Transfer of training is one of the oldest topics of interest to industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologists. Drawing on several meta-analytic studies and recent empirical work, we first synthesize what is now reliably known with respect to the generalization and retention of learned knowledge and skills to work contexts. The second part of our review focuses on what is unknown—the significant gaps in our knowledge where we believe new directions in our research strategies are warranted. We offer three prescriptions: () going one step beyond most existing studies to offer greater precision in our specification and measurement of variables and interventions, () connecting the dots by focusing on transfer criteria and transfer trajectories, and () shifting the operative paradigm of research to examine contemporary learning from a problem-centered perspective. There is ample opportunity to increase the yield on enormous organizational investments in training if transfer scholars and practitioners are fully informed of what is known and prepared to systematically confront the unknown in new and innovative ways.


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