1932

Abstract

We review the research on the psychology of entrepreneurship of the last decade. We focus on two key topics in entrepreneurship research: action and process. Combining action and process in a model of the psychology of entrepreneurship, we present the action theory process model of entrepreneurship and use it as a guiding framework for the review. We discuss theories of action, such as effectuation/causation, bricolage, theory of planned behavior, and action theory. Furthermore, we adopt a process perspective to discuss antecedents of actions in terms of cognition, motivation, and emotion and how they develop during the entrepreneurial process. The process perspective considers recursive relationships and dynamic changes in actions and their antecedents over time. We conclude that the action theory process model is a useful starting point to explain the psychological dynamics of entrepreneurship.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-120920-055646
2023-01-23
2024-04-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/orgpsych/10/1/annurev-orgpsych-120920-055646.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-120920-055646&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Ajzen I. 1991. The theory of planned behavior. Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process. 50:2179211
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Allen JS, Stevenson RM, O'Boyle EH, Seibert SE 2021. What matters more for entrepreneurship success? A meta-analysis comparing general mental ability and emotional intelligence in entrepreneurial settings. Strateg. Entrep. J. 15:335276
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Arend RJ, Sarooghi H, Burkemper A. 2015. Effectuation as ineffectual? Applying the 3E theory-assessment framework to a proposed new theory of entrepreneurship. Acad. Manag. Rev. 40:463051
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Arenius P, Minniti M. 2005. Perceptual variables and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Bus. Econ. 24:323347
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bae TJ, Qian S, Miao C, Fiet JO. 2014. The relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions: a meta-analytic review. Entrep. Theory Pract 38:221754
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baker T, Nelson RE. 2005. Creating something from nothing: resource construction through entrepreneurial bricolage. Adm. Sci. Q. 50:332966
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baron RA 2007. Entrepreneurship: a process perspective. The Psychology of Entrepreneurship, ed. JR Baum, M Frese, RA Baron 1939. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Baron RA, Mueller BA, Wolfe MT. 2016. Self-efficacy and entrepreneurs’ adoption of unattainable goals: the restraining effects of self-control. J. Bus. Ventur. 31:15571
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Baum JR, Locke EA. 2004. The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. J. Appl. Psychol. 89:458798
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Berends H, Jelinek M, Reymen I, Stultiens R. 2014. Product innovation processes in small firms: combining entrepreneurial effectuation and managerial causation. J. Prod. Innov. Manag. 31:361635
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Berends H, van Burg E, Garud R. 2021. Pivoting and persevering with venture ideas: recalibrating temporal commitments. J. Bus. Ventur. 36:4106126
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Bischoff KM, Gielnik MM, Frese M. 2020. When capital does not matter: how entrepreneurship training buffers the negative effect of capital constraints on business creation. Strateg. Entrep. J. 14:336995
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Blank S. 2013. Why the lean start-up changes everything. Harvard Bus. Rev. 91:56572
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Brinckmann J, Dew N, Read S, Mayer-Haug K, Grichnik D. 2019. Of those who plan: a meta-analysis of the relationship between human capital and business planning. Long Range Plann 52:217388
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Brinckmann J, Grichnik D, Kapsa D. 2010. Should entrepreneurs plan or just storm the castle? A meta-analysis on contextual factors impacting the business planning-performance relationship in small firms. J. Bus. Ventur. 25:12440
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Brownell KM, McMullen JS, O'Boyle EH. 2021. Fatal attraction: a systematic review and research agenda of the dark triad in entrepreneurship. J. Bus. Ventur. 36:3106106
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Cacciotti G, Hayton JC, Mitchell JR, Giazitzoglu A. 2016. A reconceptualization of fear of failure in entrepreneurship. J. Bus. Ventur. 31:330225
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Campos F, Frese M, Goldstein M, Iacovonne L, Johnson HC et al. 2017. Teaching personal initiative beats traditional training in boosting small business in West Africa. Science 357:6357128790
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Camuffo A, Cordova A, Gambardella A, Spina C. 2020. A scientific approach to entrepreneurial decision making: evidence from a randomized control trial. Manag. Sci. 66:256486
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Canavati S, Libaers D, Wang T, Hooshangi S, Sarooghi H. 2021. Relationship between human capital, new venture ideas, and opportunity beliefs: a meta-analysis. Strateg. Entrep. J. 15:345477
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Cardon MS, Gregoire DA, Stevens CE, Patel PC. 2013. Measuring entrepreneurial passion: conceptual foundations and scale validation. J. Bus. Ventur. 28:337396
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Cardon MS, Kirk CP. 2015. Entrepreneurial passion as mediator of the self-efficacy to persistence relationship. Entrep. Theory Pract. 39:5102750
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cardon MS, Wincent J, Singh J, Drnovsek M. 2009. The nature and experience of entrepreneurial passion. Acad. Manag. Rev. 34:351132
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Carter NM, Gartner WB, Reynolds PD. 1996. Exploring start-up event sequences. J. Bus. Ventur. 11:315166
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Cha V, Ruan Y, Frese M 2020. Re-visiting effectuation: the relationships with causation, entrepreneurial experience, and innovativeness. The Entrepreneurial Behaviour: Unveiling the Cognitive and Emotional Aspect of Entrepreneurship A Caputo, MM Pellegrini 21337. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publ.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Chadwick IC, Raver JL. 2020. Psychological resilience and its downstream effects for business survival in nascent entrepreneurship. Entrep. Theory Pract 44:223355
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Chandler GN, DeTienne DR, McKelvie A, Mumford TV. 2011. Causation and effectuation processes: a validation study. J. Bus. Ventur. 26:337590
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Chliova M, Brinckmann J, Rosenbusch N. 2015. Is microcredit a blessing for the poor? A meta-analysis examining development outcomes and contextual considerations. J. Bus. Ventur. 30:346787
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Doerflinger JT, Martiny-Huenger T, Gollwitzer PM. 2017. Planning to deliberate thoroughly: If-then planned deliberation increases the adjustment of decisions to newly available information. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 69:112
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Drnovsek M, Cardon MS, Patel PC. 2016. Direct and indirect effects of passion on growing technology ventures. Strateg. Entrep. J. 10:2194213
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Dubard Barbosa S, Fayolle A, Smith BR 2019. Biased and overconfident, unbiased but going for it: how framing and anchoring affect the decision to start a new venture. J. Bus. Ventur. 34:352857
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Dyer JH, Gregersen HB, Christensen C. 2008. Entrepreneur behaviors, opportunity recognition, and the origins of new ventures. Strateg. Entrep. J. 2:431738
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Eller FJ, Gielnik MM, Yeves J, Alvarado YC, Guerrero OA. 2022. Adjusting the sails: investigating the feedback loop of the opportunity development process in entrepreneurship training. Acad. Manag. Learn. Educ. 21:220935
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Feng J, Allen DG, Seibert SE. 2022. Once an entrepreneur, always an entrepreneur? Entrepreneurial identity, job characteristics, and voluntary turnover of former entrepreneurs in paid employment. Pers. Psychol. 75:1179213
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Foo M-D, Uy MA, Murnieks CY 2015. Beyond affective valence: untangling valence and activation influences on opportunity identification. Entrep. Theory Pract 39:240731
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Frese M. 2021. An action theory (AT) approach to the psychology of entrepreneurial actions and entrepreneurial success. See Gielnik et al. 2021 182209
  37. Frese M, Gielnik MM. 2014. The psychology of entrepreneurship. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav. 1:41338
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Frese M, Krauss SI, Keith N, Escher S, Grabarkiewicz R et al. 2007. Business owners’ action planning and its relationship to business success in three African countries. J. Appl. Psychol. 92:6148198
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Funken R, Gielnik MM, Foo M-D. 2020. How can problems be turned into something good? The role of entrepreneurial learning and error mastery orientation. Entrep. Theory Pract 44:231538
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Galkina T, Atkova I, Yang M 2022. From tensions to synergy: Causation and effectuation in the process of venture creation. Strateg. Entrep. J. 16:3573601
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Gielnik MM, Barabas S, Frese M, Namatovu-Dawa R, Scholz FA et al. 2014a. A temporal analysis of how entrepreneurial goal intentions, positive fantasies, and action planning affect starting a new venture and when the effects wear off. J. Bus. Ventur. 29:675572
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Gielnik MM, Bledow R, Stark MS. 2020. A dynamic account of self-efficacy in entrepreneurship. J. Appl. Psychol. 105:5487505
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Gielnik MM, Cardon MS, Frese M. 2021. The Psychology of Entrepreneurship: New Perspectives New York: Routledge
  44. Gielnik MM, Frese M, Kahara-Kawuki A, Katono IW, Kyejjusa S et al. 2015a. Action and action-regulation in entrepreneurship: evaluating a student training for promoting entrepreneurship. Acad. Manag. Learn. Educ. 14:16994
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Gielnik MM, Frese M, Stark MS 2015b. Planning and entrepreneurship. The Psychology of Planning in Organizations: Research and Applications MD Mumford, M Frese 289311. New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Gielnik MM, Kramer A-C, Kappel B, Frese M. 2014b. Antecedents of business opportunity identification and innovation: investigating the interplay of information processing and information acquisition. Appl. Psychol. 63:234481
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Gielnik MM, Spitzmuller M, Schmitt A, Klemann DK, Frese M. 2015c. “I put in effort, therefore I am passionate”: investigating the path from effort to passion in entrepreneurship. Acad. Manag. J. 58:4101231
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Gielnik MM, Zacher H, Wang M. 2018. Age in the entrepreneurial process: the role of future time perspective and prior entrepreneurial experience. J. Appl. Psychol. 103:10106785
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Gieure C, del Mar Benavides-Espinosa M, Roig-Dobon S. 2020. The entrepreneurial process: the link between intentions and behavior. J. Bus. Res. 112:54148
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Glaub ME, Frese M, Fischer S, Hoppe M. 2014. Increasing personal initiative in small business managers or owners leads to entrepreneurial success: a theory-based controlled randomized field intervention for evidence-based management. Acad. Manag. Learn. Educ. 13:335479
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Gollwitzer PM. 1999. Implementation intentions: strong effects of simple plans. Am. Psychol. 54:7493503
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Gollwitzer PM, Sheeran P. 2006. Implementation intentions and goal achievement: a meta-analysis of effects and processes. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 38:69119
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Gorgievski MJ, Stephan U 2016. Advancing the psychology of entrepreneurship: a review of the psychological literature and an introduction. Appl. Psychol. 65:343768
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Grimes MG. 2018. The pivot: how founders respond to feedback through idea and identity work. Acad. Manag. J. 61:51692717
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Gruber M, MacMillan IC, Thompson JD. 2013. Escaping the prior knowledge corridor: What shapes the number and variety of market opportunities identified before market entry of technology start-ups?. Organ. Sci. 24:1280300
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Gutierrez C, Astebro T, Obloj T. 2020. The impact of overconfidence and ambiguity on market entry. Organ. Sci. 31:230829
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Hampel CE, Tracey P, Weber K. 2020. The art of the pivot: how new ventures manage identification relationships with stakeholders as they change direction. Acad. Manag. J. 63:244071
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Hashai N, Zahra SA. 2022. Founder team prior work experience: An asset or a liability for startup growth?. Strateg. Entrep. J. 16:115584
    [Google Scholar]
  59. He VF, Siren C, Singh S, Solomon G, von Krogh G 2018. Keep calm and carry on: emotion regulation in entrepreneurs’ learning from failure. Entrep. Theory Pract. 42:460530
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Hooshangi S, Loewenstein G. 2018. The impact of idea generation and potential appropriation on entrepreneurship: an experimental study. Manag. Sci. 64:16482
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Hopp C, Greene FJ. 2018. In pursuit of time: business plan sequencing, duration and intraentrainment effects on new venture viability. J. Manag. Stud. 55:232051
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Hubner S, Baum M, Frese M. 2020. Contagion of entrepreneurial passion: effects on employee outcomes. Entrep. Theory Pract. 44:6111240
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Jacob GH, Frese M, Krauss SI, Friedrich C. 2019. On the importance of a motivational agency variable: Being a formal business in developing countries is only helpful for growth if business owners show a high degree of personal initiative. J. Appl. Psychol. 104:9118194
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Jiang Y, Tornikoski ET. 2019. Perceived uncertainty and behavioral logic: temporality and unanticipated consequences in the new venture creation process. J. Bus. Ventur. 34:12340
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Kautonen T, van Gelderen M, Fink M. 2015. Robustness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrep. Theory Pract. 39:365574
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Kim S, Kim A. 2022. Going viral or growing like an oak tree? Towards sustainable local development through entrepreneurship. Acad. Manag. J. 65:5170946
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Kirtley J, O'Mahony S. 2020. What is a pivot? Explaining when and how entrepreneurial firms decide to make strategic change and pivot. Strateg. Manag. J https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.3131
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  68. Koellinger P, Minniti M, Schade C. 2007. “I think I can, I think I can”: overconfidence and entrepreneurial behavior. J. Econ. Psychol. 28:450227
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Kollmann T, Stockmann C, Kensbock JM. 2017. Fear of failure as a mediator of the relationship between obstacles and nascent entrepreneurial activity—an experimental approach. J. Bus. Ventur. 32:3280301
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Leatherbee M, Katila R. 2020. The lean startup method: early-stage teams and hypothesis-based probing of business ideas. Strateg. Entrep. J. 14:457093
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Legrand E, Bieleke M, Gollwitzer PM, Mignon A 2017. Nothing will stop me? Flexibly tenacious goal striving with implementation intentions. Motiv. Sci. 3:210118
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Lerman MP, Munyon TP, Williams DW. 2021. The (not so) dark side of entrepreneurship: a meta-analysis of the well-being and performance consequences of entrepreneurial stress. Strateg. Entrep. J. 15:3377402
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Lex M, Gielnik MM, Spitzmuller M, Jacob GH, Frese M. 2022. How passion in entrepreneurship develops over time: a self-regulation perspective. Entrep. Theory Pract 46:49851018
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Locke EA, Latham GP. 2002. Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation—a 35-year odyssey. Am. Psychol. 57:970517
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Lord RG, Diefendorff JM, Schmidt AM, Hall RJ. 2010. Self-regulation at work. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 61:54368
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Marvel MR, Davis JL, Sproul CR. 2016. Human capital and entrepreneurship research: a critical review and future directions. Entrep. Theory Pract. 40:3599626
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Marvel MR, Wolfe MT, Kuratko DF. 2020. Escaping the knowledge corridor: how founder human capital and founder coachability impacts product innovation in new ventures. J. Bus. Ventur. 35:6106060
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Mathias BD, McKenny AF, Crook TR. 2018. Managing the tensions between exploration and exploitation: the role of time. Strateg. Entrep. J. 12:331634
    [Google Scholar]
  79. McKenzie D, Woodruff C. 2017. Business practices in small firms in developing countries. Manag. Sci. 63:9296781
    [Google Scholar]
  80. McMullen JS, Dimov D. 2013. Time and the entrepreneurial journey: the problems and promise of studying entrepreneurship as a process. J. Manag. Stud. 50:81481512
    [Google Scholar]
  81. McMullen JS, Shepherd DA. 2006. Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Acad. Manag. Rev. 31:113252
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Mensmann M, Frese M 2017. Proactive behavior training: theory, design, and future directions. Making Things Happen in Organizations SK Parker, UK Bindl 43468. New York: Routledge
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Meoli A, Fini R, Sobrero M, Wiklund J. 2020. How entrepreneurial intentions influence entrepreneurial career choices: the moderating influence of social context. J. Bus. Ventur. 35:3105982
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Miao C, Qian S, Ma D. 2017. The relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and firm performance: a meta-analysis of main and moderator effects. J. Small Bus. Manag. 55:187107
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Miller GA, Galanter E, Pribram KH. 1960. Plans and the Structure of Behavior London: Holt
  86. Muehlfeld K, Urbig D, Weitzel U. 2017. Entrepreneurs’ exploratory perseverance in learning settings. Entrep. Theory Pract. 41:453365
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Mueller BA, Wolfe MT, Syed I. 2017. Passion and grit: an exploration of the pathways leading to venture success. J. Bus. Ventur. 32:326079
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Murnieks CY, Mosakowski E, Cardon MS. 2014. Pathways of passion: identity centrality, passion, and behavior among entrepreneurs. J. Manag. 40:61583606
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Patel PC, Fiet JO, Sohl JE. 2011. Mitigating the limited scalability of bootstrapping through strategic alliances to enhance new venture growth. Int. Small Bus. J. 29:542147
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Raffiee J, Feng J. 2014. Should I quit my day job?: A hybrid path to entrepreneurship. Acad. Manag. J. 57:493663
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Rauch A, Frese M. 2007. Let's put the person back into entrepreneurship research: a meta-analysis on the relationship between business owners’ personality traits, business creation, and success. Eur. J. Work Organ. Psychol. 16:435385
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Rauch A, Frese M, Sonnentag S. 2000. Cultural differences in planning/success relationships: a comparison of small enterprises in Ireland, West Germany, and East Germany. J. Small Bus. Manag. 38:42841
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Rauch A, Hatak I. 2016. A meta-analysis of different HR-enhancing practices and performance of small and medium sized firms. J. Bus. Ventur. 31:5485504
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Rauch A, Rosenbusch N, Unger JM, Frese M. 2016. The effectiveness of cohesive and diversified networks: a meta-analysis. J. Bus. Res. 69:255468
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Reymen IMMJ, Andries P, Berends H, Mauer R, Stephan U, van Burg E. 2015. Understanding dynamics of strategic decision making in venture creation: a process study of effectuation and causation. Strateg. Entrep. J. 9:435179
    [Google Scholar]
  96. Reypens L, Bacq S, Milanov H. 2021. Beyond bricolage: early-stage technology venture resource mobilization in resource-scarce contexts. J. Bus. Ventur. 36:4106110
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Ries E. 2011. The Lean Startup New York: Crown Bus.
  98. Rosenbusch N, Brinckmann J, Muller V. 2013a. Does acquiring venture capital pay off for the funded firms? A meta-analysis on the relationship between venture capital investment and funded firm financial performance. J. Bus. Ventur. 28:333553
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Rosenbusch N, Rauch A, Bausch A. 2013b. The mediating role of entrepreneurial orientation in the task environment-performance relationship: a meta-analysis. J. Manag. 39:363359
    [Google Scholar]
  100. Sarasvathy SD. 2001. Causation and effectuation: toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency. Acad. Manag. Rev. 26:224363
    [Google Scholar]
  101. Sarasvathy SD. 2008. Effectuation: Elements of Entrepreneurial Expertise Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publ.
  102. Sarooghi H, Libaers D, Burkemper A. 2015. Examining the relationship between creativity and innovation: a meta-analysis of organizational, cultural, and environmental factors. J. Bus. Ventur. 15:571431
    [Google Scholar]
  103. Schlaegel C, Koenig M. 2014. Determinants of entrepreneurial intent: a meta-analytic test and integration of competing models. Entrep. Theory Pract 38:2291332
    [Google Scholar]
  104. Seligman ME, Railton P, Baumeister RF, Sripada C. 2016. Homo Prospectus Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press
  105. Senyard J, Baker T, Steffens P, Davidsson P. 2014. Bricolage as a path to innovativeness for resource-constrained new firms. J. Prod. Innov. Manag. 31:221130
    [Google Scholar]
  106. Shane S. 2000. Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organ. Sci. 11:444869
    [Google Scholar]
  107. Shane S, Locke EA, Collins CJ. 2003. Entrepreneurial motivation. Hum. Resour. Manag. Rev. 13:225779
    [Google Scholar]
  108. Shane S, Venkataraman S. 2000. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Acad. Manag. Rev. 25:121726
    [Google Scholar]
  109. Shepherd DA, Gruber M. 2021. The lean startup framework: closing the academic–practitioner divide. Entrep. Theory Pract. 45:596798
    [Google Scholar]
  110. Shepherd DA, Sattari R, Patzelt H. 2022. A social model of opportunity development: Building and engaging communities of inquiry. J. Bus. Ventur. 37:1 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2020.106033
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  111. Shirokova G, Osiyevskyy O, Laskovaia A, MahdaviMazdeh H. 2020. Navigating the emerging market context: performance implications of effectuation and causation for small and medium enterprises during adverse economic conditions in Russia. Strateg. Entrep. J. 14:3470500
    [Google Scholar]
  112. Smolka KM, Verheul I, Burmeister-Lamp K, Heugens PPMAR. 2018. Get it together! Synergistic effects of causal and effectual decision-making logics on venture performance. Entrep. Theory Pract. 42:4571604
    [Google Scholar]
  113. Stam W, Arzlanian S, Elfring T. 2014. Social capital of entrepreneurs and small firm performance: a meta-analysis of contextual and methodological moderators. J. Bus. Ventur. 29:115273
    [Google Scholar]
  114. Stenholm P, Renko M. 2016. Passionate bricoleurs and new venture survival. J. Bus. Ventur. 31:5595611
    [Google Scholar]
  115. Stephan U. 2022. Cross-cultural innovation and entrepreneurship. Annu. Rev. Organ. Psychol. Organ. Behav. 9:277308
    [Google Scholar]
  116. Stephan U, Rauch A, Hatak I. 2022. Happy entrepreneurs? Everywhere? A meta-analysis of entrepreneurship and wellbeing. Entrep. Theory Pract. In press. https://doi.org/10.1177/10422587211072799
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  117. Stroe S, Siren C, Shepherd DA, Wincent J. 2020. The dualistic regulatory effect of passion on the relationship between fear of failure and negative affect: insights from facial expression analysis. J. Bus. Ventur. 35:4105948
    [Google Scholar]
  118. Tripathi N, Zhu J, Jacob GH, Frese M, Gielnik MM. 2020. Intraindividual variability in identity centrality: examining the dynamics of perceived role progress and identity centrality. J. Appl. Psychol. 105:8889906
    [Google Scholar]
  119. Unger JM, Rauch A, Frese M, Rosenbusch N. 2011. Human capital and entrepreneurial success: a meta-analytical review. J. Bus. Ventur. 26:334158
    [Google Scholar]
  120. Uy MA, Foo M-D, Ilies R. 2015. Perceived progress variability and entrepreneurial effort intensity: the moderating role of venture goal commitment. J. Bus. Ventur. 30:337589
    [Google Scholar]
  121. Uy MA, Sun S, Foo M-D. 2017. Affect spin, entrepreneurs’ well-being, and venture goal progress: the moderating role of goal orientation. J. Bus. Ventur. 32:444360
    [Google Scholar]
  122. Vallerand RJ, Blanchard C, Mageau GA, Koestner R, Ratelle C et al. 2003. Les passions de l'ame: on obsessive and harmonious passion. J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 85:475667
    [Google Scholar]
  123. Vancouver JB, Thompson CM, Williams AA. 2001. The changing signs in the relationships among self-efficacy, personal goals, and performance. J. Appl. Psychol. 86:460520
    [Google Scholar]
  124. van der Linden D, Sonnentag S, Frese M, van Dyck C. 2001. Exploration strategies, performance, and error consequences when learning a complex computer task. Behav. Inf. Technol. 20:318998
    [Google Scholar]
  125. van Gelderen M, Frese M, Thurik AR. 2000. Strategies, uncertainty and performance of small business startups. Small Bus. Econ. 15:316581
    [Google Scholar]
  126. van Gelderen M, Kautonen T, Fink M. 2015. From entrepreneurial intentions to actions: self-control and action-related doubt, fear, and aversion. J. Bus. Ventur. 30:565573
    [Google Scholar]
  127. Vogel P. 2017. From venture idea to venture opportunity. Entrep. Theory Pract 41:694371
    [Google Scholar]
  128. Winborg J, Landstrom H. 2001. Financial bootstrapping in small businesses: examining small business managers’ resource acquisition behaviors. J. Bus. Ventur. 16:323554
    [Google Scholar]
  129. Zhang SX, Cueto J. 2017. The study of bias in entrepreneurship. Entrep. Theory Pract. 41:341954
    [Google Scholar]
  130. Zhao H, Liu Q. 2022. Entrepreneurial passion: a meta-analysis of three measures. Entrep. Theory Pract. In press. https://doi.org/10.1177/10422587211069858
    [Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  131. Zhao H, O'Connor G, Wu J, Lumpkin GT 2021. Age and entrepreneurial career success: a review and a meta-analysis. J. Bus. Ventur. 36:1106007
    [Google Scholar]
  132. Zhu J, Bischoff KM, Frese M, Gielnik MM, Handrich E, Bellstedt D. 2021. The effectiveness of the effectuation approach on opportunity identification and pursuit: evidence from a randomized controlled field experiment. Acad. Manag. Learn. Educ. 20:456277
    [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-120920-055646
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-120920-055646
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error