Given the rapid advances and the increased reliance on technology, the question of how it is changing work and employment is highly salient for scholars of organizational psychology and organizational behavior (OP/OB). This article attempts to interpret the progress, direction, and purpose of current research on the effects of technology on work and organizations. After a review of key breakthroughs in the evolution of technology, we consider the disruptive effects of emerging information and communication technologies. We then examine numbers and types of jobs affected by developments in technology, and how this will lead to significant worker dislocation. To illustrate technology's impact on work, work systems, and organizations, we present four popular technologies: electronic monitoring systems, robots, teleconferencing, and wearable computing devices. To provide insights regarding what we know about the effects of technology for OP/OB scholars, we consider the results of research conducted from four different perspectives on the role of technology in management. We also examine how that role is changing in the emerging world of technology. We conclude by considering approaches to six human resources (HR) areas supported by traditional and emerging technologies, identifying related research questions that should have profound implications both for research and for practice, and providing guidance for future research.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Literature Cited

  1. Aeppel T. 2014. Robots work their way into small factories. The Wall Street Journal Sept. 18 B1–2
  2. Aeppel T. 2015. What clever robots mean for jobs: Experts rethink belief that tech always lifts employment as machines take on skills once thought uniquely human. The Wall Street Journal Feb. 24. http://www.wsj.com/articles/what-clever-robots-mean-for-jobs-1424835002
  3. Alge BJ. 2001. Effects of computer surveillance on perceptions of privacy and procedural justice. J. Appl. Psychol. 86:797–804 [Google Scholar]
  4. Alge BJ, Anthony EA, Rees J, Kannan K. 2010. Controlling A while hoping for B: deviance deterrence and public versus private deviance. The Dark Side of Management L Neider, C Schriesheim 115–41 Charlotte, NC: Inf. Age Publ. [Google Scholar]
  5. Alge BJ, Hansen SD. 2014. Workplace monitoring and surveillance research since “1984”: a review and agenda. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 209–37
  6. Alter S. 2013. Work system theory: overview of core concepts, extensions, and challenges for the future. J. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 14:1272–121 [Google Scholar]
  7. Ambrose ML, Alder GS. 2000. Designing, implementing, and utilizing computerized performance monitoring: enhancing organizational justice. Res. Personnel Human Resources Manag. 18:187–219 [Google Scholar]
  8. Andreessen M. 2011. Why software is eating the world. The Wall Street Journal Aug. 20. http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424053111903480904576512250915629460
  9. Applegate LM, Austin RD, McFarlan FW. 2002. Creating Business Advantage in the Information Age Boston: McGraw-Hill
  10. Aral S, Weill P. 2007. IT assets, organizational capabilities and firm performance. Organ. Sci. 18:5763–80 [Google Scholar]
  11. Autor DH, Dorn D. 2013. The growth of low-skill service jobs and the polarization of the U.S. labor market. Am. Econ. Rev. 103:51533–97 [Google Scholar]
  12. Ball K. 2010. Workplace surveillance: an overview. Labor Hist. 51:87–106 [Google Scholar]
  13. Bandura A. 1997. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control New York: Freeman
  14. Barley SR. 1986. Technology as an occasion for structuring: evidence from observation of CT scanners and the social order of radiology departments. Adm. Sci. Q. 31:78–108 [Google Scholar]
  15. Barley SR. 1990. The alignment of technology and structure through roles and networks. Adm. Sci. Q. 35:61–103 [Google Scholar]
  16. Barley SR. 2015. Why the Internet makes buying a car less loathsome: how technologies change role relations. Acad. Manag. Discov. 1:31–60 [Google Scholar]
  17. Barley SR, Meyerson DE, Grodal S. 2011. E-mail as a source and symbol of stress. Organ. Sci. 22:4887–906 [Google Scholar]
  18. Barrett M, Walsham G. 1999. Electronic trading and work transformation in the London insurance market. Inf. Syst. Res. 10:11–22 [Google Scholar]
  19. Beal DJ. 2015. ESM 2.0: State of the art and future potential of experience sampling methods in organizational research. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav. 2:383–407 [Google Scholar]
  20. Bechky BA. 2003. Object lessons: workplace artifacts as representations of occupational jurisdiction. Am. J. Sociol. 109:3720–52 [Google Scholar]
  21. Beniger JR. 1986. The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press
  22. Bessen J. 2015. Learning by Doing: The Real Connection Between Innovation, Wages, and Wealth New Haven, CT: Yale Univ. Press
  23. Blau PM, Falbe CM, McKinley W, Tracy PK. 1976. Technology and organization in manufacturing. Adm. Sci. Q. 21:20–40 [Google Scholar]
  24. Blume B, Ford JK, Baldwin T, Huang J. 2010. Transfer of training: a meta-analytic review. J. Manag. 361065–105
  25. Boudreau MC, Robey D. 2005. Enacting integrated information technology: a human agency perspective. Organ. Sci. 16:13–18 [Google Scholar]
  26. Bradley SP, Madnick SE, Kim C. 2016. Digital Business Chicago: Chicago Bus. Press
  27. Bradley SP, Nolan RL. 1998. Sense and Respond: Capturing Value in the Network Era Cambridge, MA: Harvard Bus. Sch. Press
  28. Brynjolfsson E, Hitt L. 1996. Paradox lost? Firm-level evidence on the returns to information systems spending. Manag. Sci. 42:4541–58 [Google Scholar]
  29. Brynjolfsson E, McAfee D. 2014. The Second Machine Age: Work, Progress, and Prosperity in a Time of Brilliant Technologies New York: W.W. Norton
  30. Burkhardt ME, Brass DJ. 1990. Changing patterns or patterns of change: the effects of a change in technology on social network structure and power. Adm. Sci. Q. 35:104–27 [Google Scholar]
  31. Carlile PR. 2002. A pragmatic view of knowledge and boundaries: boundary objects in new product development. Organ. Sci. 13:4442–55 [Google Scholar]
  32. Carter NM. 1984. Computerization as a predominate technology: its influence on the structure of newspaper organizations. Acad. Manag. J. 27:247–70 [Google Scholar]
  33. Cascio WF. 2011. The virtual global workforce: leveraging its impact Presented at Annu. SIOP Leading-Edge Consort, 7th, Louisville, KY
  34. Cascio WF, Aguinis H. 2008a. Research in industrial and organizational psychology from 1963 to 2007: changes, choices, and trends. J. Appl. Psychol. 93:1062–81 [Google Scholar]
  35. Cascio WF, Aguinis H. 2008b. Staffing twenty-first century organizations. Acad. Manag. Ann. 2:1133–65 [Google Scholar]
  36. Cascio WF, Shurygailo S. 2003. E-leadership in virtual teams. Organ. Dyn. 31:4362–76 [Google Scholar]
  37. Cash JI Jr, Eccles RG, Nohria N, Nolan RL. 1994. Building the Information-Age Organization: Structure, Control, and Information Technologies Boston: Irwin, 3rd ed..
  38. Castanheira F, Chambel MJ. 2010. Reducing burnout in call centers through HR practices. Hum. Resour. Manag. 49:1047–65 [Google Scholar]
  39. Castells M. 1996. The Rise of the Network Society Oxford, UK: Blackwell
  40. Christensen CM. 1997. The Innovator's Dilemma: The Revolutionary Book that Will Change the Way You Do Business. New York: HarperBusiness
  41. Ciborra C, Lanzara GF. 1994. Formative contexts and ICT: understanding the dynamics of innovation in organizations. Account. Manag. Inf. Technol. 4:261–86 [Google Scholar]
  42. Coovert MD, Thompson LF. 2014a. The Psychology of Workplace Technology New York: Routledge
  43. Coovert MD, Thompson LF. 2014b. Toward a synergistic relationship between psychology and technology. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 1–17
  44. Daft RL, Lengel RH. 1986. Organizational information requirements, media richness and structural design. Manag. Sci. 32:5554–71 [Google Scholar]
  45. Davenport TH, Kirby J. 2015. Beyond automation: strategies for remaining gainfully employed in an era of very smart machines. Harvard Bus. Rev. 93:658–65 [Google Scholar]
  46. Davis FD. 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Q. 13:3319–40 [Google Scholar]
  47. Deci EL, Ryan RM. 2012. Self-determination theory. Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology 1 PAM Van Lange, AW Kruglanski, ET Higgins 416–37 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage [Google Scholar]
  48. Demaerschalk BM, Vargas JE, Channer DD, Noble BN, Kiernan TJ. et al. 2012. Smartphone teleradiology application is successfully incorporated into a telestroke network environment. Stroke 43:3098–101 [Google Scholar]
  49. DeSanctis G, Poole MS. 1994. Capturing the complexity in advanced technology use: adaptive structuration theory. Organ. Sci. 5:2121–47 [Google Scholar]
  50. Dewhurst M, Willmott P. 2014. Manager and machine: the new leadership equation. McKinsey Quarterly Sept. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/leading_in_the_21st_century/manager_and_machine
  51. Driskell JE, Radke PH, Salas E. 2003. Virtual teams: effects of technological mediation on team performance. Group Dyn.: Theory, Res. Pract. 7:4297–323 [Google Scholar]
  52. Educase 2013. 7 Things you should know about wearable technology. Educase Learning Initiatives Nov. https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli7102.pdf
  53. Elsby M, Hobijn B, Sahin A. 2010. The labor market in the great recession. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Spring 2010 D Romer, J Wolfers Washington, DC: Brookings Inst. [Google Scholar]
  54. Farr JL, Fairchild J, Cassidy SE. 2014. Technology and performance appraisal. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 77–98
  55. Faulkner P, Runde J. 2009. On the identity of technological objects and user innovations in function. Acad. Manag. Rev. 34:3442–62 [Google Scholar]
  56. Feldman MS, Pentland BT. 2003. Reconceptualizing organizational routines as a source of flexibility and change. Adm. Sci. Q. 48:94–118 [Google Scholar]
  57. Fry LW. 1982. Technology-structure research: three critical issues. Acad. Manag. J. 25:532–52 [Google Scholar]
  58. Fulk J. 1993. Social construction of communication technology. Acad. Manag. J. 36:921–50 [Google Scholar]
  59. Galston WA. 2014. Countering tech's damaging effect on jobs. The Wall Street Journal Oct. 14. http://www.wsj.com/articles/william-galston-countering-techs-damaging-effect-on-jobs-1413328435
  60. Gardner WL, Lowe KB, Moss TW, Mahoney KT, Cogliser CC. 2010. Scholarly leadership of the study of leadership: a review of The Leadership Quarterly's second decade, 2000–2009. Leadersh. Q. 21:6922–58 [Google Scholar]
  61. Gergen KJ. 2002. The challenge of absent presence. Perpetual Contact JE Katz, M Aakhus 227–41 Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press [Google Scholar]
  62. Gibson CB, Gibbs JL. 2006. Unpacking the concept of virtuality: the effects of geographic dispersion, electronic dependence, dynamic structure, and national diversity on team innovation. Adm. Sci. Q. 51:451–95 [Google Scholar]
  63. Gillan DJ, Bias RG. 2014. Usability science II: Measurement.. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 162–82
  64. Goffman E. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Garden City, NY: Doubleday
  65. Goffman E. 1983. The interaction order. Am. Sociol. Rev. 48:1–17 [Google Scholar]
  66. Golden AG, Geisler C. 2007. Work–life boundary management and the personal digital assistant. Hum. Relat. 60:3519–51 [Google Scholar]
  67. Golden TD, Veiga JF. 2008. The impact of superior-subordinate relationships on the commitment, job satisfaction, and performance of virtual workers. Leadersh. Q. 19:177–88 [Google Scholar]
  68. Greguras GJ, Diefendorff J. 2009. Different fits satisfy different needs: linking person-environment fit to employee commitment and performance using self-determination theory. J. Appl. Psychol. 94:465–77 [Google Scholar]
  69. Griffith E. 2014. Wearable technology. Fortune Oct. 27 57–60
  70. Griffith TL. 1999. Technology features as triggers for sensemaking. Acad. Manag. Rev. 24:3472–88 [Google Scholar]
  71. Hancock PA. 2014. Human factors. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 149–61
  72. Hauben M, Hauben R. 1995. The Netizens and the World of the Net: An Anthology on the History and Impact of the Net New York: Columbia Univ. Press http://www.columbia.edu/∼rh120/
  73. Heath C, Luff P. 2000. Technology in Action Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  74. Henfridsson O, Bygstad B. 2013. The generative mechanisms of digital infrastructure evolution. MIS Q. 37:3907–31 [Google Scholar]
  75. Hinds P, Kiesler S. 1995. Communication across boundaries: work, structure, and use of communication technologies in a large organization. Organ. Sci. 6:4373–93 [Google Scholar]
  76. Huber GP. 1990. A theory of the effects of advanced information technologies on organizational design, intelligence, and decision making. Acad. Manag. Rev. 15:147–71 [Google Scholar]
  77. Jacoby T. 2015. Technology isn't a job killer. The Wall Street Journal May 20. http://www.wsj.com/articles/technology–isnt–a–job–killer–1432161213
  78. Jarzabkowski P. 2005. Strategy as Practice London: Sage
  79. Jones M. 1998. Information systems and the double mangle: steering a course between the scylla of embedded structure and the Charybdis of material agency. Information Systems: Current Issues and Future Challenges T Larsen, L Levine, JI DeGross 287–302 Laxenburg, Austria: Int. Fed. Inf. Process [Google Scholar]
  80. Jones M. 2014. A matter of life and death: exploring conceptualizations of sociomateriality in the context of critical care. MIS Q. 38:3895–925 [Google Scholar]
  81. Kallinikos J. 2006. The Consequences of Information: Institutional Implications of Technological Change Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
  82. Katz L. 2010. Long-term unemployment in the great recession. Presented to US Congress Joint Eco-nomic Comm. http://www.jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?a=Files.Serve&File_id=e1cc2c23-dc6f-4871-a26a-fda9bd32fb7e.%2520
  83. Kidwell RE, Bennett N. 1994a. Electronic surveillance as employee control: a procedural justice interpretation. J. High Technol. Manag. Res. 5:39–57 [Google Scholar]
  84. Kidwell RE, Bennett N. 1994b. Employee reactions to electronic control systems: the role of procedural fairness. Group Organ. Manag. 19:203–18 [Google Scholar]
  85. Kidwell RE, Sprague R. 2009. Electronic surveillance in the global workplace: laws, ethics, research, and practice. N. Technol, Work, Employ. 24:194–208 [Google Scholar]
  86. Kirkland R. 2014. Artificial intelligence meets the C-suite. McKinsey Quarterly Sept. http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/strategy/artificial_intelligence_meets_the_c-suite
  87. Kraut R, Koch S, Dumais S. 1989. Computerization, productivity, and quality of employment. Commun. ACM 32:21220–38 [Google Scholar]
  88. Kühnle H. 2010. Distributed Manufacturing: Paradigm, Concepts, Solutions and Examples London: Springer
  89. Kuruzovich J, Viswanathan S, Agarwal R, Gosain S, Weitzman S. 2008. Marketspace or marketplace? Online information search and channel outcomes in auto retailing. Inf. Syst. Res. 19:2182–201 [Google Scholar]
  90. Landers RN, Goldberg AS. 2014. Online social media in the workplace: a conversation with employees. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 284–304
  91. Latham R, Sassen S. 2005. Digital Formations: IT and New Architectures in the Global Realm Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press
  92. Lee SM, Koopman J, Hollenbeck JR, Wang LC, Lanaj K. 2015. The team descriptive index (TDI): a multidimensional scaling approach for team description. Acad. Manag. Discov. 1:191–116 [Google Scholar]
  93. Leonard-Barton D. 1988. Implementation as mutual adaptation of technology and organization. Res. Policy 17:5251–67 [Google Scholar]
  94. Lu JL. 2005. Perceived job stress of women workers in diverse manufacturing industries. Hum. Factors Ergon. Manuf. 15:275–91 [Google Scholar]
  95. Mabry RH, Sharplin AD. 1986. Does more technology create unemployment? Policy Analysis 68, Cato Inst. http://www.object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/pubs/pdf/pa068.pdf
  96. MacKenzie D. 2006. An Engine not a Camera: How Financial Models Shape Markets Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
  97. Malhotra A, Gosain S, El Sawy OA. 2005. Absorptive capacity configurations in supply chains: gearing for partner-enabled market knowledge creation. MIS Q. 29:1145–87 [Google Scholar]
  98. Malone TW, Yates J, Benjamin RI. 1987. Electronic markets and electronic hierarchies. Commun. ACM 30:6484–97 [Google Scholar]
  99. Markus ML. 1994. Electronic mail as the medium of managerial choice. Organ. Sci. 5:4502–27 [Google Scholar]
  100. Martins LL, Gilson LL, Maynard MT. 2004. Virtual teams: What do we know and where do we go from here?. J. Manag. 30:6805–35 [Google Scholar]
  101. Maslach C, Leiter MP. 2008. Early predictors of job burnout and engagement. J. Appl. Psychol. 93:498–512 [Google Scholar]
  102. Mazmanian M, Cohn M, Dourish P. 2014. Dynamic reconfiguration in planetary exploration: a sociomaterial ethnography. MIS Q. 38:3831–48 [Google Scholar]
  103. McKenney JL, Copeland DC, Mason RO. 1995. Waves of Change: Business Evolution Through Information Technology Cambridge, MA: Harvard Bus. Sch. Press
  104. McNall LA, Stanton JM. 2011. Private eyes are watching you: reactions to location-sensing technologies. J. Bus. Psychol. 26:299–309 [Google Scholar]
  105. Meeker M. 2013. Internet trends report. Kleiner, Perkins, Caulfield, and Byers May 29. http://abcnews.go.com/blogs/technology/2013/05/cellphone-users-check-phones-150xday-and-other-Internet-fun-facts/
  106. Miles J, Hollenbeck JR. 2014. Teams and technology. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 99–117
  107. Monga V. 2015. The new bookkeeper is a robot. The Wall Street Journal May 5 B1–7
  108. Montealegre R. 2002. A process model of capability development: lessons from the e-commerce strategy at Bolsa de Valores de Guayaquil. Organ. Sci. 13:5514–31 [Google Scholar]
  109. Montealegre R, Hovorka D, Germonprez M. 2014. A coevolutionary view of information services development: lessons from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. J. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 15:9577–613 [Google Scholar]
  110. Murray A. 2015. The new industrial revolution. Fortune May 1 6
  111. National Research Council 1999. Collaboratories: Improving research capabilities in chemical and biomedical sciences Washington, DC: National Academies Press
  112. Nixon AE, Spector PE. 2014. The impact of technology on employee stress, health, and well-being. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 238–60
  113. Orlikowski WJ. 2000. Using technology and constituting structures. Organ. Sci. 11:4404–28 [Google Scholar]
  114. Orlikowski WJ. 2002. Knowing in practice: enacting a collective capability in distributed organizing. Organ. Sci. 13:4249–73 [Google Scholar]
  115. Orlikowski WJ. 2009. The sociomateriality of organizational life: considering technology in management research. Camb. J. Econ. 9:125–41 [Google Scholar]
  116. Orlikowski WJ, Scott SV. 2008. Sociomateriality: challenging the separation of technology, work and organization. Ann. Acad. Manag. 2:1433–74 [Google Scholar]
  117. Osman M. 2010. Controlling uncertainty: a review of human behavior in complex, dynamic environments. Psychol. Bull. 136:65–86 [Google Scholar]
  118. Pfanner E. 2015. Secretive robot maker emerges—a bit. The Wall Street Journal March 27 B1–2
  119. Pfeffer J, Leblebici H. 1977. Information technology and organizational structure. Pac. Sociol. Rev. 20:2241–61 [Google Scholar]
  120. Potosky D. 2008. A conceptual framework for the role of the administration medium in the personnel assessment process. Acad. Manag. Rev. 33629–48
  121. Potosky D, Lomax MW. 2014. Leadership and technology: a love-hate relationship. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 118–46
  122. Prasad P. 1993. Symbolic processes in the implementation of technological change: a symbolic interactionist study of work computerization. Acad. Manag. J. 36:1400–29 [Google Scholar]
  123. Rafaeli A. 1986. Employee attitudes toward working with computers. J. Occup. Behav. 7:289–106 [Google Scholar]
  124. Redden ES, Elliott LR, Barnes MJ. 2014. Robots: the new teammates. See Coovert & Thompson 2014a 185–208
  125. Ribes D, Jackson S, Geiger S, Burton M, Finholt T. 2013. Artifacts that organize: delegation in the distributed organization. Inf. Organ. 23:1–14 [Google Scholar]
  126. Rice RE, Aydin C. 1991. Attitudes toward new organizational technology: network proximity as a mechanism for social information processing. Adm. Sci. Q. 36:219–44 [Google Scholar]
  127. Riedy MK, Wen JH. 2010. Electronic surveillance of Internet access in the American workplace: implications for management. Inf. Commun. Technol. Law 19:87–99 [Google Scholar]
  128. Rogan RG, Simmons GA. 1984. Teleconferencing. J. Extension 225 http://www.joe.org/joe/1984september/a4.php
  129. Ross P, Sepper R, Pohjonen H. 2010. Cross-border teleradiology-experience from two international teleradiology projects. Eur. J. Radiol. 73:20–25 [Google Scholar]
  130. Rotman D. 2013. How technology is destroying jobs. MIT Technology Review June 12. http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/515926/how-technology-is-destroying-jobs/
  131. Ryan RM, Deci EL. 2000. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and wellbeing. Am. Psychol. 55:68–78 [Google Scholar]
  132. Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP, Maslach C. 2009. Burnout: thirty-five years of research and practice. Career Dev. Int. 14:3204–20 [Google Scholar]
  133. Scott SV, Orlikowski WJ. 2014. Entanglements in practice: performing anonymity through social media. MIS Q. 38:3863–93 [Google Scholar]
  134. Scott SV, Wagner EL. 2003. Networks, negotiations, and new times: the implementation of enterprise resource planning into an academic administration. Inf. Organ. 13:4285–313 [Google Scholar]
  135. Sewell G. 1998. The discipline of teams: the control of team-based industrial work through electronic and peer surveillance. Adm. Sci. Q. 43:397–428 [Google Scholar]
  136. Shadish WR, Cook TD, Campbell DT. 2002. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference Boston: Houghton Mifflin
  137. Shoot B. 2014. The smart vending machine. Fortune Nov. 17 49
  138. Silva L, Backhouse J. 1997. Becoming part of the furniture: the institutionalisation of information systems. Information Systems and Qualitative Research AS Lee, J Liebenau, JI DeGross 389–414 London: Chapman & Hall [Google Scholar]
  139. Slife BD. 2005. Taking practice seriously: toward a relational ontology. J. Theor. Philos. Psychol. 24:2157–78 [Google Scholar]
  140. Smite D, Moe NB, Agerfalk PJ. 2010. Agility Across Time and Space: Implementing Agile Methods in Global Software Projects Berlin: Springer
  141. Smith A, Anderson J. 2014. AI, robotics, and the future of jobs. Pew Res. Center. http://www.pewInternet.org/2014/08/06/future-of-jobs
  142. Stiglitz JE, Greenwald BC. 2014. Creating a Learning Society New York: Columbia Univ. Press
  143. Suchman LA. 2007. Human-Machine Reconfigurations: Plans and Situated Actions Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press
  144. Tehrani K, Michael A. 2014. Wearable technology and wearable devices: everything you need to know. Wearable Devices Magazine March. http://www.wearabledevices.com/what-is-a-wearable-device/
  145. The Economist 2014. The future of jobs: the onrushing wave. The Economist Jan. 18. http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21594264-previous-technological-innovation-has-always-delivered-more-long-run-employment-not-less
  146. The Economist 2015a. Rise of the machines: Artificial intelligence scares people—excessively so. The Economist May 9 17–21
  147. The Economist 2015b. The dawn of artificial intelligence. The Economist May 9 11
  148. Thompson LF, Coovert MD. 2003. Teamwork online: the effects of computer conferencing on perceived confusion, satisfaction, and post-discussion accuracy. Group Dyn.: Theory, Res. Pract. 7:2135–51 [Google Scholar]
  149. Tippins NT. 2015. Technology and assessment in selection. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav. 2:551–82 [Google Scholar]
  150. Treviño LK, Webster J, Stein EW. 2000. Making connections, complementary influences on communication media choices, attitudes, and use. Organ. Sci. 11:2163–82 [Google Scholar]
  151. Turban E, Lee JK, King D, Peng LT, Turban D. 2009. Electronic Commerce 2010 Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
  152. Tushman M, Anderson P. 1986. Technological discontinuities and organizational environments. Adm. Sci. Q. 31:3439–65 [Google Scholar]
  153. Vanderkam L. 2015. Work/life integration is the new normal. Fortune March 15 139
  154. VanHoose DD. 2011. E-commerce Economics Milton Park, UK: Routledge
  155. Venters W, Oborn E, Barrett M. 2014. A trichordal temporal approach to digital coordination: the sociomaterial mangling of the CERN grid. MIS Q. 38:3927–49 [Google Scholar]
  156. von Hippel E. 1994. “Sticky information” and the locus of problem solving, implications for innovation. Manag. Sci. 40:4429–39 [Google Scholar]
  157. Walsham G. 1993. Interpreting Information Systems in Organizations Chichester, UK: Wiley
  158. Wellman B, Haythornthwaite C. 2002. The Internet in everyday life Oxford, UK: Blackwell
  159. Wooldridge A. 2015. The Icarus syndrome meets the wearable revolution. Korn/Ferry Briefings Talent Leadersh. 6:27–33 [Google Scholar]
  160. Yates J, Orlikowski WJ, Okamura K. 1999. Explicit and implicit structuring of genres, electronic communication in a Japanese R&D organization. Organ. Sci. 10:183–103 [Google Scholar]
  161. Zammuto RF, Griffith TL, Majchrzak A, Dougherty DJ, Faraj S. 2007. Information technology and the changing fabric of organization. Organ. Sci. 18:5749–62 [Google Scholar]
  162. Zuboff S. 1988. In the Age of the Smart Machine: The Future of Work and Power New York: Basic Books
  163. Zweig D, Scott K. 2007. When unfairness matters most: supervisory violations of electronic monitoring practices. Hum. Resour. Manag. J. 17:227–47 [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error