1932

Abstract

It was first demonstrated in the late nineteenth century that human deaths from fever were typically due to infections. As the germ theory gained ground, it replaced the old, unproven theory that deaths from fever reflected a weak personal or even familial constitution. A new enigma emerged at the turn of the twentieth century, when it became apparent that only a small proportion of infected individuals die from primary infections with almost any given microbe. Classical genetics studies gradually revealed that severe infectious diseases could be driven by human genetic predisposition. This idea gained ground with the support of molecular genetics, in three successive, overlapping steps. First, many rare inborn errors of immunity were shown, from 1985 onward, to underlie multiple, recurrent infections with Mendelian inheritance. Second, a handful of rare and familial infections, also segregating as Mendelian traits but striking humans resistant to other infections, were deciphered molecularly beginning in 1996. Third, from 2007 onward, a growing number of rare or common sporadicinfections were shown to result from monogenic, but not Mendelian, inborn errors. A synthesis of the hitherto mutually exclusive germ and genetic theories is now in view.

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2021-01-24
2024-04-13
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