis of general relationships between hypoxia and its controlling factors. After presenting a generic overview of the first-order processes, we review system-specific characteristics for selected estuaries where adjacent human settlements contribute to high nutrient loads, river-dominated shelves that receive large inputs of fresh water and anthropogenic nutrients, and upwelling regions where a supply of nutrient-rich, low-oxygen waters generates oxygen minimum zones without direct anthropogenic influence. We propose a nondimensional number that relates the hypoxia timescale and water residence time to guide the cross-system comparison. Our analysis reveals the basic principles underlying hypoxia generation in coastal systems and provides a framework for discussing future changes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095138
2019-01-03
2024-07-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/marine/11/1/annurev-marine-010318-095138.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095138&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Belley R, Archambault P, Sundby B, Gilbert F, Gagnon J-M 2010. Effects of hypoxia on benthic macrofauna and bioturbation in the Estuary and Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Cont. Shelf Res 30:1302–13
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Blackford JC, Gilbert FJ 2007. pH variability and CO2 induced acidification in the North Sea. J. Mar. Syst. 64:229–41
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bourgault D, Cyr F, Galbraith PS, Pelletier E 2012. Relative importance of pelagic and sediment respiration in causing hypoxia in a deep estuary. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 117:C08033
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boynton WR, Ceballos MAC, Bailey EM, Hodgkins CLS, Humphrey JL, Testa JM 2018. Oxygen and nutrient exchanges at the sediment-water interface: a global synthesis and critique of estuarine and coastal data. Estuaries Coasts 41:301–33
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Breitburg DL, Hondorp DW, Davias LA, Diaz RJ 2009. Hypoxia, nitrogen, and fisheries: integrating effects across local and global landscapes. Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1:329–49
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bricker S, Longstaff B, Dennison W, Jones A, Boicourt K et al. 2007. Effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation's estuaries: a decade of change Rep., NOAA Coast. Ocean Program Decis Anal. Ser. 26, Natl. Cent. Coast. Ocean Sci Silver Spring, MD:
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Cai W-J, Dai M, Wang Y, Zhai W, Huang T et al. 2004. The biogeochemistry of inorganic carbon and nutrients in the Pearl River Estuary and the adjacent northern South China Sea. Cont. Shelf Res. 24:1301–19
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cai W-J, Hu X, Huang W-J, Murrell MC, Lehrter JC et al. 2011. Acidification of subsurface coastal waters enhanced by eutrophication. Nat. Geosci. 4:766–70
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Cai W-J, Huang W-J, Luther GW III, Pierrot D, Li M et al. 2017. Redox reactions and weak buffering capacity lead to acidification in the Chesapeake Bay. Nat. Commun. 8:369
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Cannaby H, Fach BA, Arkin SS, Salihoglu B 2015. Climatic controls on biophysical interactions in the Black Sea under present day conditions and a potential future (A1B) climate scenario. J. Mar. Syst. 141:149–66
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Capet A, Beckers J-M, Grégoire M 2013. Drivers, mechanisms and long-term variability of seasonal hypoxia on the Black Sea northwestern shelf – is there any recovery after eutrophication?. Biogeosciences 10:3943–62
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Capet A, Meysman FJR, Akoumianaki I, Soetaert K, Grégoire M 2016. Integrating sediment biogeochemistry into 3D oceanic models: a study of benthic-pelagic coupling in the Black Sea. Ocean Model 101:83–100
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Carr ME 2002. Estimation of potential productivity in Eastern Boundary Currents using remote sensing. Deep-Sea Res. II 49:59–80
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Carstensen J, Andersen JH, Gustafsson BG, Conley DJ 2014. Deoxygenation of the Baltic Sea during the last century. PNAS 111:5628–33
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Chan F, Barth JA, Lubchenco J, Kirincich A, Weeks H et al. 2008. Emergence of anoxia in the California Current large marine ecosystem. Science 319:920
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chavez FP, Messié M 2009. A comparison of Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems. Prog. Oceanogr. 83:80–96
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chen C-C, Gong G-C, Shiah F-K 2007. Hypoxia in the East China Sea: one of the largest coastal low-oxygen areas in the world. Mar. Environ. Res 64:399–408
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Chen C-C, Shiah F-K, Chiang K-P, Gong G-C, Kemp WM 2009. Effects of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River discharge on planktonic community respiration in the East China Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 114:C03005
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Chen C-TA, Wang S-L 1999. Carbon, alkalinity and nutrient budgets on the East China Sea continental shelf. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 104:20675–86
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Chi L, Song X, Yuan Y, Wang W, Zhou P et al. 2017. Distribution and key influential factors of dissolved oxygen off the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE) and its adjacent waters in China. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 125:440–50
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Conley DJ 1999. Biogeochemical nutrient cycles and nutrient management strategies. Hydrobiologia 410:87–96
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Conley DJ, Björck S, Bonsdorff E, Carstensen J, Destouni G et al. 2009. Hypoxia-related processes in the Baltic Sea. Environ. Sci. Technol. 43:3412–20
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Conley DJ, Humborg C, Rahm L, Savchuk OP, Wulff F 2002. Hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and basin-scale changes in phosphorus biogeochemistry. Environ. Sci. Technol. 36:5315–20
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Dai M, Guo X, Zhai W, Yuan L, Wang B et al. 2006. Oxygen depletion in the upper reach of the Pearl River estuary during a winter drought. Mar. Chem. 102:159–69
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Diaz RJ, Rosenberg R 2008. Spreading dead zones and consequences for marine ecosystems. Science 321:926–29
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Du J, Shen J 2016. Water residence time in Chesapeake Bay for 1980–2012. J. Mar. Syst. 164:101–11
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Emeis KC, Brüchert V, Currie B, Endler R, Ferdelman T et al. 2004. Shallow gas in shelf sediments of the Namibian coastal upwelling ecosystem. Cont. Shelf Res. 24:627–42
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Fan W, Song J 2014. A numerical study of the seasonal variations of nutrients in the Changjiang River estuary and its adjacent sea area. Ecol. Model. 291:69–81
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Feely RA, Sabine CL, Hernandez-Ayon JM, Ianson D, Hales B 2008. Evidence for upwelling of corrosive “acidified” water onto the continental shelf. Science 320:1490–92
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Feng Y, DiMarco SF, Jackson GA 2012. Relative role of wind forcing and riverine nutrient input on the extent of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39:L09601
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Feng Y, Fennel K, Jackson GA, DiMarco SF, Hetland RD 2014. A model study of the response of hypoxia to upwelling favorable wind on the northern Gulf of Mexico shelf. J. Mar. Syst. 131:63–73
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fennel K, Brady D, DiToro D, Fulweiler R, Gardner WS et al. 2009. Modelling denitrification in aquatic sediments. Biogeochemistry 93:159–78
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Fennel K, Hu J, Laurent A, Marta-Almeida M, Hetland R 2013. Sensitivity of hypoxia predictions for the Northern Gulf of Mexico to sediment oxygen consumption and model nesting. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118:990–1002
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Fennel K, Laurent A 2018. N and P as ultimate and proximate limiting nutrients in the northern Gulf of Mexico: implications for hypoxia reduction strategies. Biogeosciences 15:3121–31
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Fennel K, Laurent A, Hetland R, Justić D, Ko DS et al. 2016. Effects of model physics on hypoxia simulations for the northern Gulf of Mexico: a model intercomparison. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 121:5731–50
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Fisher TR, Gustafson AB, Sellner K, Lacouture R, Haas LW et al. 1999. Spatial and temporal variation of resource limitation in Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Biol. 133:763–78
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Fonselius S, Valderrama J 2003. One hundred years of hydrographic measurements in the Baltic Sea. J. Sea Res. 49:229–41
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Forrest DR, Hetland RD, DiMarco SF 2011. Multivariable statistical regression models of the areal extent of hypoxia over the Texas–Louisiana continental shelf. Environ. Res. Lett. 6:045002
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Freeland HJ, Gatien G, Huyer A, Smith RL 2003. Cold halocline in the northern California current: an invasion of subarctic water. Geophys. Res. Lett. 30:1141
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Galbraith PS 2006. Winter water masses in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 111:C06022
    [Google Scholar]
  41. García-Reyes M, Sydeman WJ, Schoeman DS, Rykaczewski RR, Black BA et al. 2015. Under pressure: climate change, upwelling, and Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems. Front. Mar. Sci. 2:109
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Gay PS, O'Donnell J, Edwards CA 2004. Exchange between Long Island Sound and adjacent waters. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 109:C06017
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Gilbert D, Rabalais N, Díaz R, Zhang J 2010. Evidence for greater oxygen decline rates in the coastal ocean than in the open ocean. Biogeosciences 7:2283–96
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Gilbert D, Sundby B, Gobeil C, Mucci A, Tremblay G-H 2005. A seventy-two year record of diminishing deep-water oxygen in the St. Lawrence estuary: the northwest Atlantic connection. Limnol. Oceanogr 50:1654–66
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Grantham BA, Chan F, Nielsen KJ, Fox DS, Barth JA et al. 2004. Upwelling-driven nearshore hypoxia signals ecosystem and oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific. Nature 429:749–54
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Guo X, Miyazawa Y, Yamagata T 2006. The Kuroshio onshore intrusion along the shelf break of the East China Sea: the origin of the Tsushima Warm Current. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 36:2205–31
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Gutknecht E, Dadou I, Le Vu B, Cambon G, Sudre J et al. 2013. Coupled physical/biogeochemical modeling including O2-dependent processes in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems: application in the Benguela. Biogeosciences 10:3559–91
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Hagy JD, Boynton WR, Keefe CW, Wood KV 2004. Hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay, 1950–2001: long-term change in relation to nutrient loading and river flow. Estuaries 27:634–58
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Harrison PJ, Hu MH, Yang YP, Lu X 1990. Phosphate limitation in estuarine and coastal waters on China. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 140:79–97
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Hickey BM 1998. Coastal oceanography of western North America from the tip of Baja California to Vancouver Island.. The Sea, Vol. 11: The Global Coastal Ocean: Regional Studies and Syntheses AR Robinson, KH Brink 345–93 New York: Wiley & Sons
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Howarth RW, Billen G, Swaney D, Townsend A, Jaworski N et al. 1996. Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: natural and human influences. Biogeochemistry 35:75–139
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Huyer A 1983. Coastal upwelling in the California Current system. Prog. Oceanogr. 12:259–84
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Irby ID, Friedrichs MAM, Da F, Hinson KE 2018. The competing impacts of climate change and nutrient reductions on dissolved oxygen in Chesapeake Bay. Biogeosciences 15:2649–68
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Irby ID, Friedrichs MAM, Friedrichs CT, Bever AJ, Hood RR et al. 2016. Challenges associated with modeling low-oxygen waters in Chesapeake Bay: a multiple model comparison. Biogeosciences 13:2011–28
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Izett JG, Fennel K 2018.a Estimating the cross-shelf export of riverine materials: part 1. General relationships from an idealized numerical model. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 32:160–75
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Izett JG, Fennel K 2018.b Estimating the cross-shelf export of riverine materials: part 2. Estimates of global freshwater and nutrient export. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 32:176–86
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Ji X, Sheng J, Tang L, Liu D, Yang X 2011. Process study of circulation in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal waters in the wet season using a triply-nested circulation model. Ocean Model 38:138–60
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Johansson J 2018. Total and regional runoff to the Baltic Sea Baltic Sea Environ. Fact Sheet, HELCOM Helsinki: http://helcom.fi/baltic-sea-trends/environment-fact-sheets/hydrography/total-and-regional-runoff-to-the-baltic-sea
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Jonsson P, Carman R, Wulff F 1990. Laminated sediments in the Baltic: a tool for evaluating nutrient mass balances. Ambio 19:152–58
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Kemp WM, Boynton WR, Adolf JE, Boesch DF, Boicourt WC et al. 2005. Eutrophication of Chesapeake Bay: historical trends and ecological interactions. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 303:1–29
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Kemp WM, Sampou PA, Caffrey J, Mayer M, Henriksen K, Boynton WR 1990. Ammonium recycling versus denitrification in Chesapeake Bay sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr. 35:1545–63
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Kemp WM, Sampou PA, Garber J, Tuttle J, Boynton WR 1992. Seasonal depletion of oxygen from bottom waters of Chesapeake Bay: roles of benthic and planktonic respiration and physical exchange processes. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 85:137–52
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Laurent A, Fennel K 2014. Simulated reduction of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico due to phosphorus limitation. Elementa 2:22
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Laurent A, Fennel K 2017. Modeling river-induced phosphorus limitation in the context of coastal hypoxia. Modeling Coastal Hypoxia: Numerical Simulations of Patterns, Controls and Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics D Justic, KA Rose, RD Hetland, K Fennel 149–71 Cham, Switz: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Laurent A, Fennel K, Cai W-J, Huang W-J, Barbero L, Wanninkhof R 2017. Eutrophication-induced acidification of coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico: insights into origin and processes from a coupled physical-biogeochemical model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 44:946–56
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Laurent A, Fennel K, Hu J, Hetland R 2012. Simulating the effects of phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plumes. Biogeosciences 9:4707–23
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Laurent A, Fennel K, Ko DS, Lehrter J 2018. Climate change projected to exacerbate impacts of coastal eutrophication in the northern Gulf of Mexico. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 123:3408–26
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Laurent A, Fennel K, Wilson R, Lehrter J, Devereux R 2016. Parameterization of biogeochemical sediment–water fluxes using in situ measurements and a diagenetic model. Biogeosciences 13:77–94
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Lavik G, Stührmann T, Brüchert V, van der Plas A, Mohrholz V et al. 2009. Detoxification of sulphidic African shelf waters by blooming chemolithotrophs. Nature 457:581–84
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Lee M, Shevliakova E, Malyshev S, Milly PCD, Jaffé PR 2016. Climate variability and extremes, interacting with nitrogen storage, amplify eutrophication risk. Geophys. Res. Lett. 43:7520–28
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Lee YJ, Lwiza KMM 2008. Characteristics of bottom dissolved oxygen in Long Island Sound, New York. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 76:187–200
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Lehmann MF, Barnett B, Gélinas Y, Gilbert D, Maranger RJ et al. 2009. Aerobic respiration and hypoxia in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary: stable isotope ratios of dissolved oxygen constrain oxygen sink partitioning. Limnol. Oceanogr. 54:2157–69
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Lehrter JC, Ko DS, Lowe LL, Penta B 2017. Predicted effects of climate change on northern Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. Modeling Coastal Hypoxia: Numerical Simulations of Patterns, Controls and Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics D Justic, KA Rose, RD Hetland, K Fennel 173–214 Cham, Switz: Springer
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Li M, Lee Y-J, Testa JM, Li Y, Ni W et al. 2016. What drives interannual variability of estuarine hypoxia: climate forcing versus nutrient loading?. Geophys. Res. Lett. 43:2127–34
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Li Y, Li M, Kemp WM 2015. A budget analysis of bottom-water dissolved oxygen in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries Coasts 38:2132–48
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Liu SM, Zhang J, Chen HT, Wu Y, Xiong H, Zhang ZF 2003. Nutrients in the Changjiang and its tributaries. Biogeochemistry 62:1–18
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Liu X, Zhang Y, Han W, Tang A, Shen J et al. 2013. Enhanced nitrogen deposition over China. Nature 494:45962
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Ludwig W, Dumont E, Meybeck M, Heussner S 2009. River discharges of water and nutrients to the Mediterranean and Black Sea: major drivers for ecosystem changes during past and future decades. Prog. Oceanogr. 80:199–217
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Marta-Almeida M, Hetland RD, Zhang X 2013. Evaluation of model nesting performance on the Texas-Louisiana continental shelf. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118:2476–91
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Mattern JP, Fennel K, Dowd M 2013. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of model hypoxia estimates for the Texas-Louisiana shelf. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118:1316–32
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Matthäus W 2006. The history of investigation of salt water inflows into the Baltic Sea - from the early beginning to recent results Mar. Sci. Rep. 65, Baltic Sea Res Inst., Rostock-Warnemünde Ger:
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Mee L 2006. Reviving dead zones. Sci. Am. 295:78–85
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Meier HEM, Hordoir R, Andersson HC, Dieterich C, Eilola K et al. 2012. Modeling the combined impact of changing climate and changing nutrient loads on the Baltic Sea environment in an ensemble of transient simulations for 1961–2099. Clim. Dyn. 39:2421–41
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Meier HEM, Väli G, Naumann M, Eilola K, Frauen C 2018. Recently accelerated oxygen consumption rates amplify deoxygenation in the Baltic Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 123:3227–40
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Mohrholz V, Bartholomae CH, van der Plas AK, Lass HU 2008. The seasonal variability of the northern Benguela undercurrent and its relation to the oxygen budget on the shelf. Cont. Shelf Res. 28:424–41
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Monteiro PMS, van der Plas AK, Melice J-L, Florenchie P 2008. Interannual hypoxia variability in a coastal upwelling system: ocean–shelf exchange, climate and ecosystem-state implications. Deep-Sea Res. I 55:435–50
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Monteiro PMS, van der Plas AK, Mohrholz V, Mabille E, Pascall A, Joubert W 2006. Variability of natural hypoxia and methane in a coastal upwelling system: oceanic physics or shelf biology?. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33:L16614
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Murphy RR, Kemp WM, Ball WP 2011. Long-term trends in Chesapeake Bay seasonal hypoxia, stratification, and nutrient loading. Estuaries Coasts 34:1293–309
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Murrell MC, Stanley RS, Lehrter JC 2013. Plankton community respiration, net ecosystem metabolism, and oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf: implications for hypoxia. Cont. Shelf Res. 52:27–38
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Natl. Park Serv. 2017. Mississippi River facts. Natl. Park Serv. https://www.nps.gov/miss/riverfacts.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Nausch G, Nehring D, Aertebjerg G 1999. Anthropogenic nutrient load of the Baltic Sea. Limnologica 29:233–41
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Neumann T, Fennel W, Kremp C 2002. Experimental simulations with an ecosystem model of the Baltic Sea: a nutrient load reduction experiment. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 16:1033
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Neumann T, Radtke H, Seifert T 2017. On the importance of Major Baltic Inflows for oxygenation of the central Baltic Sea. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 122:1090–101
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Nixon SW 1998. Enriching the sea to death. Scientific American Presents Fall 48–53
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Noffke A, Sommer S, Dale AW, Hall POJ, Pfannkuche O 2016. Benthic nutrient fluxes in the Eastern Gotland Basin (Baltic Sea) with particular focus on microbial mat ecosystems. J. Mar. Syst. 158:1–12
    [Google Scholar]
  96. O'Donnell J, Dam HG, Bohlen WF, Fitzgerald W, Gay PS et al. 2008. Intermittent ventilation in the hypoxic zone of western Long Island Sound during the summer of 2004. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 113:C09025
    [Google Scholar]
  97. O'Shea ML, Brosnan TM 2000. Trends in indicators of eutrophication in Western Long Island Sound and the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. Estuaries 23:877–901
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Paerl HW, Valdes LM, Joyner AR, Piehler MF, Lebo ME 2004. Solving problems resulting from solutions: evolution of a dual nutrient management strategy for the eutrophying Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina. Environ. Sci. Technol. 38:3068–73
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Parker CA, O'Reilly JE 1991. Oxygen depletion in Long Island Sound: a historical perspective. Estuaries 14:248–64
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Pers C, Rahm L 2000. Changes in apparent oxygen removal in the Baltic proper deep water. J. Mar. Syst. 25:421–29
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Qian W, Dai M, Xu M, Kao S, Du C et al. 2017. Non-local drivers of the summer hypoxia in the East China Sea off the Changjiang Estuary. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 198:393–99
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Rabalais N, Turner R, Wiseman W Jr 2002. Gulf of Mexico hypoxia, A.K.A. “the dead zone.”. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 33:235–63
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Rabouille C, Conley DJ, Dai MH, Cai W-J, Chen CTA et al. 2008. Comparison of hypoxia among four river-dominated ocean margins: the Changjiang (Yangtze), Mississippi, Pearl, and Rhône rivers. Cont. Shelf Res. 28:1527–37
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Sale JW, Skinner WW 1917. The vertical distribution of dissolved oxygen and the precipitation by salt water in certain tidal areas. J. Frankl. Inst. 184:837–48
    [Google Scholar]
  105. Saucier FJ, Chasse J 2000. Tidal circulation and buoyancy effects in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Atmos.-Ocean 38:505–56
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Saucier FJ, Roy F, Gilbert D, Pellerin P, Ritchie H 2003. Modeling the formation and circulation processes of water masses and sea ice in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 108:3269
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Schmidt M, Eggert A 2016. Oxygen cycling in the northern Benguela Upwelling System: modelling oxygen sources and sinks. Prog. Oceanogr. 149:145–73
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Scully ME 2010. Wind modulation of dissolved oxygen in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries Coasts 33:1164–75
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Scully ME 2013. Physical controls on hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay: a numerical modeling study. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 118:1239–56
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Scully ME 2016. The contribution of physical processes to inter-annual variations of hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay: a 30-yr modeling study. Limnol. Oceanogr. 61:2243–60
    [Google Scholar]
  111. Seitzinger SP, Mayorga E, Bouwman AF, Kroeze C, Beusen AHW et al. 2010. Global river nutrient export: a scenario analysis of past and future trends. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 24:GB0A08
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Sharples J, Middelburg JJ, Fennel K, Jickells TD 2017. What proportion of riverine nutrients reaches the open ocean. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 31:39–58
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Siedlecki SA, Banas NS, Davis KA, Giddings S, Hickey BM et al. 2015. Seasonal and interannual oxygen variability on the Washington and Oregon continental shelves. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120:608–33
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Sinha E, Michalak AM, Balaji V 2017. Eutrophication will increase during the 21st century as a result of precipitation changes. Science 357:405–8
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Slomp CP, Van Cappellen P 2007. The global marine phosphorus cycle: sensitivity to oceanic circulation. Biogeosciences 4:155–71
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Smith EM, Kemp WM 1995. Seasonal and regional variations in plankton community production and respiration for Chesapeake Bay. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 116:217–31
    [Google Scholar]
  117. Sylvan JB, Dortch Q, Nelson DM, Maier Brown AF, Morrison W, Ammerman JW 2006. P limits phytoplankton growth on the Louisiana shelf during the period of hypoxia formation. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40:7548–53
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Sylvan JB, Quigg A, Tozzi S, Ammerman J 2007. Eutrophication-induced phosphorus limitation in the Mississippi River plume: evidence from fast repetition rate fluorometry. Limnol. Oceanogr. 52:2679–85
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Testa JM, Clark JB, Dennison WC, Donovan EC, Fisher AW et al. 2017. Ecological forecasting and the science of hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay. BioScience 67:614–26
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Testa JM, Kemp WM 2011. Oxygen – dynamics and biogeochemical consequences. Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science 5 E Wolanski, DS McLusky 163–99 Waltham, MA: Academic
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Testa JM, Kemp WM 2014. Spatial and temporal patterns in winter-spring oxygen depletion in Chesapeake Bay bottom waters. Estuaries Coasts 37:1432–48
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Testa JM, Li Y, Lee YJ, Li M, Brady DC et al. 2014. Quantifying the effects of nutrient loading on dissolved O2 cycling and hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay using a coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model. J. Mar. Syst. 139:139–58
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Testa JM, Murphy RR, Brady DC, Kemp WM 2018. Nutrient- and climate-induced shifts in the phenology of linked biogeochemical cycles in a temperate estuary. Front. Mar. Sci. 5:114
    [Google Scholar]
  124. Turner RE, Rabalais NN 1991. Changes in Mississippi River water quality this century. BioScience 41:140–47
    [Google Scholar]
  125. US Environ. Prot. Agency. 2017. Hypoxia in Gulf of Mexico and Long Island Sound Rep. Environ., US Environ. Prot. Agency Washington, DC: https://cfpub.epa.gov/roe/indicator_pdf.cfm?i=41
    [Google Scholar]
  126. Vaquer-Sunyer R, Duarte C 2008. Thresholds of hypoxia for marine biodiversity. PNAS 105:15452–57
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Vieira MEC 2000. The long-term residual circulation in Long Island Sound. Estuaries Coasts 23:199–207
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Wang B 2009. Hydromorphological mechanisms leading to hypoxia off the Changjiang estuary. Mar. Environ. Res. 67:53–58
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Wang B, Wei Q, Chen J, Xie L 2012. Annual cycle of hypoxia off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary. Mar. Environ. Res. 77:1–5
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Wang J, Yan W, Chen N, L X, Liu L 2015. Modeled long-term changes of DIN:DIP ratio in the Changjiang River in relation to Chl-α and DO concentrations in adjacent estuary. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 166:153–60
    [Google Scholar]
  131. Welsh BL, Eller FC 1991. Mechanisms controlling summertime oxygen depletion in western Long Island Sound. Estuaries 14:265–78
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Wilson RE 1976. Gravitational circulation in Long Island Sound. Estuar. Coast. Mar. Sci. 4:443–53
    [Google Scholar]
  133. Wilson RE, Bratton SD, Wang J, Colle BA 2015. Evidence for directional wind response in controlling inter-annual variations in duration and areal extent of summertime hypoxia in western Long Island Sound. Estuaries Coasts 38:1735–43
    [Google Scholar]
  134. Wilson RE, Swanson RL, Crowley HA 2008. Perspectives on long-term variations in hypoxia conditions in western Long Island Sound. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 113:C12011
    [Google Scholar]
  135. Wiseman W, Rabalais N, Turner R, Dinnel S, Mac-Naughton A 1997. Seasonal and interannual variability within the Louisiana coastal current: stratification and hypoxia. J. Mar. Syst. 12:237–48
    [Google Scholar]
  136. Wolfe DA, Monahan R, Stacey PE, Farrow DRG, Robertson A 1991. Environmental quality of Long Island Sound: assessment and management issues. Estuaries 14:224–36
    [Google Scholar]
  137. Wong GTF, Gong G, Liu K, Pai S 1998. ‘Excess nitrate’ in the East China Sea. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 46:411–18
    [Google Scholar]
  138. Wulff F, Humborg C, Andersen HE, Blicher-Mathiesen G, Czajkowski M et al. 2014. Reduction of Baltic Sea nutrient inputs and allocation of abatement costs within the Baltic Sea Catchment. Ambio 43:11
    [Google Scholar]
  139. Wulff F, Stigebrandt A 1989. A timed-dependent budget model for nutrients in the Baltic Sea. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 3:63–78
    [Google Scholar]
  140. Yan W, Zhang S, Sun P, Seitzinger SP 2003. How do nitrogen inputs to the Changjiang basin impact the Changjiang River nitrate: a temporal analysis for 1968–1997. Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles 17:1091
    [Google Scholar]
  141. Yang D, Yin B, Liu Z, Bai T, Qi J, Chen H 2012. Numerical study on the pattern and origins of Kuroshio branches in the bottom water of southern East China Sea in summer. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 117:C02014
    [Google Scholar]
  142. Yang D, Yin B, Liu Z, Feng X 2011. Numerical study of the ocean circulation on the East China Sea shelf and a Kuroshio bottom branch northeast of Taiwan in summer. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 116:C05015
    [Google Scholar]
  143. Yin KD, Lin ZF, Ke ZY 2004. Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal waters. Cont. Shelf Res. 24:1935–48
    [Google Scholar]
  144. Yu L, Fennel K, Laurent A 2015.a A modeling study of physical controls on hypoxia generation in the northern Gulf of Mexico. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120:5019–39
    [Google Scholar]
  145. Yu L, Fennel K, Laurent A, Murrell MC, Lehrter JC 2015.b Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana shelf. Biogeosciences 12:2063–76
    [Google Scholar]
  146. Zhang H, Li S 2010. Effects of physical and biochemical processes on the dissolved oxygen budget for the Pearl River Estuary during summer. J. Mar. Syst. 79:65–88
    [Google Scholar]
  147. Zhang H, Zhao L, Sun Y, Wang J, Wei H 2017. Contribution of sediment oxygen demand to hypoxia development off the Changjiang Estuary. Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 192:149–57
    [Google Scholar]
  148. Zhang Q, Brady DC, Boynton WR, Ball WP 2015. Long-term trends of nutrients and sediment from the nontidal Chesapeake watershed: an assessment of progress by river and season. J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc. 51:1534–55
    [Google Scholar]
  149. Zhang W, Hetland RD, DiMarco SF, Fennel K 2015. Processes controlling mid-water column oxygen minima over the Texas-Louisiana Shelf. J. Geophys. Res. Oceans 120:2800–12
    [Google Scholar]
  150. Zhao L, Guo X 2011. Influence of cross-shelf water transport on nutrients and phytoplankton in the East China Sea: a model study. Ocean Sci 7:27–43
    [Google Scholar]
  151. Zhou F, Chai F, Huang D, Xue H, Chen J et al. 2017. Investigation of hypoxia off the Changjiang Estuary using a coupled model of ROMS-CoSiNE. Prog. Oceanogr. 159:237–54
    [Google Scholar]
  152. Zhu Z-Y, Wu H, Liu S-M, Wu Y, Huang D-J et al. 2017. Hypoxia off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) estuary and in the adjacent East China Sea: quantitative approaches to estimating the tidal impact, and nutrient regeneration. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 125:103–14
    [Google Scholar]
  153. Zhu Z-Y, Zhang J, Wu Y, Zhang Y-Y, Lin J, Liu S-M 2011. Hypoxia off the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary: oxygen depletion and organic matter decomposition. Mar. Chem 125:108–16
    [Google Scholar]
  154. Zillén L, Conley DJ, Andren T, Andren E, Gjorck S 2008. Past occurrences of hypoxia in the Baltic Sea and the role of climate variability, environmental change and human impact. Earth Sci. Rev. 91:77–92
    [Google Scholar]
  155. Zimmerman AR, Canuel EA 2000. A geochemical record of eutrophication and anoxia in Chesapeake Bay sediments: anthropogenic influence on organic matter composition. Mar. Chem. 69:117–37
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095138
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095138
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error