Melanoma is a complex and genomically diverse malignancy, and new genes and signaling pathways involved in pathogenesis continue to be discovered. Mechanistic insights into gene and immune regulation in melanoma have led to the development of numerous successful and innovative pharmacologic agents over recent years. Multiple targeted therapies and immunotherapies have already entered the clinic, becoming new standards of care and transforming the prognosis for many patients with malignant melanoma. In this review, we provide an overview of the current understanding of signaling and immune regulation in melanoma and implications for responses to treatment, organized in the framework of hallmark characteristics in cancer.


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