1932

Abstract

This review reflects the trajectory of my career in hematopathology, and my personal reflections on scientific advances in the field. During the course of more than 40 years, the approach to classification of hematological malignancies has evolved from descriptive approaches, based on either cytological or clinical features, to a modern approach, which incorporates cutting-edge technologies. My philosophy has focused on defining individual diseases, an approach that can best lead to an understanding of molecular pathogenesis. To quote Carolus Linnaeus (1, p. 19), the father of taxonomy, “The first step in wisdom is to know the things themselves; this notion consists in having a true idea of the objects; objects are distinguished and known by classifying them methodically and giving them appropriate names. Therefore, classification and name-giving will be the foundation of our science.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pathol-052016-100351
2017-01-24
2024-06-15
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/pathol/12/1/annurev-pathol-052016-100351.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pathol-052016-100351&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

Literature Cited

  1. Linnaeus C. 1.  1964 (1735). Systema naturae, sive regna tria naturae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, and species, transl. MSJ Engel-Ledeboer, H Engel Nieuwkopp, Neth.: Hes & De Graaf
  2. Nowell PC. 2.  1960. Phytohemagglutinin: an initiator of mitosis in cultures of normal human leukocytes. Cancer Res 20:462–66 [Google Scholar]
  3. Cooper MD, Raymond DA, Peterson RD, South MA, Good RA. 3.  1966. The functions of the thymus system and the bursa system in the chicken. J. Exp. Med. 123:75–102 [Google Scholar]
  4. Papermaster BW, Good RA. 4.  1962. Relative contributions of the thymus and the bursa of Fabricius to the maturation of the lymphoreticur system and immunological potential in the chicken. Nature 196:838–40 [Google Scholar]
  5. Lay WH, Mendes NF, Bianco C, Nussenzweig V. 5.  1971. Binding of sheep red blood cells to a large population of human lymphocytes. Nature 230:531–32 [Google Scholar]
  6. Jondal M, Holm G, Wigzell H. 6.  1972. Surface markers on human T and B lymphocytes. I. A large population of lymphocytes forming nonimmune rosettes with sheep red blood cells. J. Exp. Med. 136:207–15 [Google Scholar]
  7. Lay WH, Nussenzweig V. 7.  1968. Receptors for complement of leukocytes. J. Exp. Med. 128:991–1009 [Google Scholar]
  8. Shevach EM, Jaffe ES, Green I. 8.  1973. Receptors for complement and immunoglobulin on human and animal lymphoid cells. Transplant. Rev 16:3–28 [Google Scholar]
  9. Rappaport H. 9.  1966. Tumors of the Hematopoietic System. Natl. Res. Counc. Comm. on Pathol. Atlas Tumor Pathol., sect. 3, fasc. 8. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Inst. Pathol.
  10. Lennert K. 10.  1969. Germinal centers and germinal center neoplasia. Acta Haematol. Jpn. 32:495–500 [Google Scholar]
  11. Jaffe ES, Shevach EM, Frank MM, Berard CW, Green I. 11.  1974. Nodular lymphoma—evidence for origin from follicular B lymphocytes. N. Engl. J. Med. 290:813–19 [Google Scholar]
  12. Smith JL, Clein GP, Barker CR, Collins RD. 12.  1973. Characterisation of malignant mediastinal lymphoid neoplasm (Sternberg sarcoma) as thymic in origin. Lancet 301:74–77 [Google Scholar]
  13. Sternberg C. 13.  1916. Leukosarcomatose and myeloblasten leukamie. Beitr. Anat. Pathol. 61:75 [Google Scholar]
  14. Broome JD, Zucker-Franklin D, Weiner MS, Bianco C, Nussenzweig V. 14.  1973. Leukemic cells with membrane properties of thymus-derived (T) lymphocytes in a case of Sézary's syndrome: morphologic and immunologic studies. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1:319–29 [Google Scholar]
  15. Mann RB, Jaffe ES, Braylan RC, Eggleston JC, Ransom L. 15.  et al. 1975. Immunologic and morphologic studies of T cell lymphoma. Am. J. Med. 58:307–13 [Google Scholar]
  16. Lennert K, Mohri N. 16.  1974. Histologische Klassifizierung and Vorkommen des M. Hodgkin. Internist 15:57–65 [Google Scholar]
  17. Lennert K, Stein H, Kaiserling E. 17.  1975. Cytological and functional criteria for the classification of malignant lymphomata. Br. J. Cancer Suppl. 2:29–43 [Google Scholar]
  18. Lennert K. 18.  1974. Letter: origin of malignant lymphomas. Lancet 2:586 [Google Scholar]
  19. Suchi T, Lennert K, Tu L-Y. 19.  1987. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry of peripheral T cell lymphomas: a proposal for their classification. J. Clin. Pathol. 40:995–1015 [Google Scholar]
  20. Trumper LH, Brittinger G, Diehl V, Harris NL. 20.  2004. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a history of classification and clinical observations. Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas PM Mauch, JO Armitage, B Coiffier, R Dalla-Favera, NL Harris 3–19 Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins [Google Scholar]
  21. 21. International Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Prognostic Factors Project 1993. A predictive model for aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 329:987–94 [Google Scholar]
  22. Kohler G, Milstein C. 22.  1975. Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256:495–97 [Google Scholar]
  23. McMichael AJ, Pilch JR, Galfre G, Mason DY, Fabre JW, Milstein C. 23.  1979. A human thymocyte antigen defined by a hybrid myeloma monoclonal antibody. Eur. J. Immunol. 9:205–10 [Google Scholar]
  24. Bernard A, Boumsell L. 24.  1984. The clusters of differentiation (CD) defined by the First International Workshop on Human Leucocyte Differentiation Antigens. Hum. Immunol. 11:1–10 [Google Scholar]
  25. Warnke RA, Gatter KC, Falini B, Hildreth P, Woolston RE. 25.  et al. 1983. Diagnosis of human lymphoma with monoclonal antileukocyte antibodies. N. Engl. J. Med. 309:1275–81 [Google Scholar]
  26. Nowell PC, Hungerford DA. 26.  1961. Chromosome studies in human leukemia. II. Chronic granulocytic leukemia. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 27:1013–35 [Google Scholar]
  27. Zech L, Haglund U, Nilsson K, Klein G. 27.  1976. Characteristic chromosomal abnormalities in biopsies and lymphoid-cell lines from patients with Burkitt and non-Burkitt lymphomas. Int. J. Cancer 17:47–56 [Google Scholar]
  28. Fukuhara S, Rowley JD, Variakojis D, Golomb HM. 28.  1979. Chromosome abnormalities in poorly differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma. Cancer Res 39:3119–28 [Google Scholar]
  29. Yunis JJ, Oken MM, Kaplan ME, Ensrud KM, Howe RR, Theologides A. 29.  1982. Distinctive chromosomal abnormalities in histologic subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 307:1231–36 [Google Scholar]
  30. Taub R, Kirsch I, Morton C, Lenoir G, Swan D. 30.  et al. 1982. Translocation of the c-myc gene into the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in human Burkitt lymphoma and murine plasmacytoma cells. PNAS 79:7837–41 [Google Scholar]
  31. Taub R, Moulding C, Battey J, Murphy W, Vasicek T. 31.  et al. 1984. Activation and somatic mutation of the translocated c-myc gene in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Cell 36:339–48 [Google Scholar]
  32. Tsujimoto Y, Cossman J, Jaffe E, Croce CM. 32.  1985. Involvement of the bcl-2 gene in human follicular lymphoma. Science 228:1440–43 [Google Scholar]
  33. Tsujimoto Y, Jaffe E, Cossman J, Gorham J, Nowell PC, Croce CM. 33.  1985. Clustering of breakpoints on chromosome 11 in human B-cell neoplasms with the t(11;14) chromosome translocation. Nature 315:340–43 [Google Scholar]
  34. Rosenberg C, Wong E, Petty E, Bale A, Tsujimoto Y. 34.  et al. 1991. PRAD1, a candidate BCL1 oncogene: mapping and expression in centrocytic lymphoma. PNAS 88:9638–42 [Google Scholar]
  35. Raffeld M, Jaffe ES. 35.  1991. bcl-1, t(11;14), and mantle cell-derived lymphomas. Blood 78:259–63 [Google Scholar]
  36. Arnold A, Cossman J, Bakhshi A, Jaffe ES, Waldmann TA, Korsmeyer SJ. 36.  1983. Immunoglobulin-gene rearrangements as unique clonal markers in human lymphoid neoplasms. N. Engl. J. Med. 309:1593–99 [Google Scholar]
  37. Kuppers R, Zhao M, Hansmann ML, Rajewsky K. 37.  1993. Tracing B cell development in human germinal centres by molecular analysis of single cells picked from histological sections. EMBO J 12:4955–67 [Google Scholar]
  38. Kuppers R, Klein U, Hansmann ML, Rajewsky K. 38.  1999. Cellular origin of human B-cell lymphomas. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:1520–29 [Google Scholar]
  39. Tamaru J, Hummel M, Zemlin M, Kalvelage B, Stein H. 39.  1994. Hodgkin's disease with a B-cell phenotype often shows a VDJ rearrangement and somatic mutations in the VH genes. Blood 84:708–15 [Google Scholar]
  40. Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R. 40.  et al. 1988. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science 239:487–91 [Google Scholar]
  41. Haralambieva E, Kleiverda K, Mason DY, Schuuring E, Kluin PM. 41.  2002. Detection of three common translocation breakpoints in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization on routine paraffin-embedded tissue sections. J. Pathol. 198:163–70 [Google Scholar]
  42. Epstein MA, Achong BG, Barr YM. 42.  1964. Virus particles in cultured lymphoblasts from Burkitt's lymphoma. Lancet 283:702–3 [Google Scholar]
  43. Jaffe ES, Chan JKC, Su IJ, Frizzera G, Mori S. 43.  et al. 1996. Report of the workshop on nasal and related extranodal angiocentric T/NK cell lymphomas: definitions, differential diagnosis, and epidemiology. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 20:103–11 [Google Scholar]
  44. Delecluse HJ, Anagnostopoulos I, Dallenbach F, Hummel M, Marafioti T. 44.  et al. 1997. Plasmablastic lymphomas of the oral cavity: a new entity associated with the human immunodeficiency virus infection. Blood 89:1413–20 [Google Scholar]
  45. Quintanilla-Martinez L, Kumar S, Fend F, Reyes E, Teruya-Feldstein J. 45.  et al. 2000. Fulminant EBV+ T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder following acute/chronic EBV infection: a distinct clinicopathologic syndrome. Blood 96:443–51 [Google Scholar]
  46. Uchiyama T, Yodoi J, Sagawa K, Takatsuki K, Uchino H. 46.  1977. Adult T-cell leukemia: clinical and hematologic features of 16 cases. Blood 50:481–92 [Google Scholar]
  47. Poiesz B, Ruscetti F, Gazdar A, Bunn PA, Minna JD, Gallo RC. 47.  1980. Detection and isolation of type C retrovirus particles from fresh and cultured lymphocytes of a patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. PNAS 77:7415–19 [Google Scholar]
  48. Blattner WA, Blayney DW, Robert-Guroff M, Sarngadharan MG, Kalyanaraman VS. 48.  et al. 1983. Epidemiology of human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus. J. Infect. Dis. 147:406–16 [Google Scholar]
  49. Blayney DW, Blattner WA, Robert-Guroff M, Jaffe ES, Fisher RI. 49.  et al. 1983. The human T-cell leukemia-lymphoma virus in the southeastern United States. JAMA 250:1048–52 [Google Scholar]
  50. Jaffe ES, Blattner WA, Blayney DW, Bunn PA Jr., Cossman J. 50.  et al. 1984. The pathologic spectrum of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in the United States. Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus-associated lymphoid malignancies. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 8:263–75 [Google Scholar]
  51. Cesarman E, Chang Y, Moore PS, Said JW, Knowles DM. 51.  1995. Kaposi's sarcoma–associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in AIDS-related body-cavity-based lymphomas. N. Engl. J. Med. 332:1186–91 [Google Scholar]
  52. Oksenhendler E, Boulanger E, Galicier L, Du MQ, Dupin N. 52.  et al. 2002. High incidence of Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma in patients with HIV infection and multicentric Castleman disease. Blood 99:2331–36 [Google Scholar]
  53. Dupin N, Fisher C, Kellam P, Ariad S, Tulliez M. 53.  et al. 1999. Distribution of human herpesvirus-8 latently infected cells in Kaposi's sarcoma, multicentric Castleman's disease, and primary effusion lymphoma. PNAS 96:4546–51 [Google Scholar]
  54. Du MQ, Diss TC, Liu H, Ye H, Hamoudi RA. 54.  et al. 2002. KSHV- and EBV-associated germinotropic lymphoproliferative disorder. Blood 100:3415–18 [Google Scholar]
  55. Weinstock DM, Dalla-Favera R, Gascoyne RD, Leonard JP, Levy R. 55.  et al. 2015. A roadmap for discovery and translation in lymphoma. Blood 125:2175–77 [Google Scholar]
  56. Dave SS, Fu K, Wright GW, Lam LT, Kluin P. 56.  et al. 2006. Molecular diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 354:2431–42 [Google Scholar]
  57. Lenz G, Wright GW, Emre NC, Kohlhammer H, Dave SS. 57.  et al. 2008. Molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arise by distinct genetic pathways. PNAS 105:13520–25 [Google Scholar]
  58. Iqbal J, Wright G, Wang C, Rosenwald A, Gascoyne RD. 58.  et al. 2014. Gene expression signatures delineate biological and prognostic subgroups in peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Blood 123:2915–23 [Google Scholar]
  59. Rosenwald A, Wright G, Wiestner A, Chan WC, Connors JM. 59.  et al. 2003. The proliferation gene expression signature is a quantitative integrator of oncogenic events that predicts survival in mantle cell lymphoma. Cancer Cell 3:185–97 [Google Scholar]
  60. Lardelli P, Bookman MA, Sundeen J, Longo DL, Jaffe ES. 60.  1990. Lymphocytic lymphoma of intermediate differentiation. Morphologic and immunophenotypic spectrum and clinical correlations. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 14:752–63 [Google Scholar]
  61. Tiemann M, Schrader C, Klapper W, Dreyling MH, Campo E. 61.  et al. 2005. Histopathology, cell proliferation indices and clinical outcome in 304 patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL): a clinicopathological study from the European MCL Network. Br. J. Haematol. 131:29–38 [Google Scholar]
  62. Dave SS, Wright G, Tan B, Rosenwald A, Gascoyne RD. 62.  et al. 2004. Prediction of survival in follicular lymphoma based on molecular features of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. N. Engl. J. Med. 351:2159–69 [Google Scholar]
  63. Steidl C, Lee T, Shah SP, Farinha P, Han G. 63.  et al. 2010. Tumor-associated macrophages and survival in classic Hodgkin's lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 362:875–85 [Google Scholar]
  64. Nicolae A, Abdullah S, Davies-Hill T, Pittaluga S, Jaffe ES. 64.  2014. EBV+ B cell lymphomas (BCL) in young patients without immunodeficiency. Proc. 17th Meet. Eur. Assoc. Haematopathol 84–85 Istanbul: Eur. Assoc. Haematopathol.
  65. Hans CP, Weisenburger DD, Greiner TC, Gascoyne RD, Delabie J. 65.  et al. 2004. Confirmation of the molecular classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. Blood 103:275–82 [Google Scholar]
  66. Mozos A, Royo C, Hartmann E, De Jong D, Baro C. 66.  et al. 2009. SOX11 expression is highly specific for mantle cell lymphoma and identifies the cyclin D1-negative subtype. Haematologica 94:1555–62 [Google Scholar]
  67. Soldini D, Valera A, Sole C, Palomero J, Amador V. 67.  et al. 2014. Assessment of SOX11 expression in routine lymphoma tissue sections: characterization of new monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 38:86–93 [Google Scholar]
  68. Wilson WH, Young RM, Schmitz R, Yang Y, Pittaluga S. 68.  et al. 2015. Targeting B cell receptor signaling with ibrutinib in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Nat. Med. 21:922–26 [Google Scholar]
  69. Ansell SM, Lesokhin AM, Borrello I, Halwani A, Scott EC. 69.  et al. 2015. PD-1 blockade with nivolumab in relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 372:311–19 [Google Scholar]
  70. Banks P, Chan J, Cleary M, Delson G, De Wolf-Peeters C. 70.  et al. 1992. Mantle cell lymphoma: a proposal for unification of morphologic, immunologic, and molecular data. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 16:637–40 [Google Scholar]
  71. Mason D, Banks P, Chan J, Cleary M, Delsol G. 71.  et al. 1994. Nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease: a distinct clinico-pathological entity. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 18:528–30 [Google Scholar]
  72. Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Stein H, Banks PM, Chan JK. 72.  et al. 1994. A revised European-American classification of lymphoid neoplasms: a proposal from the International Lymphoma Study Group. Blood 84:1361–92 [Google Scholar]
  73. Jaffe ES, Harris NL, Stein H, Vardiman J. 73.  2001. Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues Lyon, Fr: IARC Press [Google Scholar]
  74. Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, Flandrin G, Muller-Hermelink HK. 74.  et al. 1999. World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: report of the Clinical Advisory Committee meeting, Airlie House, Virginia, November 1997. J. Clin. Oncol. 17:3835–49 [Google Scholar]
  75. Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Pileri SA. 75.  et al. 2008. WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues Lyon, Fr.: Int. Agency Res. Cancer [Google Scholar]
  76. Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Pileri SA, Harris NL, Stein H. 76.  et al. 2016. The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Blood 127:2375–90 [Google Scholar]
  77. Campo E, Swerdlow SH, Harris NL, Pileri S, Stein H, Jaffe ES. 77.  2011. The 2008 WHO classification of lymphoid neoplasms and beyond: evolving concepts and practical applications. Blood 117:5019–32 [Google Scholar]
  78. Arber DA, Orazi A, Hasserjian R, Thiele J, Borowitz MJ. 78.  et al. 2016. The 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia. Blood 127:2391–405 [Google Scholar]
  79. Jaffe ES. 79.  2001. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma: the shifting sands of diagnostic hematopathology. Mod. Pathol. 14:219–28 [Google Scholar]
  80. Morris SW, Kirstein MN, Valentine MB, Dittmer KG, Shapiro DN. 80.  et al. 1994. Fusion of a kinase gene, ALK, to a nucleolar protein gene, NPM, in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Science 263:1281–84 [Google Scholar]
  81. Pulford K, Lamant L, Morris SW, Butler LH, Wood KM. 81.  et al. 1997. Detection of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and nucleolar protein nucleophosmin (NPM)–ALK proteins in normal and neoplastic cells with the monoclonal antibody ALK1. Blood 89:1394–404 [Google Scholar]
  82. Leoncini L, Del Vecchio M, Kraft R, Megha T, Barbini P. 82.  et al. 1990. Hodgkin's disease and CD30-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas—a continuous spectrum of malignant disorders. Am. J. Pathol. 137:1047–57 [Google Scholar]
  83. Zinzani PL, Martelli M, Magagnoli M, Zaccaria A, Ronconi F. 83.  et al. 1998. Anaplastic large cell lymphoma Hodgkin's-like: a randomized trial of ABVD versus MACOP-B with and without radiation therapy. Blood 92:790–94 [Google Scholar]
  84. Burkitt D. 84.  1958. A sarcoma involving the jaws in African children. Br. J. Surg. 46:218–23 [Google Scholar]
  85. Burkitt DP. 85.  1983. The discovery of Burkitt's lymphoma. Cancer 51:1777–86 [Google Scholar]
  86. Wright DH. 86.  1963. Cytology and histochemistry of the Burkitt lymphoma. Br. J. Cancer 17:50–55 [Google Scholar]
  87. Mann RB, Jaffe ES, Braylan RC, Nanba K, Frank MM. 87.  et al. 1976. Non-endemic Burkitts's lymphoma. A B-cell tumor related to germinal centers. N. Engl. J. Med. 295:685–91 [Google Scholar]
  88. Uchiyama T, Yodoi J, Sagawa K, Takatsuki K, Uchino H. 88.  1977. Adult T-cell leukemia: clinical and hematologic features of 16 cases. Blood 50:481–92 [Google Scholar]
  89. Jaffe ES, Braylan RC, Nanba K, Frank MM, Berard CW. 89.  1977. Functional markers: a new perspective on malignant lymphomas. Cancer Treat. Rep. 61:953–62 [Google Scholar]
  90. Jaffe ES, Bookman MA, Longo DL. 90.  1987. Lymphocytic lymphoma of intermediate differentiation–mantle zone lymphoma: a distinct subtype of B-cell lymphoma. Hum. Pathol. 18:877–80 [Google Scholar]
  91. Swerdlow S, Habeshaw J, Murray L, Dhaliwal H, Lister T, Stansfeld A. 91.  1983. Centrocytic lymphoma: a distinct clinicopathologic and immunologic entity. Am. J. Pathol. 113:181–97 [Google Scholar]
  92. Campo E, Raffeld M, Jaffe ES. 92.  1999. Mantle-cell lymphoma. Semin. Hematol. 36:115–27 [Google Scholar]
  93. Cho KR, Vogelstein B. 93.  1992. Genetic alterations in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Cancer 70:1727–31 [Google Scholar]
  94. Jaffe ES. 94.  1983. Follicular lymphomas: possibility that they are benign tumors of the lymphoid system. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 70:401–3 [Google Scholar]
  95. Cong P, Raffeld M, Teruya-Feldstein J, Sorbara L, Pittaluga S, Jaffe ES. 95.  2002. In situ localization of follicular lymphoma: description and analysis by laser capture microdissection. Blood 99:3376–82 [Google Scholar]
  96. Gaulard P, d'Agay M, Peuchmaur M, Brousse N, Gisselbrecht C. 96.  et al. 1992. Expression of the bcl-2 gene product in follicular lymphoma. Am. J. Pathol. 140:1089–95 [Google Scholar]
  97. Henopp T, Quintanilla-Martinez L, Fend F, Adam P. 97.  2011. Prevalence of follicular lymphoma in situ in consecutively analysed reactive lymph nodes. Histopathology 59:139–42 [Google Scholar]
  98. Jegalian AG, Eberle FC, Pack SD, Mirvis M, Raffeld M. 98.  et al. 2011. Follicular lymphoma in situ: clinical implications and comparisons with partial involvement by follicular lymphoma. Blood 118:2976–84 [Google Scholar]
  99. Bermudez G, Gonzalez de Villambrosia S, Martinez-Lopez A, Batlle A, Revert-Arce JB. 99.  et al. 2016. Incidental and isolated follicular lymphoma in situ and mantle cell lymphoma in situ lack clinical significance. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 40:943–49 [Google Scholar]
  100. Montes-Moreno S, Castro Y, Rodriguez-Pinilla SM, Garcia JF, Mollejo M. 100.  et al. 2010. Intrafollicular neoplasia/in situ follicular lymphoma: review of a series of 13 cases. Histopathology 56:658–62 [Google Scholar]
  101. Mamessier E, Broussais-Guillaumot F, Chetaille B, Bouabdallah R, Xerri L. 101.  et al. 2014. Nature and importance of follicular lymphoma precursors. Haematologica 99:802–10 [Google Scholar]
  102. Roulland S, Lebailly P, Lecluse Y, Heutte N, Nadel B, Gauduchon P. 102.  2006. Long-term clonal persistence and evolution of t(14;18)-bearing B cells in healthy individuals. Leukemia 20:158–62 [Google Scholar]
  103. Agopian J, Navarro JM, Gac AC, Lecluse Y, Briand M. 103.  et al. 2009. Agricultural pesticide exposure and the molecular connection to lymphomagenesis. J. Exp. Med. 206:1473–83 [Google Scholar]
  104. Roulland S, Sungalee JS, Morgado E, Mamessier E, Gregoire E. 104.  et al. 2012. Iterative germinal center re-entries of memory B-cells with t(14;18) translocation and early steps of follicular lymphoma progression. Blood 120:150 [Google Scholar]
  105. Mamessier E, Song JY, Eberle FC, Pack S, Drevet C. 105.  et al. 2014. Early lesions of follicular lymphoma: a genetic perspective. Haematologica 99:481–88 [Google Scholar]
  106. Schmidt J, Salaverria I, Haake A, Bonzheim I, Adam P. 106.  et al. 2014. Increasing genomic and epigenomic complexity in the clonal evolution from in situ to manifest t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma. Leukemia 28:1103–12 [Google Scholar]
  107. Ganapathi KA, Pittaluga S, Odejide OO, Freedman AS, Jaffe ES. 107.  2014. Early lymphoid lesions: conceptual, diagnostic and clinical challenges. Haematologica 99:1421–32 [Google Scholar]
  108. Schmatz AI, Streubel B, Kretschmer-Chott E, Puspok A, Jager U. 108.  et al. 2011. Primary follicular lymphoma of the duodenum is a distinct mucosal/submucosal variant of follicular lymphoma: a retrospective study of 63 cases. J. Clin. Oncol. 29:1445–51 [Google Scholar]
  109. Feldman AL, Berthold F, Arceci RJ, Abramowsky C, Shehata BM. 109.  et al. 2005. Clonal relationship between precursor T-lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma and Langerhans-cell histiocytosis. Lancet Oncol 6:435–37 [Google Scholar]
  110. Feldman AL, Minniti C, Santi M, Downing JR, Raffeld M, Jaffe ES. 110.  2004. Histiocytic sarcoma after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a common clonal origin. Lancet Oncol 5:248–50 [Google Scholar]
  111. Xie H, Ye M, Feng R, Graf T. 111.  2004. Stepwise reprogramming of B cells into macrophages. Cell 117:663–76 [Google Scholar]
  112. Cobaleda C, Jochum W, Busslinger M. 112.  2007. Conversion of mature B cells into T cells by dedifferentiation to uncommitted progenitors. Nature 449:473–77 [Google Scholar]
  113. Feldman AL, Arber DA, Pittaluga S, Martinez A, Burke JS. 113.  et al. 2008. Clonally related follicular lymphomas and histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcomas: evidence for transdifferentiation of the follicular lymphoma clone. Blood 111:5433–39 [Google Scholar]
  114. Shao H, Xi L, Raffeld M, Feldman AL, Ketterling RP. 114.  et al. 2011. Clonally related histiocytic/dendritic cell sarcoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma: a study of seven cases. Mod. Pathol. 24:1421–32 [Google Scholar]
  115. Hodgkin T. 115.  1832. On some morbid experiences of the absorbent glands and spleen. Medico-Chir. Trans. 17:68–97 [Google Scholar]
  116. Jaffe ES, Zarate-Osorno A, Medeiros LJ. 116.  1992. The interrelationship of Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas—lessons learned from composite and sequential malignancies. Semin. Diagn. Pathol. 9:297–303 [Google Scholar]
  117. Gonzalez CL, Medeiros LJ, Jaffe ES. 117.  1991. Composite lymphoma: a clinicopathologic analysis of nine patients with Hodgkin's disease and B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 96:81–89 [Google Scholar]
  118. Zarate-Osorno A, Medeiros LJ, Longo DL, Jaffe ES. 118.  1992. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas arising in patients successfully treated for Hodgkin's disease. A clinical, histologic, and immunophenotypic study of 14 cases. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 16:885–95 [Google Scholar]
  119. Zarate-Osorno A, Medeiros LJ, Kingma DW, Longo DL, Jaffe ES. 119.  1993. Hodgkin's disease following non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. A clinicopathologic and immunophenotypic study of nine cases. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 17:123–32 [Google Scholar]
  120. Brauninger A, Hansmann ML, Strickler JG, Dummer R, Burg G. 120.  et al. 1999. Identification of common germinal-center B-cell precursors in two patients with both Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:1239–47 [Google Scholar]
  121. Kuppers R, Zhao M, Rajewsky K, Hansmann ML. 121.  1993. Detection of clonal B cell populations in paraffin-embedded tissues by polymerase chain reaction. Am. J. Pathol. 143:230–39 [Google Scholar]
  122. Kuppers R, Rajewsky K, Zhao M, Simons G, Laumann R. 122.  et al. 1994. Hodgkin disease: Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells picked from histological sections show clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements and appear to be derived from B cells at various stages of development. PNAS 91:10962–66 [Google Scholar]
  123. Kanzler H, Kuppers R, Hansmann ML, Rajewsky K. 123.  1996. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin's disease represent the outgrowth of a dominant tumor clone derived from (crippled) germinal center B cells. J. Exp. Med. 184:1495–505 [Google Scholar]
  124. Traverse-Glehen A, Pittaluga S, Gaulard P, Sorbara L, Alonso MA. 124.  et al. 2005. Mediastinal gray zone lymphoma: the missing link between classic Hodgkin's lymphoma and mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 29:1411–21 [Google Scholar]
  125. Joos S, Otano-Joos MI, Ziegler S, Bruderlein S, du Manoir S. 125.  et al. 1996. Primary mediastinal (thymic) B-cell lymphoma is characterized by gains of chromosomal material including 9p and amplification of the REL gene. Blood 87:1571–78 [Google Scholar]
  126. Steidl C, Gascoyne RD. 126.  2011. The molecular pathogenesis of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Blood 118:2659–69 [Google Scholar]
  127. Eberle FC, Rodriguez-Canales J, Wei L, Hanson JC, Killian JK. 127.  et al. 2011. Methylation profiling of mediastinal gray zone lymphoma reveals a distinctive signature with elements shared by classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Haematologica 96:558–66 [Google Scholar]
  128. Eberle FC, Salaverria I, Steidl C, Summers TA Jr., Pittaluga S. 128.  et al. 2011. Gray zone lymphoma: chromosomal aberrations with immunophenotypic and clinical correlations. Mod. Pathol. 24:1586–97 [Google Scholar]
  129. Wilson WH, Pittaluga S, Nicolae A, Camphausen K, Shovlin M. 129.  et al. 2014. A prospective study of mediastinal gray-zone lymphoma. Blood 124:1563–69 [Google Scholar]
  130. Vega F, Chang CC, Schwartz MR, Preti HA, Younes M. 130.  et al. 2006. Atypical NK-cell proliferation of the gastrointestinal tract in a patient with antigliadin antibodies but not celiac disease. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 30:539–44 [Google Scholar]
  131. Mansoor A, Pittaluga S, Beck PL, Wilson WH, Ferry JA, Jaffe ES. 131.  2011. NK-cell enteropathy: a benign NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease mimicking intestinal lymphoma: clinicopathologic features and follow-up in a unique case series. Blood 117:1447–52 [Google Scholar]
  132. Takeuchi K, Yokoyama M, Ishizawa S, Terui Y, Nomura K. 132.  et al. 2010. Lymphomatoid gastropathy: a distinct clinicopathologic entity of self-limited pseudomalignant NK-cell proliferation. Blood 116:5631–37 [Google Scholar]
  133. Bennett MS, Round JL, Leung DT. 133.  2015. Innate-like lymphocytes in intestinal infections. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 28:457–63 [Google Scholar]
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pathol-052016-100351
Loading
/content/journals/10.1146/annurev-pathol-052016-100351
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Review Article
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error