Over the past several decades, there has been substantial progress toward understanding the mechanisms of heart valve function and dysfunction. This review summarizes an evolving conceptual framework of heart valve functional structure, developmental biology, and pathobiology and explores the implications of key insights. I emphasize: () valve cell and extracellular matrix biology and the impact of biomechanical factors on function, homeostasis, environmental adaptation, and key pathological processes; () the role of developmental processes, valvular cell behavior, and extracellular matrix remodeling in congenital and acquired valve abnormalities; and () the cell/matrix biology of degeneration in replacement tissue valves. I also summarize how these considerations may ultimately inform the potential for prevention and treatment of major diseases and potentially therapeutic regeneration of the cardiac valves. Recent advances and opportunities for research and clinical translation are highlighted.


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  • Article Type: Review Article
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