1932

Abstract

It is difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the workplace impact of race from the organizational psychology and organizational behavior literature. Topical coverage is spotty and the findings are fragmented, with little existing theory to orient, integrate, and reconcile them. Consequently, it is unsurprising that public opinion is highly divergent about the influence of race at work, and practitioners are left largely unassisted in determining evidence-based approaches to leveraging this form of difference among their personnel. To fill this void, we review the relevant findings through the lens of organizational justice to help clarify the impact of race on organizational experiences. Our findings suggest that justice indeed varies as a function of race, the magnitude of differences depends on the type of justice, and there are several potentially fruitful areas for additional inquiry.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-120920-052627
2023-01-23
2024-04-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/orgpsych/10/1/annurev-orgpsych-120920-052627.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-120920-052627&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Amis JM, Mair J, Munir KA. 2020. The organizational reproduction of inequality. Acad. Manag. Ann. 14:1195–230
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Aquino K, Galperin BL, Bennett RJ. 2004. Social status and aggressiveness as moderators of the relationship between interactional justice and workplace deviance. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 34:51001–29
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Attell BK, Brown KK, Treiber LA. 2017. Workplace bullying, perceived job stressors, and psychological distress: gender and race differences in the stress process. Soc. Sci. Res. 65:210–21
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Avery DR 2011. Why the playing field remains uneven: impediments to promotions in organizations. APA Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Vol 3 Maintaining, Expanding, and Contracting the Organization S Zedeck 577–613 Washington, DC: Am. Psychol. Assoc.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Avery DR, McKay PF, Wilson DC. 2008. What are the odds? How demographic similarity affects the prevalence of perceived employment discrimination. J. Appl. Psychol. 93:235–49
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Avery DR, Volpone SD 2020. The perils of ignoring demographic differences in micro organizational research. Research in Social Issues in Management: Pushing Understanding of Diversity in Organizations EB King, QM Roberson, MR Hebl 1–19 Charlotte, NC: Inf. Age Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Banfield JC, Dovidio JF. 2013. Whites' perceptions of discrimination against Blacks: the influence of common identity. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 49:5833–41
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bell BS, Wiechmann D, Ryan AM. 2006. Consequences of organizational justice expectations in a selection system. J. Appl. Psychol. 91:2455–66
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Berdahl JL, Moore C. 2006. Workplace harassment: double jeopardy for minority women. J. Appl. Psychol. 91:2426–36
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bergman ME, Palmieri PA, Drasgow F, Ormerod AJ. 2012. Racial/ethnic harassment and discrimination, its antecedents, and its effect on job-related outcomes. J. Occup. Health Psychol. 17:65–78
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Carter MZ, Mossholder KW, Feild HS, Armenakis AA. 2014. Transformational leadership, interactional justice, and organizational citizenship behavior: the effects of racial and gender dissimilarity between supervisors and subordinates. Group Organ. Manag. 39:6691–719
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Cascio WF, Aguinis H. 2008. Research in industrial and organizational psychology from 1963 to 2007: changes, choices, and trends. J. Appl. Psychol. 93:51062–81
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Castilla EJ. 2008. Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers. Am. J. Sociol. 113:61479–526
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Castilla EJ. 2012. Gender, race, and the new (merit-based) employment relationship. Ind. Relat. 51:528–62
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Castilla EJ. 2015. Accounting for the gap: a firm study manipulating organizational accountability and transparency in pay decisions. Organ. Sci. 26:2311–33
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Chordiya R. 2021. A study of interracial differences in turnover intentions: the mitigating role of pro-diversity and justice-oriented management. Public Pers. Manag. 51:2235–60
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Chung-Herrera BG, Lankau MJ 2005. Are we there yet? An assessment of fit between stereotypes of minority managers and the successful-manager prototype. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 35:102029–56
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cohen-Charash Y, Spector PE. 2001. The role of justice in organizations: a meta-analysis. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 86:2278–321
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Collins BJ, Mossholder KW, Taylor SG. 2012. Does process fairness affect job performance? It only matters if they plan to stay. J. Organ. Behav. 33:71007–26
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Colquitt JA, Conlon DE, Wesson MJ, Porter CO, Ng KY. 2001. Justice at the millennium: a meta-analytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. J. Appl. Psychol. 86:3425–45
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Colquitt JA, Scott BA, Rodell JB, Long DM, Zapata CP, Conlon DE, Wesson MJ. 2013. Justice at the millennium, a decade later: a meta-analytic test of social exchange and affect-based perspectives. J. Appl. Psychol. 98:2199–236
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cook A, Glass C. 2014. Above the glass ceiling: When are women and racial/ethnic minorities promoted to CEO?. Strategic Manag. J. 35:71080–89
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cortina LM, Kabat-Farr D, Leskinen EA, Huerta M, Magley VJ. 2013. Selective incivility as modern discrimination in organizations: evidence and impact. J. Manag. 39:61579–605
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Cox T Jr., Nkomo SM. 1990. Invisible men and women: a status report on race as a variable in organization behavior research. J. Organ. Behav. 11:6419–31
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cox TH Jr., Nkomo SM, Welch J 2001. Research on race and ethnicity: an update and analysis. Handbook of Organizational Behavior R Golembiewski 255–86 New York: Marcel Dekker. , 2nd ed..
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Day JC. 2015. Transitions to the top: race, segregation, and promotions to executive positions in the college football coaching profession. Work Occup. 42:4408–46
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Di Stasio V, Larsen EN. 2020. The racialized and gendered workplace: applying an intersectional lens to a field experiment on hiring discrimination in five European labor markets. Soc. Psychol. Q. 83:3229–50
    [Google Scholar]
  28. DiTomaso N, Post C, Smith DR, Farris GF, Cordero R. 2007. Effects of structural position on allocation and evaluation decisions for scientists and engineers in industrial R&D. Adm. Sci. Q. 52:2175–207
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Dreher GF, Cox TH Jr. 2000. Labor market mobility and cash compensation: the moderating effects of race and gender. Acad. Manag. J. 43:5890–900
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Dreher GF, Lee JY, Clerkin TA. 2011. Mobility and cash compensation: the moderating effects of gender, race, and executive search firms. J. Manag. 37:3651–81
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Dobbin F, Schrage D, Kalev A. 2015. Rage against the iron cage: the varied effects of bureaucratic personnel reforms on diversity. Am. Sociol. Rev. 80:51014–44
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Eisenberger R, Rockstuhl T, Shoss MK, Wen X, Dulebohn J. 2019. Is the employee-organization relationship dying or thriving? A temporal meta-analysis. J. Appl. Psychol. 104:81036–57
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Elvira M, Town R 2001. The effects of race and worker productivity on performance evaluations. Ind. Relat. 40:4571–90
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Ensher EA, Grant-Vallone EJ, Donaldson SI 2001. Effects of perceived discrimination on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, and grievances. Hum. Resour. Dev. Q. 12:153–72
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Fang T, Heywood JS. 2006. Output pay and ethnic wage differentials: Canadian evidence. Ind. Relat. 45:2173–94
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Fox S, Stallworth LE. 2005. Racial/ethnic bullying: exploring links between bullying and racism in the US workplace. J. Vocat. Behav. 66:3438–56
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Foynes MM, Shipherd JC, Harrington EF. 2013. Race and gender discrimination in the Marines. Cult. Divers. Ethn. Minor. Psychol. 19:1111–19
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Gaddis SM. 2015. Discrimination in the credential society: an audit study of race and college selectivity in the labor market. Soc. Forces 93:41451–79
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Grandey AA, Houston L III, Avery DR 2019. Fake it to make it? Emotional labor reduces the racial disparity in service performance judgments. J. Manag. 45:52163–92
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Gündemir S, Carton AM, Homan AC. 2019. The impact of organizational performance on the emergence of Asian American leaders. J. Appl. Psychol. 104:1107–22
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gündemir S, Homan AC, De Dreu CK, Van Vugt M. 2014. Think leader, think White? Capturing and weakening an implicit pro-White leadership bias. PLOS ONE 9:1e83915
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Hardy JH III, Tey KS, Cyrus-Lai W, Martell RF, Olstad A, Uhlmann EL 2022. Bias in context: Small biases in hiring evaluations have big consequences. J. Manag. 48:3657–92
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Harrison DA, Kravitz DA, Mayer DM, Leslie LM, Lev-Arey D. 2006. Understanding attitudes toward affirmative action programs in employment: summary and meta-analysis of 35 years of research. J. Appl. Psychol. 91:51013–36
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Hausknecht JP, Day DV, Thomas SC. 2004. Applicant reactions to selection procedures: an updated model and meta-analysis. Pers. Psychol. 57:3639–83
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Hekman DR, Aquino K, Owens BP, Mitchell TR, Schilpzand P, Leavitt K. 2010. An examination of whether and how racial and gender biases influence customer satisfaction. Acad. Manag. J. 53:2238–64
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Hernandez M, Avery DR, Volpone SD, Kaiser CR. 2019. Bargaining while Black: the role of race in salary negotiations. J. Appl. Psychol. 104:4581–92
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Hirsh E, Lyons CJ. 2010. Perceiving discrimination on the job: legal consciousness, workplace context, and the construction of race discrimination. Law Soc. Rev. 44:2269–98
    [Google Scholar]
  48. [Google Scholar]
  49. Howell TM, Harrison DA, Burris ER, Detert JR. 2015. Who gets credit for input? Demographic and structural status cues in voice recognition. J. Appl. Psychol. 100:61765–84
    [Google Scholar]
  50. James EH. 2000. Race-related differences in promotions and support: underlying effects of human and social capital. Organ. Sci. 11:5493–508
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Jones JM, Lloyd C. 2021. Larger majority says racism against Black people widespread. Gallup News July 23. https://news.gallup.com/poll/352544/larger-majority-says-racism-against-black-people-widespread.aspx
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Jun S, Wu J. 2021. Words that hurt: leaders’ anti-Asian communication and employee outcomes. J. Appl. Psychol. 106:2169–84
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Kaiser CR, Major B, Jurcevic I, Dover TL, Brady LM, Shapiro JR. 2013. Presumed fair: ironic effects of organizational diversity structures. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 104:3504–19
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Kalev A. 2014. How you downsize is who you downsize: biased formalization, accountability, and managerial diversity. Am. Sociol. Rev. 79:1109–35
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Lefkowitz J. 1994. Race as a factor in job placement: serendipitous findings of “ethnic drift. .” Pers. Psychol. 47:3497–513
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Lind EA, Greenberg J, Scott KS, Welchans TD. 2000. The winding road from employee to complainant: situational and psychological determinants of wrongful-termination claims. Adm. Sci. Q. 45:3557–90
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Luksyte A, Waite E, Avery DR, Roy R. 2013. Held to a different standard: racial differences in the impact of lateness on advancement opportunity. J. Occup. Organ. Psychol. 86:2142–65
    [Google Scholar]
  58. McCord MA, Joseph DL, Dhanani LY, Beus JM. 2018. A meta-analysis of sex and race differences in perceived workplace mistreatment. J. Appl. Psychol. 103:2137–63
    [Google Scholar]
  59. McDonald S, Lin N, Ao D. 2009. Networks of opportunity: gender, race, and job leads. Soc. Probl. 56:3385–402
    [Google Scholar]
  60. McFarland LA, Kim Y. 2021. An examination of the relationship between applicant race and accrued recruitment source information: implications for applicant withdrawal and test performance. Pers. Psychol. 74:4831–61
    [Google Scholar]
  61. McKay PF, Avery DR. 2015. Diversity climate in organizations: current wisdom and domains of uncertainty. Res. Pers. Hum. Resour. Manag. 33:191–233
    [Google Scholar]
  62. McKay PF, McDaniel MA. 2006. A reexamination of Black–White mean differences in work performance: more data, more moderators. J. Appl. Psychol. 91:3538–54
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Milkman KL, Akinola M, Chugh D. 2015. What happens before? A field experiment exploring how pay and representation differentially shape bias on the pathway into organizations. J. Appl. Psychol. 100:61678–712
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Mobasseri S. 2019. Race, place, and crime: how violent crime events affect employment discrimination. Am. J. Sociol. 125:163–104
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Moynihan DP. 1983. More than social security was at stake. The Washington Post Jan. 18 A17
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Newman DA, Lyon JS. 2009. Recruitment efforts to reduce adverse impact: targeted recruiting for personality, cognitive ability, and diversity. J. Appl. Psychol. 94:2298–317
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Nishii LH, Khattab J, Shemla M, Paluch RM. 2018. A multi-level process model for understanding diversity practice effectiveness. Acad. Manag. Ann. 12:137–82
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Nkomo SM. 1992. The emperor has no clothes: rewriting “race in organizations. .” Acad. Manag. Rev. 17:3487–513
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Pager D. 2003. The mark of a criminal record. Am. J. Sociol. 108:5937–75
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Pedulla DS, Pager D. 2019. Race and networks in the job search process. Am. Sociol. Rev. 84:6983–1012
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Petsko CD, Rosette AS. 2022. Are leaders still presumed white by default? Racial bias in leader categorization revisited. J. Appl. Psychol. In press. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0001020
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  72. Proudford KL, Nkomo S 2006. Race and ethnicity in organizations. Handbook of Workplace Diversity AM Konrad, P Prasad, JK Pringle 323–44 London: Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Quillian L, Lee JJ, Oliver M. 2020. Evidence from field experiments in hiring shows substantial additional racial discrimination after the callback. Soc. Forces 99:2732–59
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Quillian L, Pager D, Hexel O, Midtbøen AH. 2017. Meta-analysis of field experiments shows no change in racial discrimination in hiring over time. PNAS 114:4110870–75
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Raver JL, Nishii LH. 2010. Once, twice, or three times as harmful? Ethnic harassment, gender harassment, and generalized workplace harassment. J. Appl. Psychol. 95:2236–54
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Ray V. 2019. A theory of racialized organizations. Am. Sociol. Rev. 84:126–53
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Reskin BF, McBrier DB, Kmec JA. 1999. The determinants and consequences of workplace sex and race composition. Annu. Rev. Sociol. 25:335–61
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Reynolds T, Zhu L, Aquino K, Strejcek B. 2021. Dual pathways to bias: Evaluators’ ideology and ressentiment independently predict racial discrimination in hiring contexts. J. Appl. Psychol. 106:4624–41
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Roscigno VJ, Lopez SH, Hodson R. 2009. Supervisory bullying, status inequalities and organizational context. Soc. Forces 87:31561–89
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Rosette AS, Carton AM, Bowes-Sperry L, Hewlin PF. 2013. Why do racial slurs remain prevalent in the workplace? Integrating theory on intergroup behavior. Organ. Sci. 24:51402–21
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Rosette AS, de Leon RP, Koval CZ, Harrison DA. 2018. Intersectionality: connecting experiences of gender with race at work. Res. Organ. Behav. 38:1–22
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Rosette AS, Leonardelli GJ, Phillips KW. 2008. The White standard: racial bias in leader categorization. J. Appl. Psychol. 93:4758–77
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Schminke M, Cropanzano R, Rupp DE. 2002. Organization structure and fairness perceptions: the moderating effects of organizational level. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 89:1881–905
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Schmitt N, Oswald FL, Kim BH, Gillespie MA, Ramsay LJ. 2004. The impact of justice and self-serving bias explanations of the perceived fairness of different types of selection tests. Int. J. Sel. Assess. 12:1–2160–71
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Seidel MDL, Polzer JT, Stewart KJ. 2000. Friends in high places: the effects of social networks on discrimination in salary negotiations. Adm. Sci. Q. 45:11–24
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Simons T, Friedman R, Liu LA, McLean Parks J. 2007. Racial differences in sensitivity to behavioral integrity: attitudinal consequences, in-group effects, and “trickle down” among Black and non-Black employees. J. Appl. Psychol. 92:3650–65
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Stone-Romero EF, Stone DL 2005. How do organizational justice concepts relate to discrimination and prejudice. Handbook of Organizational Justice J Greenberg, JA Colquitt 439–67 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Sy T, Shore LM, Strauss J, Shore TH, Tram S et al. 2010. Leadership perceptions as a function of race-occupation fit: the case of Asian Americans. J. Appl. Psychol. 95:5902–19
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Taylor DM, Wright SC, Moghaddam FM, Lalonde RN. 1990. The personal/group discrimination discrepancy: perceiving my group, but not myself, to be a target for discrimination. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 16:2254–62
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Toole G. 2020. The impact of race/ethnicity on perceptions of organizational justice. ProQuest 28089894. https://www.proquest.com/openview/ff68776db8a26f6ab9f1872393a84ed8/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=44156
  91. Triana MDC, Jayasinghe M, Pieper JR. 2015. Perceived workplace racial discrimination and its correlates: a meta-analysis. J. Organ. Behav. 36:4491–513
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Ubaka A, Lu X, Gutierrez L. 2022. Testing the generalizability of the White leadership standard in the post-Obama era. Leadership Q. In press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2021.101591
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  93. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2020. Labor force characteristics by race and ethnicity, 2019 Rep. 1088 U.S. Bureau Labor Stat. Washington, DC: https://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/race-and-ethnicity/2019/home.htm#:∼:text=By%20race%2C%20Whites%20made%20up,for%20less%20than%201%20percent
  94. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2022. Table 11. Employed Persons By Detailed Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity. Household Data Annual Averages Division of Labor Force Statistics, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Washington, DC: updated January 20, 2022, retrieved February 16, 2022. http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat11.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  95. U.S. Census Bureau. 2022. QuickFacts Table American Community Survey, U.S. Census Bureau Suitland, MD: retrieved February 16, 2022. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/US/PST045221
  96. Vogel RM, Mitchell MS, Tepper BJ, Restubog SL, Hu C et al. 2015. A cross-cultural examination of subordinates' perceptions of and reactions to abusive supervision. J. Organ. Behav. 36:5720–45
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Walter SL, Gonzalez-Mulé E, Guarana CL, O'Boyle EH Jr., Berry CM, Baldwin TT 2021. The race discipline gap: a cautionary note on archival measures of behavioral misconduct. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 166:166–78
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Wilson G. 2005. Race and job dismissal: African American/White differences in their sources during the early work career. Am. Behav. Sci. 48:91182–99
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Wilson KY. 2010. An analysis of bias in supervisor narrative comments in performance appraisal. Hum. Relat. 63:121903–33
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Yao J, Lim S, Guo CY, Ou AY, Ng JWX. 2022. Experienced incivility in the workplace: a meta-analytical review of its construct validity and nomological network. J. Appl. Psychol. 107:2193–220
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Yap M, Konrad AM. 2009. Gender and racial differentials in promotions: Is there a sticky floor, a mid-level bottleneck, or a glass ceiling?. Ind. Relat. 64:4593–619
    [Google Scholar]
  102. Zapata CP, Carton AM, Liu JT. 2016. When justice promotes injustice: why minority leaders experience bias when they adhere to interpersonal justice rules. Acad. Manag. J. 59:41150–73
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-120920-052627
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-120920-052627
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error