Lymphomas represent clonal proliferations of lymphocytes that are broadly classified based upon their maturity (peripheral or mature versus precursor) and lineage (B cell, T cell, and natural killer cell). Insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in lymphoma impact the classification of lymphoma and have significant implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. Serial scientific and technologic advances over the last 30 years in immunology, cytogenetics, molecular biology, gene expression profiling, mass spectrometry–based proteomics, and, more recently, next-generation sequencing have contributed to greatly enhance our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms in lymphoma. Novel and emerging concepts that challenge our previously accepted paradigms about lymphoma biology and how these impact diagnosis, molecular testing, disease monitoring, drug development, and personalized and precision medicine for lymphoma are discussed.


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